Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

electromyography Related Abstracts

27 Low Cost Surface Electromyographic Signal Amplifier Based on Arduino Microcontroller

Authors: Igor Luiz Bernardes de Moura, Luan Carlos de Sena Monteiro Ozelim, Fabiano Araujo Soares

Abstract:

The development of a low cost acquisition system of S-EMG signals which are reliable, comfortable for the user and with high mobility shows to be a relevant proposition in modern biomedical engineering scenario. In the study, the sampling capacity of the Arduino microcontroller Atmel Atmega328 with an A/D converter with 10-bit resolution and its reconstructing capability of a signal of surface electromyography are analyzed. An electronic circuit to capture the signal through two differential channels was designed, signals from Biceps Brachialis of a healthy man of 21 years was acquired to test the system prototype. ARV, MDF, MNF and RMS estimators were used to compare de acquired signals with physiological values. The Arduino was configured with a sampling frequency of 1.5 kHz for each channel, and the tests with the circuit designed offered a SNR of 20.57dB.

Keywords: Arduino, electromyography, low-cost, atmel atmega328 microcontroller

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26 Quadriceps Muscle Activity in Response to Slow and Fast Perturbations following Fatiguing Exercise

Authors: Nosratollah Hedayatpour, Hamid Reza Taheri, Mehrdad Fathi

Abstract:

Introduction: Quadriceps femoris muscle is frequently involved in various movements e.g., jumping, landing) during sport and/or daily activities. During ballistic movement when individuals are faced with unexpected knee perturbation, fast twitch muscle fibers contribute to force production to stabilize knee joint. Fast twitch muscle fiber is more susceptible to fatigue and therefor may reduce the ability of the quadriceps muscle to stabilize knee joint during fast perturbation. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue on postural response of the knee extensor muscles to fast and slow perturbations. Methods: Fatigue was induced to the quadriceps muscle using a KinCom Isokinetic Dynamometer (Chattanooga, TN). Bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) signals were simultaneously recorded from quadriceps components (vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis) during pre- and post-fatigue postural perturbation performed at two different velocities of 120 ms and 250 mes. Results: One-way ANOVA showed that maximal voluntary knee extension force and time to task failure, and associated EMG activities were significantly reduced after fatiguing knee exercise (P< 0.05). Two-ways ANOVA also showed that ARV of EMG during backward direction was significantly larger than forward direction (P< 0.05), and during fast-perturbation it was significantly higher than slow-perturbation (P< 0.05). Moreover, ARV of EMG was significantly reduced during post fatigue perturbation, with the largest reduction identified for fast-perturbation compared with slow perturbation (P< 0.05). Conclusion: A larger reduction in muscle activity of the quadriceps muscle was observed during post fatigue fast-perturbation to stabilize knee joint, most likely due to preferential recruitment of fast twitch muscle fiber which are more susceptible to fatigue. This may partly explain that why knee injuries is common after fast ballistic movement.

Keywords: Fatigue, electromyography, fast-slow perturbations, quadriceps femoris muscle

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25 Health Psychology Intervention: Identifying Early Symptoms in Neurological Disorders

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Early indicator of neurological disease has been proposed by the expanded Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis which suggests that yawning is linked to rises in cortisol levels. Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune system and pathological yawning is a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved – extended or flexed; and yawning has been shown to be highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. It is likely that these elevated cortisol levels are also seen in people with MS. The possible link between EMG in the jaw muscles and rises in saliva cortisol levels during yawning were investigated in a randomized controlled trial of 60 volunteers aged 18-69 years who were exposed to conditions that were designed to elicit the yawning response. Saliva samples were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence of a yawn, and EMG data was additionally collected during rest and yawning phases. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, and health details were collected and the following exclusion criteria were adopted: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was non-significant. There were also significant differences between yawners and non-yawners for the EMG potentials with the yawners having higher rest and post-yawning potentials. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are associated with the yawning response. Further research is underway to explore the use of cortisol as a potential diagnostic tool as an assist to the early diagnosis of symptoms related to neurological disorders. Bournemouth University Research & Ethics approval granted: JC28/1/13-KA6/9/13. Professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues have been addressed and approved in the Ethics submission. Trials identification number: ISRCTN61942768. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/

Keywords: Neurology, cortisol, electromyography, yawning

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24 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: W. A. B. Wan Abas, N. A. Abu Osman, F. Ibrahim, M. K. Mohd Safee, N. A Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: Exercise, Muscle, Şalāt, electromyography

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23 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: W. A. B. Wan Abas, N. A. Abu Osman, F. Ibrahim, M. K. Mohd Safee, N. A. Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: Exercise, Muscle, Şalāt, electromyography

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22 Electromyography Controlled Robotic Toys for Autistic Children

