Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Electrophoresis Related Abstracts

8 The Haemoglobin, Transferrin, Ceruloplasmin and Glutathione Polymorphism of Native Goat Breeds of Turkey, I-Angora and Hair

Authors: Ayse Ozge Demir, Nihat Mert


This study has been carried out in order to determine the polymorphic traits of various biochemical parameters in goat breeds which are native to Turkey. For this purpose, Angora and Hair goats breeds were chosen as live materials. Two different herds for each breed were selected from Ankara and Antalya, respectively. Blood samples were taken from a total of 120 goats aged between 2 and 4 which was made up of 60 Angora goats and 60 Hair goats. All which derived equally from 4 lots of herds. Analyses were performed for the polymorphic determination of the Haemoglobin (Hb), Transferrine (Tf), Ceruloplasmin (Cp) and Glutathione (GSH). Hb types were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and Tf types were detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Furthermore, Cp and GSH analyses were performed by spectrophotometrically. Following the analysis, Hb types were found as 3 genotypes (AA, AB, BB) controlled by 2 allel genes. Tf types were found as 6 genotypes (AA, AB, AC, BB, BC, CC) controlled by 3 allele genes. Findings for Hb was in line with the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in Angora goats while the Hair goat was not found to be in line. Moreover, Tf was found in line with the HWE for 2 separate goat breeds. The levels of Cp and GSH of two breeds were significantly different from other (P<0.0001). The findings are recorded as a source of reference for prospective polymorphism studies.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Genetic resources, Goats, spectrophotometer

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7 The Haemoglobin, Transferrin, Ceruloplasmin and Glutathione Polymorphism of Native Goat Breeds of Turkey, II-Kilis and Honamli

Authors: Ayse Ozge Demir, Nihat Mert


In this research, Kilis and Honamli goats are used, which are specific local genetic resources of Turkey. The herds were independent, but they had similar care and nutrition circumstances. From each breed 30 samples were taken, in all 120 samples were collected. Erytrocyte, all blood and serum samples were used for hemoglobine (Hb), glutathione (GSH) and Tf with Cp analysis, respectively. In the analysis of this samples, Hb and Tf bands were determined by electrophoresis. However, Cp and GSH levels were analyzed by the spectrophotometer. Three Hb phenotypes (AA, BB, AB) and Six Tf phenotypes (AA, AB, AC, BB, BC, CC) were determined in this study. In addition, both the observed and the expected values of polymorphic characteristic for 2 characters were presented according to the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). Cp levels were detected as 0.822 ± 0.055 mg/dl and 1.793 ± 0.109 mg/dl in Kilis and Honamli herds, respectively. GSH levels were detected as, 42,486 ± 1,034 mg/dl and 33.515 ± 0.345 mg/dl in these breeds, respectively,. On the other hand, the high and low GSH levels (GSHH and GSHh) of herds were presented.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Goat, spectrophotometer, gene resource

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6 Using Electro-Biogrouting to Stabilize of Soft Soil

Authors: Hamed A. Keykha, Hadi Miri


This paper describes a new method of soil stabilisation, electro-biogrouting (EBM), for improvement of soft soil with low hydraulic conductivity. This method uses an applied voltage gradient across the soil to induce the ions and bacteria cells through the soil matrix, resulting in CaCO3 precipitation and an increase of the soil shear strength in the process. The EBM were used effectively with two injection methods; bacteria injection and products of bacteria injection. The bacteria cells, calcium ions and urea were moved across the soil by electromigration and electro osmotic flow respectively. The products of bacteria (CO3-2) were moved by electromigration. The results showed that the undrained shear strength of the soil increased from 6 to 65 and 70 kPa for first and second injection method respectively. The injection of carbonate solution and calcium could be effectively flowed in the clay soil compare to injection of bacteria cells. The detection of CaCO3 percentage and its corresponding water content across the specimen showed that the increase of undrained shear strength relates to the deposit of calcite crystals between soil particles.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, electromigration, electroosmosis, Sporosarcina pasteurii, biocement

