Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

electroplating Related Abstracts

6 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng


This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride, electroplating

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5 Electrodeposition of Nickel-Zinc Alloy on Stainless Steel in a Magnetic Field in a Chloride Environment

Authors: Naima Benachour, Sabiha Chouchane, J. Paul Chopart


The objective of this work is to determine the appropriate conditions for a Ni-Zn deposit with good nickel content. The electrodeposition of zinc-nickel on a stainless steel is carried out in a chlorinated bath NiCl2.6H2O, ZnCl2, and H3BO3), whose composition is 1.1 M; 1.8 M; 0.1 M respectively. Studies show the effect of the concentration of NH4Cl, which reveals a significant effect on the reduction and ion transport in the electrolyte. In order to highlight the influence of magnetic field on the chemical composition and morphology of the deposit, chronopotentiometry tests were conducted, the curves obtained inform us that the application of a magnetic field promotes stability of the deposit. Characterization developed deposits was performed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with EDX and specified by the X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, electroplating, Zn-Ni alloys, chronopotentiometry

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4 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee


The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Tantalum, electroplating, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy

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3 Microvoid Growth in the Interfaces during Aging

Authors: Jae-Yong Park, Gwancheol Seo, Young-Ho Kim


Microvoids, sometimes called Kikendall voids, generally form in the interfaces between Sn-based solders and Cu and degrade the mechanical and electrical properties of the solder joints. The microvoid formation is known as the rapid interdiffusion between Sn and Cu and impurity content in the Cu. Cu electroplating from the acid solutions has been widely used by microelectronic packaging industry for both printed circuit board (PCB) and integrated circuit (IC) applications. The quality of electroplated Cu that can be optimized by the electroplating conditions is critical for the solder joint reliability. In this paper, the influence of electroplating conditions on the microvoid growth in the interfaces between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) solder and Cu layer was investigated during isothermal aging. The Cu layers were electroplated by controlling the additive of electroplating bath and current density to induce various microvoid densities. The electroplating bath consisted of sulfate, sulfuric acid, and additives and the current density of 5-15 mA/cm2 for each bath was used. After aging at 180 °C for up to 250 h, typical bi-layer of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) was gradually growth at the SAC/Cu interface and microvoid density in the Cu3Sn showed disparities in the electroplating conditions. As the current density increased, the microvoid formation was accelerated in all electroplating baths. The higher current density induced, the higher impurity content in the electroplated Cu. When the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Cl- ion were mixed in an electroplating bath, the microvoid formation was the highest compared to other electroplating baths. On the other hand, the overall IMC thickness was similar in all samples irrespective of the electroplating conditions. Impurity content in electroplated Cu influenced the microvoid growth, but the IMC growth was not affected by the impurity content. In conclusion, the electroplated conditions are properly optimized to avoid the excessive microvoid formation that results in brittle fracture of solder joint under high strain rate loading.

Keywords: additive, electroplating, intermetallic compound, microvoid

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2 Controlled Growth of Au Hierarchically Ordered Crystals Architectures for Electrochemical Detection of Traces of Molecules

Authors: P. Bauer, K. Mougin, V. Vignal, A. Buch, P. Ponthiaux, D. Faye


Nowadays, noble metallic nanostructures with unique morphology are widely used as new sensors due to their fascinating optical, electronic and catalytic properties. Among various shapes, dendritic nanostructures have attracted much attention because of their large surface-to-volume ratio, high sensitivity and special texture with sharp tips and nanoscale junctions. Several methods have been developed to fabricate those specific structures such as electrodeposition, photochemical way, seed-mediated growth or wet chemical method. The present study deals with a novel approach for a controlled growth pattern-directed organisation of Au flower-like crystals (NFs) deposited onto stainless steel plates to achieve large-scale functional surfaces. This technique consists in the deposition of a soft nanoporous template on which Au NFs are grown by electroplating and seed-mediated method. Size, morphology, and interstructure distance have been controlled by a site selective nucleation process. Dendritic Au nanostructures have appeared as excellent Raman-active candidates due to the presence of very sharp tips of multi-branched Au nanoparticles that leads to a large local field enhancement and a good SERS sensitivity. In addition, these structures have also been used as electrochemical sensors to detect traces of molecules present in a solution. A correlation of the number of active sites on the surface and the current charge by both colorimetric method and cyclic voltammetry of gold structures have allowed a calibration of the system. This device represents a first step for the fabrication of MEMs platform that could ultimately be integrated into a lab-on-chip system. It also opens pathways to several technologically large-scale nanomaterials fabrication such as hierarchically ordered crystal architectures for sensor applications.

Keywords: Gold, electroplating, template, dendritic

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1 Homogeneous Anti-Corrosion Coating of Spontaneously Dissolved Defect-Free Graphene

Authors: M. K. Bin Subhan, P. Cullen, C. Howard


A recent study by the World Corrosion Organization estimated that corrosion related damage causes $2.5tr worth of damage every year. As such, a low cost easily scalable solution is required to the corrosion problem which is economically viable. Graphene is an ideal anti-corrosion barrier layer material due to its excellent barrier properties and chemical stability, which makes it impermeable to all molecules. However, attempts to employ graphene as a barrier layer has been hampered by the fact that defect sites in graphene accelerate corrosion due to the inert nature of graphene which promotes galvanic corrosion at the expense of the metal. The recent discovery of spontaneous dissolution of charged graphite intercalation compounds in aprotic solvents enables defect free graphene platelets to be employed for anti-corrosion applications. These ‘inks’ of defect-free charged graphene platelets in solution can be coated onto a metallic surfaces via electroplating to form a homogeneous barrier layer. In this paper, initial data showing homogeneous coatings of graphene barrier layers on steel coupons via electroplating will be presented. This easily scalable technique also provides a controllable method for applying different barrier thicknesses from ultra thin layers to thick opaque coatings making it useful for a wide range of applications.

Keywords: Graphene, electroplating, anti-corrosion, defect-free

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