Authors: Uvais Qidwai, Mohamed Shakir

Abstract:

This paper presents an initial study related to the use of robotic toys as teaching and therapeutic aid tools for teachers and care-givers as well as parents of children with various levels of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some of the most common features related to the behavior of a child with ASD are his/her social isolation, living in their own world, not being physically active, and not willing to learn new things. While the teachers, parents, and all other related care-givers do their best to improve the condition of these kids, it is usually quite an uphill task. However, one remarkable observation that has been reported by several teachers dealing with ASD children is the fact that the same children do get attracted to toys with lights and sounds. Hence, this project targets the development/modifications of such existing toys into appropriate behavior training tools which the care-givers can use as they would desire. Initially, the remote control is in hand of the trainer, but after some time, the child is entrusted with the control of the robotic toy to test for the level of interest. It has been found during the course of this study that children with quite low learning activity got extremely interested in the robot and even advanced to controlling the robot with the Electromyography (EMG). It has been observed that the children did show some hesitation in the beginning 5 minutes of the very first sessions of such interaction but were very comfortable afterwards which has been considered as a very strong indicator of the potential of this technique in teaching and rehabilitation of children with ASD or similar brain disorders.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), electromyography, robotic toys, IR control, LabVIEW based remote control

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21 A Contactless Capacitive Biosensor for Muscle Activity Measurement

Authors: Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz, Charn Loong Ng

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As elderly population grows globally, the percentage of people diagnosed with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) increase proportionally. Electromyography (EMG) is an important biosignal that contributes to MSD’s clinical diagnose and recovery process. Conventional conductive electrode has many disadvantages in the continuous EMG measurement application. This research has design a new surface EMG biosensor based on the parallel-plate capacitive coupling principle. The biosensor is developed by using a double-sided PCB with having one side of the PCB use to construct high input impedance circuitry while the other side of the copper (CU) plate function as biosignal sensing metal plate. The metal plate is insulated using kapton tape for contactless application. The result implicates that capacitive biosensor is capable to constantly capture EMG signal without having galvanic contact to human skin surface. However, there are noticeable noise couple into the measured signal. Post signal processing is needed in order to present a clean and significant EMG signal. A complete design of single ended, non-contact, high input impedance, front end EMG biosensor is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Biosensor, electromyography, contactless, capacitive

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20 Computational Tool for Surface Electromyography Analysis; an Easy Way for Non-Engineers

Authors: Fabiano Araujo Soares, Sauro Emerick Salomoni, Joao Paulo Lima da Silva, Igor Luiz Moura, Adson Ferreira da Rocha

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This paper presents a tool developed in the Matlab platform. It was developed to simplify the analysis of surface electromyography signals (S-EMG) in a way accessible to users that are not familiarized with signal processing procedures. The tool receives data by commands in window fields and generates results as graphics and excel tables. The underlying math of each S-EMG estimator is presented. Setup window and result graphics are presented. The tool was presented to four non-engineer users and all of them managed to appropriately use it after a 5 minutes instruction period.

Keywords: arv, electromyography, RMS, surface electromyography, S-EMG estimators, MDF, MNF

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19 Estimation of Forces Applied to Forearm Using EMG Signal Features to Control of Powered Human Arm Prostheses

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Derya Karabulut, Yunus Ziya Arslan

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Myoelectric features gathering from musculature environment are considered on a preferential basis to perceive muscle activation and control human arm prostheses according to recent experimental researches. EMG (electromyography) signal based human arm prostheses have shown a promising performance in terms of providing basic functional requirements of motions for the amputated people in recent years. However, these assistive devices for neurorehabilitation still have important limitations in enabling amputated people to perform rather sophisticated or functional movements. Surface electromyogram (EMG) is used as the control signal to command such devices. This kind of control consists of activating a motion in prosthetic arm using muscle activation for the same particular motion. Extraction of clear and certain neural information from EMG signals plays a major role especially in fine control of hand prosthesis movements. Many signal processing methods have been utilized for feature extraction from EMG signals. The specific objective of this study was to compare widely used time domain features of EMG signal including integrated EMG(IEMG), root mean square (RMS) and waveform length(WL) for prediction of externally applied forces to human hands. Obtained features were classified using artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict the forces. EMG signals supplied to process were recorded during only type of muscle contraction which is isometric and isotonic one. Experiments were performed by three healthy subjects who are right-handed and in a range of 25-35 year-old aging. EMG signals were collected from muscles of the proximal part of the upper body consisting of: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectorialis major and trapezius. The force prediction results obtained from the ANN were statistically analyzed and merits and pitfalls of the extracted features were discussed with detail. The obtained results are anticipated to contribute classification process of EMG signal and motion control of powered human arm prosthetics control.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, electromyography, assistive devices for neurorehabilitation, force estimation, human arm prosthesis