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5 Design, Development and Testing of Polymer-Glass Microfluidic Chips for Electrophoretic Analysis of Biological Sample

Authors: Yana Posmitnaya, Galina Rudnitskaya, Tatyana Lukashenko, Anton Bukatin, Anatoly Evstrapov


An important area of biological and medical research is the study of genetic mutations and polymorphisms that can alter gene function and cause inherited diseases and other diseases. The following methods to analyse DNA fragments are used: capillary electrophoresis and electrophoresis on microfluidic chip (MFC), mass spectrometry with electrophoresis on MFC, hybridization assay on microarray. Electrophoresis on MFC allows to analyse small volumes of samples with high speed and throughput. A soft lithography in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was chosen for operative fabrication of MFCs. A master-form from silicon and photoresist SU-8 2025 (MicroChem Corp.) was created for the formation of micro-sized structures in PDMS. A universal topology which combines T-injector and simple cross was selected for the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Glass K8 and PDMS Sylgard® 184 (Dow Corning Corp.) were used for fabrication of MFCs. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) plays an important role in the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Therefore, the estimate of the quantity of EOF and the ways of its regulation are of interest for the development of the new methods of the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The following methods of surface modification were chosen to change EOF: high-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment in oxygen and argon at low pressure (1 mbar); 1% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; 3% aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188 (Sigma-Aldrich Corp.). The electroosmotic mobility was evaluated by the method of Huang X. et al., wherein the borate buffer was used. The influence of physical and chemical methods of treatment on the wetting properties of the PDMS surface was controlled by the sessile drop method. The most effective way of surface modification of MFCs, from the standpoint of obtaining the smallest value of the contact angle and the smallest value of the EOF, was the processing with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. This method of modification has been selected for the treatment of channels of MFCs, which are used for the separation of mixture of oligonucleotides fluorescently labeled with the length of chain with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nucleotides. Electrophoresis was performed on the device MFAS-01 (IAI RAS, Russia) at the separation voltage of 1500 V. 6% solution of polydimethylacrylamide with the addition of 7M carbamide was used as the separation medium. The separation time of components of the mixture was determined from electropherograms. The time for untreated MFC was ~275 s, and for the ones treated with solution of Kolliphor® P 188 – ~ 220 s. Research of physical-chemical methods of surface modification of MFCs allowed to choose the most effective way for reducing EOF – the modification with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. In this case, the separation time of the mixture of oligonucleotides decreased about 20%. The further optimization of method of modification of channels of MFCs will allow decreasing the separation time of sample and increasing the throughput of analysis.

Keywords: Modification, Electrophoresis, Nucleic Acid, polydimethylsiloxane, microfluidic chip, soft lithography

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4 Prediction of Ionizing Radiation Doses in Irradiated red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Mint (Mentha piperita) by Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün, Emrah Yalazi̇, Nebahat Şahi̇n


Food irradiation is a usage of exposing food to ionising radiation (IR) such as gamma rays. IR has been used to decrease the number of harmful microorganisms in the food such as spices. Excessive usage of IR can cause damage to both food and people who consuming food. And also it causes to damages on food DNA. Generally, IR detection techniques were utilized in literature for spices are Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Thermos Luminescence (TL). Storage creates negative effect on IR detection method then analyses of samples have been performed without storage in general. In the experimental part, red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and mint (Mentha piperita) as spices were exposed to 0, 0.272, 0.497, 1.06, 3.64, 8.82, and 17.42 kGy ionize radiation. ESR was applied to samples irradiated. DNA isolation from irradiated samples was performed using GIDAGEN Multi Fast DNA isolation kit. The DNA concentration was measured using a microplate reader spectrophotometer (Infinite® 200 PRO-Life Science–Tecan). The concentration of each DNA was adjusted to 50 ng/µL. Genomic DNA was imaged by UV transilluminator (Gel Doc XR System, Bio-Rad) for the estimation of genomic DNA bp-fragment size after IR. Thus, agarose gel profiles of irradiated spices were obtained to determine the change of band profiles. Besides, samples were examined at three different time periods (0, 3, 6 months storage) to show the feasibility of developed method. Results of gel electrophoresis showed especially degradation of DNA of irradiated samples. In conclusion, this study with gel electrophoresis can be used as a basis for the identification of the dose of irradiation by looking at degradation profiles at specific amounts of irradiation. Agarose gel results of irradiated samples were confirmed with ESR analysis. This method can be applied widely to not only food products but also all biological materials containing DNA to predict radiation-induced damage of DNA.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Gel electrophoresis, Dna, ionizeradiation