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18 Mechanical Responses to Hip Versus Knee Induced Muscle Fatigue in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Authors: Eman Ahmed Ahmed, Ghada Abdelmoneim Mohamed, Hamada Ahmed Hamada, Nagui Sobhi Nassif

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Impaired skeletal muscle endurance may be an important causal factor in the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). However, there is lack of information regarding the effect of hip versus knee muscle fatigue on isokinetic parameters, and myoelectric activity of hip and knee muscles in these patients. Purpose: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of hip abductors versus knee extensors fatigue protocol on knee proprioception, hip and knee muscle strength and their myoelectric activity in patients with PFPS. Methods: Fifteen female patients with PFPS participated in the study. They were tested randomly under two fatiguing conditions; hip abductors and knee extensors fatigue protocols. Isolated muscle fatigue of two muscles was induced isokinetically on the affected side in a two separate sessions with a rest interval of at least three days. After determining peak torque, patients performed continuous maximal concentric-eccentric contraction of the selected muscle until the torque output dropped below 50% of peak torque value for 3 consecutive repetitions. Knee proprioception, eccentric hip abductors' peak torque, eccentric knee extensors' peak torque, EMG ratio of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) / vastus lateralis (VL), and EMG activity of gluteus medius (GM) muscle, were recorded before and immediately after each fatigue protocol using the Biodex Isokinetic system and EMG Myosystem. Results: Two-way within subject MANOVA revealed that eccentric knee extensors’ peak torque decreased significantly after hip abductors fatigue protocol compared to pre fatigue condition (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in the eccentric hip abductors’ peak torque after admitting knee extensors fatigue protocol (p > 0.05). Moreover, no significant difference was found in knee proprioception, EMG ratio of VMO/VL, and EMG activity of GM muscle, after either hip or knee fatigue protocol (p>0.05). Conclusion: A hip focused rehabilitation program may be beneficial in improving knee function through correcting faulty kinematics and hence decrease knee loading in patients with PFPS.

Keywords: electromyography, mechanical responses, patellofemoral pain syndrome, muscle fatigue, knee proprioception

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17 Effect of Hand Grip Strength on Shoulder Muscles Activity in Patients with Subacromial Impingement

Authors: Mohamed E. Abdelrahamn, Mahmoud Aly Hassan, Mohamed Sarhan

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Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common shoulder disorder. Patients often complain from a decrease in electromyography (EMG) activity of the rotator cuff muscles especially the supraspinatus muscle during glenohumeral elevation. Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the effect of applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction of hand grip strength on the EMG activity of the shoulder muscles in patients with SIS. Methods: Thirty male and female patients participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 25 to 40 years. EMG activity of supraspinatus muscle and middle deltoid muscle was assessed without and with applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Results: A significant difference was found for both supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles, indicating that the gripping resulted in increasing muscle activity. Conclusion: Applying 50% MVC of hand grip strength could increase the supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles activity in patients of SIS. This might be useful in the development and monitoring of shoulder rehabilitation strategies.

Keywords: electromyography, supraspinatus muscle, deltoid muscle, subacromial impingement syndrome

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16 Antagonist Coactivation in Athletes Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Milad Pirali, Sohrab Keyhani, Mohhamad Ali Sanjari, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi

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Purpose: The effect of hamstring antagonist activity on the knee extensors torque of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is not clear and persistent muscle weakness is common after ACLR. Hamstring activation when acting as antagonist is considered very important for knee strengths. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine hamstring antagonist coactivation during maximal effort of the isokinetic knee extension in ACLR athletes with hamstring autograft. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 20 professional athletes who underwent primary ACLR (hamstring tendon autograft)with 6-24 months postoperative and 20 healthy subjects as control group. Each subjects performed maximal effort isokinetic knee extension and flexion in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities for the involved and uninvolved limb. Synchronously, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF). The antagonist integrated EMG (IEMG) values were normalized to the IEMG of the same muscle during maximal isokinetic eccentric effort at the same velocities and ROM. Results: A one-way analysis of variance designs shows significantly greater IEMG coactivation of hamstring and decreased activation of Vm in ACLR when compared to uninvolved and control group leg in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities. Likewise peak torque to body weight was decreased in ACLR compared to uninvolved and control group during knee extension in both velocities (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Decreased extensors moment caused by decreased quadriceps inhibition and increased hamstring coactivation. In addition, these result indicated to decrease of motor unit recruitment in the VM (as a kinesiologicmonitore of the knee). It is appearing that strengthening of the quadriceps to be an important for rehabilitation program after ACLR for preparation in athletes endeavors. Therefore, we suggest that having more emphasis and focus on quadriceps strength and less emphasis on hamstring following ACLR.

Keywords: isokinetic, electromyography, ACLR-coactivation, dynamometry

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15 The Effects of Seat Heights and Obesity on Lower-Limb Joint Kinematics during Sit-To-Stand Movement

Authors: Woojin Park, Seungwon Baek, Haeseok Jeong, Haehyun Lee

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The main purpose of this study was to compare obese people to the non-obese in terms of joint kinematics in lower-limb body. The height of chairs was also considered as a design factor. Obese people had a difficulty in sit-to-stand (STS) tasks compared to the non-obese people. High chair heights can make STS task easy and it helps the obese to be more comfortable with STS task in particular. Subjects were instructed to wear inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. They perform STS task using chairs of different heights. Joint kinematics and subjective ratings of discomfort were measured. Knee angles of the obese group were greater than that of the non-obese group in normal type. No significant difference in joint kinematics was found in high chair. Interaction effect was found between obesity and height of chair. The results verified the previous research that had suggested a biomechanical model of STS movement. The results can be applied to occupational design for the obese.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Obesity, electromyography, joint kinematics, sitting, sit-to-stand

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14 Comparison of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classifications for Electromyography Signals Acquired at Five Positions of Elbow Joint

Authors: Saad Malik, Amna Khan, Zareena Kausar

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Bio Mechatronics has extended applications in the field of rehabilitation. It has been contributing since World War II in improving the applicability of prosthesis and assistive devices in real life scenarios. In this paper, classification accuracies have been compared for two classifiers against five positions of elbow. Electromyography (EMG) signals analysis have been acquired directly from skeletal muscles of human forearm for each of the three defined positions and at modified extreme positions of elbow flexion and extension using 8 electrode Myo armband sensor. Features were extracted from filtered EMG signals for each position. Performance of two classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been compared by analyzing the classification accuracies. SVM illustrated classification accuracies between 90-96%, in contrast to 84-87% depicted by LDA for five defined positions of elbow keeping the number of samples and selected feature the same for both SVM and LDA.

Keywords: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), electromyography, classification accuracies, Myo armband sensor

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13 Interrelationship between Quadriceps' Activation and Inhibition as a Function of Knee-Joint Angle and Muscle Length: A Torque and Electro and Mechanomyographic Investigation

Authors: Timothy Quinn, Ronald Croce, John Miller

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Incomplete activation, or activation failure, of motor units during maximal voluntary contractions is often referred to as muscle inhibition (MI), and is defined as the inability of the central nervous system to maximally drive a muscle during a voluntary contraction. The purpose of the present study was to assess the interrelationship amongst peak torque (PT), muscle inhibition (MI; incomplete activation of motor units), and voluntary muscle activation (VMA) of the quadriceps’ muscle group as a function of knee angle and muscle length during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). Nine young adult males (mean + standard deviation: age: 21.58 + 1.30 years; height: 180.07 + 4.99 cm; weight: 89.07 + 7.55 kg) performed MVICs in random order with the knee at 15, 55, and 95° flexion. MI was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique and was estimated by the amount of additional knee extensor PT evoked by the superimposed twitch during MVICs. Voluntary muscle activation was estimated by root mean square amplitude electromyography (EMGrms) and mechanomyography (MMGrms) of agonist (vastus medialis [VM], vastus lateralis [VL], and rectus femoris [RF]) and antagonist (biceps femoris ([BF]) muscles during MVICs. Data were analyzed using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Results revealed a strong dependency of quadriceps’ PT (p < 0.001), MI (p < 0.001) and MA (p < 0.01) on knee joint position: PT was smallest at the most shortened muscle position (15°) and greatest at mid-position (55°); MI and MA were smallest at the most shortened muscle position (15°) and greatest at the most lengthened position (95°), with the RF showing the greatest change in MA. It is hypothesized that the ability to more fully activate the quadriceps at short compared to longer muscle lengths (96% contracted at 15°; 91% at 55°; 90% at 95°) might partly compensate for the unfavorable force-length mechanics at the more extended position and consequent declines in VMA (decreases in EMGrms and MMGrms muscle amplitude during MVICs) and force production (PT = 111-Nm at 15°, 217-NM at 55°, 199-Nm at 95°). Biceps femoris EMG and MMG data showed no statistical differences (p = 0.11 and 0.12, respectively) at joint angles tested, although there were greater values at the extended position. Increased BF muscle amplitude at this position could be a mechanism by which anterior shear and tibial rotation induced by high quadriceps’ activity are countered. Measuring and understanding the degree to which one sees MI and VMA in the QF muscle has particular clinical relevance because different knee-joint disorders, such ligament injuries or osteoarthritis, increase levels of MI observed and markedly reduced the capability of full VMA.