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3 A Numerical Study on Electrophoresis of a Soft Particle with Charged Core Coated with Polyelectrolyte Layer

Authors: S. Bhattacharyya, Partha Sarathi Majee


Migration of a core-shell soft particle under the influence of an external electric field in an electrolyte solution is studied numerically. The soft particle is coated with a positively charged polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) and the rigid core is having a uniform surface charge density. The Darcy-Brinkman extended Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the motion of the ionized fluid, the non-linear Nernst-Planck equations for the ion transport and the Poisson equation for the electric potential. A pressure correction based iterative algorithm is adopted for numerical computations. The effects of convection on double layer polarization (DLP) and diffusion dominated counter ions penetration are investigated for a wide range of Debye layer thickness, PEL fixed surface charge density, and permeability of the PEL. Our results show that when the Debye layer is in order of the particle size, the DLP effect is significant and produces a reduction in electrophoretic mobility. However, the double layer polarization effect is negligible for a thin Debye layer or low permeable cases. The point of zero mobility and the existence of mobility reversal depending on the electrolyte concentration are also presented.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, debye length, double layer polarization, mobility reversal, soft particle

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2 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Escherichia coli, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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1 Electrophoretic Light Scattering Based on Total Internal Reflection as a Promising Diagnostic Method

Authors: Ekaterina A. Savchenko, Elena N. Velichko, Evgenii T. Aksenov


The development of pathological processes, such as cardiovascular and oncological diseases, are accompanied by changes in molecular parameters in cells, tissues, and serum. The study of the behavior of protein molecules in solutions is of primarily importance for diagnosis of such diseases. Various physical and chemical methods are used to study molecular systems. With the advent of the laser and advances in electronics, optical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, nephelometry, static and dynamic light scattering, have become the most universal, informative and accurate tools for estimating the parameters of nanoscale objects. The electrophoretic light scattering is the most effective technique. It has a high potential in the study of biological solutions and their properties. This technique allows one to investigate the processes of aggregation and dissociation of different macromolecules and obtain information on their shapes, sizes and molecular weights. Electrophoretic light scattering is an analytical method for registration of the motion of microscopic particles under the influence of an electric field by means of quasi-elastic light scattering in a homogeneous solution with a subsequent registration of the spectral or correlation characteristics of the light scattered from a moving object. We modified the technique by using the regime of total internal reflection with the aim of increasing its sensitivity and reducing the volume of the sample to be investigated, which opens the prospects of automating simultaneous multiparameter measurements. In addition, the method of total internal reflection allows one to study biological fluids on the level of single molecules, which also makes it possible to increase the sensitivity and the informativeness of the results because the data obtained from an individual molecule is not averaged over an ensemble, which is important in the study of bimolecular fluids. To our best knowledge the study of electrophoretic light scattering in the regime of total internal reflection is proposed for the first time, latex microspheres 1 μm in size were used as test objects. In this study, the total internal reflection regime was realized on a quartz prism where the free electrophoresis regime was set. A semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 655 nm was used as a radiation source, and the light scattering signal was registered by a pin-diode. Then the signal from a photodetector was transmitted to a digital oscilloscope and to a computer. The autocorrelation functions and the fast Fourier transform in the regime of Brownian motion and under the action of the field were calculated to obtain the parameters of the object investigated. The main result of the study was the dependence of the autocorrelation function on the concentration of microspheres and the applied field magnitude. The effect of heating became more pronounced with increasing sample concentrations and electric field. The results obtained in our study demonstrated the applicability of the method for the examination of liquid solutions, including biological fluids.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, total internal reflection

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