Keywords: electromyography, muscle activation, interpolated twitch technique, mechanomyography, muscle inhibition

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12 Electromyography Pattern Classification with Laplacian Eigenmaps in Human Running

Authors: Elnaz Lashgari, Emel Demircan

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Electromyography (EMG) is one of the most important interfaces between humans and robots for rehabilitation. Decoding this signal helps to recognize muscle activation and converts it into smooth motion for the robots. Detecting each muscle’s pattern during walking and running is vital for improving the quality of a patient’s life. In this study, EMG data from 10 muscles in 10 subjects at 4 different speeds were analyzed. EMG signals are nonlinear with high dimensionality. To deal with this challenge, we extracted some features in time-frequency domain and used manifold learning and Laplacian Eigenmaps algorithm to find the intrinsic features that represent data in low-dimensional space. We then used the Bayesian classifier to identify various patterns of EMG signals for different muscles across a range of running speeds. The best result for vastus medialis muscle corresponds to 97.87±0.69 for sensitivity and 88.37±0.79 for specificity with 97.07±0.29 accuracy using Bayesian classifier. The results of this study provide important insight into human movement and its application for robotics research.

Keywords: electromyography, manifold learning, ISOMAP, Laplacian Eigenmaps, locally linear embedding

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11 Comparison of EMG Normalization Techniques Recommended for Back Muscles Used in Ergonomics Research

Authors: Saif Al-Qaisi, Alif Saba

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Normalization of electromyography (EMG) data in ergonomics research is a prerequisite for interpreting the data. Normalizing accounts for variability in the data due to differences in participants’ physical characteristics, electrode placement protocols, time of day, and other nuisance factors. Typically, normalized data is reported as a percentage of the muscle’s isometric maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC). Various MVC techniques have been recommended in the literature for normalizing EMG activity of back muscles. This research tests and compares the recommended MVC techniques in the literature for three back muscles commonly used in ergonomics research, which are the lumbar erector spinae (LES), latissimus dorsi (LD), and thoracic erector spinae (TES). Six healthy males from a university population participated in this research. Five different MVC exercises were compared for each muscle using the Tringo wireless EMG system (Delsys Inc.). Since the LES and TES share similar functions in controlling trunk movements, their MVC exercises were the same, which included trunk extension at -60°, trunk extension at 0°, trunk extension while standing, hip extension, and the arch test. The MVC exercises identified in the literature for the LD were chest-supported shoulder extension, prone shoulder extension, lat-pull down, internal shoulder rotation, and abducted shoulder flexion. The maximum EMG signal was recorded during each MVC trial, and then the averages were computed across participants. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to determine the effect of MVC technique on muscle activity. Post-hoc analyses were performed using the Tukey test. The MVC technique effect was statistically significant for each of the muscles (p < 0.05); however, a larger sample of participants was needed to detect significant differences in the Tukey tests. The arch test was associated with the highest EMG average at the LES, and also it resulted in the maximum EMG activity more often than the other techniques (three out of six participants). For the TES, trunk extension at 0° was associated with the largest EMG average, and it resulted in the maximum EMG activity the most often (three out of six participants). For the LD, participants obtained their maximum EMG either from chest-supported shoulder extension (three out of six participants) or prone shoulder extension (three out of six participants). Chest-supported shoulder extension, however, had a larger average than prone shoulder extension (0.263 and 0.240, respectively). Although all the aforementioned techniques were superior in their averages, they did not always result in the maximum EMG activity. If an accurate estimate of the true MVC is desired, more than one technique may have to be performed. This research provides additional MVC techniques for each muscle that may elicit the maximum EMG activity.

Keywords: Physical Ergonomics, electromyography, normalization, maximum voluntary contraction

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10 Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Emotional Contagion

Authors: Andres Pinilla Palacios, Ricardo Tamayo

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Emotional contagion is characterized as an automatic tendency to synchronize behaviors that facilitate emotional convergence among humans. It might thus play a pivotal role to understand the dynamics of key social interactions. However, a few research has investigated its potential mechanisms. We suggest two complementary but independent processes that may underlie emotional contagion. The efficient contagion hypothesis, based on fast and implicit bottom-up processes, modulated by familiarity and spread of activation in the emotional associative networks of memory. Secondly, the emotional contrast hypothesis, based on slow and explicit top-down processes guided by deliberated appraisal and hypothesis-testing. In order to assess these two hypotheses, an experiment with 39 participants was conducted. In the first phase, participants were induced (between-groups) to an emotional state (positive, neutral or negative) using a standardized video taken from the FilmStim database. In the second phase, participants classified and rated (within-subject) the emotional state of 15 faces (5 for each emotional state) taken from the POFA database. In the third phase, all participants were returned to a baseline emotional state using the same neutral video used in the first phase. In a fourth phase, participants classified and rated a new set of 15 faces. The accuracy in the identification and rating of emotions was partially explained by the efficient contagion hypothesis, but the speed with which these judgments were made was partially explained by the emotional contrast hypothesis. However, results are ambiguous, so a follow-up experiment is proposed in which emotional expressions and activation of the sympathetic system will be measured using EMG and EDA respectively.

Keywords: Imitation, electromyography, emotional contagion, emotional valence, identification of emotions

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9 Electromyography Analysis during Walking and Seated Stepping in the Elderly

Authors: Y. H. Chen, Y. J. Lin, P. Y. Chiang, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu

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The number of the elderly in the world population and the rate of falls in this increasing numbers of older people are increasing. Decreasing muscle strength and an increasing risk of falling are associated with the ageing process. Because the effects of seated stepping training on the walking performance in the elderly remain unclear, the main purpose of the proposed study is to perform electromyography analysis during walking and seated stepping in the elderly. Four surface EMG electrodes were sticked on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Before test, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the respective muscle was obtained using manual muscle testing. The analog raw data of EMG signals were digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz. The signals were fully rectified and the linear envelope were calculated. Stepping motion cycle was separated into two phases by stepping timing (ST) and pedal return timing (PRT). ST refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the highest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to release the pedal. PRT refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the lowest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to step the pedal. We assumed that ST acted the same role in initial contact during walking, and PRT for toe-off. The period from ST to next PRT was called pushing phase (PP), during which the leg would start to step with resistance, and we compare this phase with the stance phase in level walking. The period from PRT to next ST was called returning phase (RP), during which leg would not have any resistance in this phase, and we compare this phase with the swing phase in level walking. VL and Gastro muscular activation had similar patterns in both side. The ability may transfer to those needed during loading response, mid-stance and terminal swing phase. User needed to make more effort in stepping compared with walking with similar timing; thus the strengthening of the VL and Gastro may be helpful to improve the walking endurance and efficiency for the elderly.

Keywords: Walking, Elderly, electromyography, seated stepping

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8 Effects of an Envious Experience on Schadenfreude and Economic Decisions Making

Authors: Pablo Reyes, Vanessa Riveros Fiallo, Cesar Acevedo, Camila Castellanos, Catalina Moncaleano, Maria F. Parra, Laura Colmenares

Abstract:

Social emotions are physiological, cognitive and behavioral phenomenon that intervene in the mechanisms of adaptation of individuals and their context. These are mediated by interpersonal relationship and language. Such emotions are subdivided into moral and comparison. The present research emphasizes two comparative emotions: Envy and Schadenfreude. Envy arises when a person lack of quality, possessions or achievements and these are superior in someone else. The Schadenfreude (SC) expresses the pleasure that someone experienced by the misfortune of the other. The relationship between both emotions has been questioned before. Hence there are reports showing that envy increases and modulates SC response. Other documents suggest that envy causes SC response. However, the methodological approach of the topic has been made through self-reports, as well as the hypothetical scenarios. Given this problematic, the neuroscience social framework provides an alternative and demonstrates that social emotions have neurophysiological correlates that can be measured. This is relevant when studying social emotions that are reprehensible like envy or SC are. When tested, the individuals tend to report low ratings due to social desirability. In this study, it was drawn up a proposal in research's protocol and the progress on its own piloting. The aim is to evaluate the effect of feeling envy and Schadenfreude has on the decision-making process, as well as the cooperative behavior in an economic game. To such a degree, it was proposed an experimental model that will provoke to feel envious by performing games against an unknown opponent. The game consists of asking general knowledge questions. The difficulty level in questions and the strangers' facial response have been manipulated in order to generate an ecological comparison framework and be able to arise both envy and SC emotions. During the game, an electromyography registry will be made for two facial muscles that have been associated with the expressiveness of envy and SC emotions. One of the innovations of the current proposal is the measurement of the effect that emotions have on a specific behavior. To that extent, it was evaluated the effect of each condition on the dictators' economic game. The main intention is to evaluate if a social emotion can modulate actions that have been associated with social norms, in the literacy. The result of the evaluation of a pilot model (without electromyography record and self-report) have shown an association between envy and SC, in a way that as the individuals report a greater sense of envy, the greater the chance to experience SC. The results of the economic game show a slight tendency towards profit maximization decisions. It is expected that at the time of using real cash this behavior will be strengthened and also to correlate with the responses of electromyography.

Keywords: Economic Games, electromyography, envy, Schadenfreude

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7 The Effect of Seated Distance on Muscle Activation and Joint Kinematics during Seated Strengthening in Patients with Stroke with Extensor Synergy Pattern in the Lower Limbs

Authors: Y. H. Chen, Y. J. Lin, P. Y. Chiang, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu, T. Sugiarto, I. Karsuna

Abstract:

Task-specific training with intense practice of functional tasks has been emphasized for the approaches in motor rehabilitation in patients with hemiplegic strokes. Although reciprocal actions which may increase demands on motor control during seated stepping exercise, motor control is not explicitly trained with emphasis and instruction focused on traditional strengthening. Apart from cycling and treadmill, various forms of seated exerciser are becoming available for the lower extremity exercise. The benefit of seated exerciser has been focused on the effect on the cardiopulmonary system. Thus, the aim of current study is to investigate the effect of seated distance on muscle activation during seated strengthening in patients with stroke with extensor synergy pattern in the lower extremities. Electrodes were placed on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the muscles were obtained to normalize the EMG amplitude obtained during dynamic trials with analog raw data digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz, fully rectified and the linear enveloped. Movement cycle was separated into two phases by pushing (PP) and Return (RP). Integral EMG (iEMG) is then used to quantify level of activation during each of the phases. Subjects performed strengthening with moderate resistance with speed of 60 rpm in two different distances (D1, short) and (D2, long). The results showed greater iEMG in RF and smaller iEMG in VL and BF with obvious increase range of motion of hip flexion in D1 condition. On the contrary, no significant involvement of RF while greater level of muscular activation in VL and BF during RP was found during PP in D2 condition. In addition, greater hip internal rotation was observed in D2 condition. In patients with stroke with abnormal tone revealed by extensor synergy in the lower extremities, shorter seated distance is suggested to facilitate hip flexor muscle activation while avoid inducing hyper extensor tone which may prevent a smooth repetitive motion. Repetitive muscular contraction exercise of hip flexor may be helpful for further gait training as it may assist hip flexion during swing phase of the walking.

Keywords: electromyography, seated strengthening, patients with stroke, synergy pattern

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6 Impact of Kinesio Taping on Masseter Muscle: An Electromyographic Study

Authors: Joanna E. Owczarek, Izabela Zielinska

Abstract:

The incidence of temporomandibular disorders is 50% up to 80%. Kinesio taping (KT) is treatment method for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of KT on masseter muscles’ tone evaluated by electromyography. 30 adults (aged 22±2.1) were examined. The tone of masseters before and after 4 days KT application on sternocleidomastoideus muscle was measured during resting mandibular position and clenching. Noraxon DTS device was used. Masseter muscles’ tone during clenching after KT application was relevently lower in comparison to its tone before the KT.

Keywords: electromyography, TMD, Kinesio taping, masseter muscle

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5 Training Volume and Myoelectric Responses of Lower Body Muscles with Differing Foam Rolling Periods

Authors: Humberto Miranda, Haroldo G. Santana, Gabriel A. Paz, Vicente P. Lima, Jeffrey M. Willardson

Abstract:

Foam rolling is a practice that has increased in popularity before and after strength training. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of different foam rolling periods for the lower body muscles on subsequent performance (total repetitions and training volume), myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion in trained men. Fourteen trained men (26.2 ± 3.2 years, 178 ± 0.04 cm height, 82.2 ± 10 kg weight and body mass index 25.9 ± 3.3kg/m2) volunteered for this study. Four repetition maximum (4-RM) loads were determined for hexagonal bar deadlift and 45º angled leg press during test and retest sessions over two nonconsecutive days. Five experimental protocols were applied in a randomized design, which included: a traditional protocol (control)—a resistance training session without prior foam rolling; or resistance training sessions performed following one (P1), two (P2), three (P3), or four (P4) sets of 30 sec. foam rolling for the lower extremity musculature. Subjects were asked to roll over the medial and lateral aspects of each muscle group with as much pressure as possible. All foam rolling was completed at a cadence of 50 bpm. These procedures were performed on both sides unilaterally as described below. Quadriceps: between the apex of the patella and the ASIS; Hamstring: between the gluteal fold and popliteal fossa; Triceps surae: between popliteal fossa and calcaneus tendon. The resistance training consisted of five sets with 4-RM loads and two-minute rest intervals between sets, and a four-minute rest interval between the hexagonal bar deadlift and the 45º angled leg press. The number of repetitions completed, the myoelectric activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), semitendinosus (SM) and medial gastrocnemius (GM) were recorded, as well as the rating of perceived exertion for each protocol. There were no differences between the protocols in the total repetitions for the hexagonal bar deadlift (Control - 16.2 ± 5.9; P1 - 16.9 ± 5.5; P2 - 19.2 ± 5.7; P3 - 19.4 ± 5.2; P4 - 17.2 ± 8.2) (p > 0.05) and 45º angled leg press (Control - 23.3 ± 9.7; P1 - 25.9 ± 9.5; P2 - 29.1 ± 13.8; P3 - 28.0 ± 11.7; P4 - 30.2 ± 11.2) exercises. Similar results between protocols were also noted for myoelectric activity (p > 0.05) and rating of perceived exertion (p > 0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study indicated no deleterious effects on performance, myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion responses during lower body resistance training.

Keywords: Resistance Training, electromyography, foam rolling, self myofascial release

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4 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin

Abstract:

Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: low back pain, electromyography, bridging exercise, lower limb exercise

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3 Correlation between Electromyographic and Textural Parameters for Different Textured Indian Foods Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: S. Rustagi, N. S. Sodhi, B. Dhillon, T. Kaur

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to check whether there is any relationship between electromyographic (EMG) and textural parameters during food texture evaluation. In this study, a total of eighteen mastication variables were measured for entire mastication, per chew mastication and three different stages of mastication (viz. early, middle and late) by EMG for five different foods using eight human subjects. Cluster analysis was used to reduce the number of mastication variables from 18 to 5, so that principal component analysis (PCA) could be applied on them. The PCA further resulted in two meaningful principal components. The principal component scores for each food were measured and correlated with five textural parameters (viz. hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness). Correlation coefficients were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.10) for cohesiveness and adhesiveness while if we reduce the significance level (p < 0.20) then chewiness also showed correlation with mastication parameters.

Keywords: Texture, sensory, electromyography, mastication

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2 The Effect of Footrest Height on Muscle Fatigue and Discomfort in Prolonged Standing Activities

Authors: Reza Khani Jazani, Zeinab Rasouli Kahaki, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Mahnaz Saremi, Amir Kavousi

Abstract:

Work which requires prolonged standing, especially in a fixed position can cause discomfort and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of height footrest in discomfort and fatigue lower extremities during long-standing activities. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 15 students with a mean (SD) age of 21.5 ± (2.3) and mean height of 163 ± (2.8). Participants attended 3 sessions each lasting one hour. They stood on three different surfaces: ceramic, footrest 10 and 25 cm. Surface electromyography was used to assess muscle fatigue. Body map and visual analog scale were employed to evaluate discomfort ratings of the lower extremities and the back. Data analyses were performed using ANOVA-R. Based on the results of electromyography there was no difference between soleus, anterior tibial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles fatigue and type of surfaces. There was a significant variation between the surfaces (p < 0.05) and different areas of the body discomfort level; so that the ceramic had the highest discomfort rating, while the lowest ratings were related to the footrest. Further investigations are recommended on the properties of the footrest.

Keywords: Fatigue, electromyography, gastrocnemius, lower extremities, soleus, tibial

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1 Validation of Two Field Base Dynamic Balance Tests in the Activation of Selected Hip and Knee Stabilizer Muscles

Authors: Mariam A. Abu-Alim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to validate muscle activation amplitudes of two field base dynamic balance tests that are used as strengthen and motor control exercises too in the activation of selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles. Methods: Eighteen college-age females students (21±2 years; 65.6± 8.7 kg; 169.7±8.1 cm) who participated at least for 30 minutes in physical activity most days of the week volunteered. The wireless BIOPAC (MP150, BIOPAC System. Inc, California, USA) surface electromyography system was used to validate the activation of the Gluteus Medius and the Adductor Magnus of hip stabilizer muscles; and the Hamstrings, Quadriceps, and the Gastrocnemius of the knee stabilizer muscles. Surface electrodes (EL 503, BIOPAC, System. Inc) connected to dual wireless EMG BioNormadix Transmitters were place on selected muscles of participants dominate side. Manual muscle testing was performed to obtain the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in which all collected muscle activity data during the three reaching direction: anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the Y-balance Test (YBT) data could be normalized. All participants performed three trials for each reaching direction of the SEBT and the YBT. The domanial leg trial for each participant was selected for analysis which was also the standing leg. Results: the selected hip stabilizer muscles (Gluteus Medius, Adductor Magnus) were both greater than 100%MVIC during the performance of the SEBT and in all three directions. Whereas, selected knee stabilizer muscles had greater activation 0f 100% MVIC and were significantly more activated during the performance of the YBT test in all three reaching directions. The results showed that the posterolateral and the postmedial reaching directions for both dynamic balance tests had greater activation levels and greater than 200%MVIC for all tested muscles expect of the hamstrings. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that the SEBT and the YBT had validated high levels of muscular activity for the hip and the knee stabilizer muscles; which can be used to represent the improvement, strength, control and the decreasing in the injury levels. Since these selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles, represent 35% of all athletic injuries depending on the type of sport.

Keywords: electromyography, dynamic balance tests, hip stabilizer muscles, nee stabilizer muscles

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