Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Electrolyte Related Abstracts

5 Effect of Sintering Temperature on Transport Properties of Garnet-Type Solid-State Electrolytes for Energy Storage Systems

Authors: U. Farooq, A. Samson, V. Thangadurai, R. Edwards

Abstract:

In recent years, an impressive research has been conducted to introduce the solid-state electrolytes for the future energy storage devices like Li-ion batteries more specifically. In this work we tried to prepare a ceramic electrolyte (Li6.5 La2.5 Ba0.5 Nb Zr O12(LLBNZO)) and sintered the pallets of as-prepared material at elevated temperature like 1050, 1100, 1150 and 1200 °C. The objective to carry out this research was to observe the effect of temperature on porosity, density and transport properties of materials. Preliminary results suggest that the material sintered at higher temperature could show enhanced performance in terms of fast ionic transport. This enhancement in performance can be attributed to low porosity of materials which is result of high temperature sintering.

Keywords: Electrolyte, Li-ion battery, solid state battery, garnet structures

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4 Investigation of Different Electrolyte Salts Effect on ZnO/MWCNT Anode Capacity in LIBs

Authors: Hilal Köse, Şeyma Dombaycıoğlu, Ali Osman Aydın, Hatem Akbulut

Abstract:

Rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage choices for laptop computers, electric vehicles and cellular phones owing to their high energy and power density. Compared with conventional carbonaceous materials, transition metal oxides (TMOs) have attracted great interests and stand out among versatile novel anode materials due to their high theoretical specific capacity, wide availability and good safety performance. ZnO, as an anode material for LIBs, has a high theoretical capacity of 978 mAh g-1, much higher than that of the conventional graphite anode (∼370 mAhg-1). However, several major problems such as poor cycleability, resulting from the severe volume expansion and contraction during the alloying-dealloying cycles with Li+ ions and the associated charge transfer process, the pulverization and the agglomeration of individual particles, which drastically reduces the total entrance/exit sites available for Li+ ions still hinder the practical use of ZnO powders as an anode material for LIBs. Therefore, a great deal of effort has been devoted to overcome these problems, and many methods have been developed. In most of these methods, it is claimed that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will radically improve the performance of batteries, because their unique structure may especially enhance the kinetic properties of the electrodes and result in an extremely high specific charge compared with the theoretical limits of graphitic carbon. Due to outstanding properties of CNTs, MWCNT buckypaper substrate is considered a buffer material to prevent mechanical disintegration of anode material during the battery applications. As the bridge connecting the positive and negative electrodes, the electrolyte plays a critical role affecting the overall electrochemical performance of the cell including rate, capacity, durability and safety. Commercial electrolytes for Li-ion batteries normally consist of certain lithium salts and mixed organic linear and cyclic carbonate solvents. Most commonly, LiPF6 is attributed to its remarkable features including high solubility, good ionic conductivity, high dissociation constant and satisfactory electrochemical stability for commercial fabrication. Besides LiPF6, LiBF4 is well known as a conducting salt for LIBs. LiBF4 shows a better temperature stability in organic carbonate based solutions and less moisture sensitivity compared to LiPF6. In this work, free standing zinc oxide (ZnO) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite materials were prepared by a sol gel technique giving a high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries. Electrolyte solutions (including 1 m Li+ ion) were prepared with different Li salts in glove box. For this purpose, LiPF6 and LiBF4 salts and also mixed of these salts were solved in EC:DMC solvents (1:1, w/w). CR2016 cells were assembled by using these prepared electrolyte solutions, the ZnO/MWCNT buckypaper nanocomposites as working electrodes, metallic lithium as cathode and polypropylene (PP) as separator. For investigating the effect of different Li salts on the electrochemical performance of ZnO/MWCNT nanocomposite anode material electrochemical tests were performed at room temperature.

Keywords: Electrolyte, anode, Li-ion battery, ZnO/MWCNT

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3 Prescription of Maintenance Fluids in the Emergency Department

Authors: Adrian Craig, Jonathan Easaw, Rose Jordan, Ben Hall

Abstract:

The prescription of intravenous fluids is a fundamental component of inpatient management, but it is one which usually lacks thought. Fluids are a drug, which like any other can cause harm when prescribed inappropriately or wrongly. However, it is well recognised that it is poorly done, especially in the acute portals. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 1mmol/kg of potassium, sodium, and chloride per day. With various options of fluids, clinicians tend to face difficulty in choosing the most appropriate maintenance fluid, and there is a reluctance to prescribe potassium as part of an intravenous maintenance fluid regime. The aim was to prospectively audit the prescription of the first bag of intravenous maintenance fluids, the use of urea and electrolytes results to guide the choice of fluid and the use of fluid prescription charts, in a busy emergency department of a major trauma centre in Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. This was undertaken over a week in early November 2016. Of those prescribed maintenance fluid only 8.9% were prescribed a fluid which was most appropriate for their daily electrolyte requirements. This audit has helped to highlight further the issues that are faced in busy Emergency Departments within hospitals that are stretched and lack capacity for prompt transfer to a ward. It has supported the findings of NICE, that emergency admission portals such as Emergency Departments poorly prescribed intravenous fluid therapy. The findings have enabled simple steps to be taken to educate clinicians about their fluid of choice. This has included: posters to remind clinicians to consider the urea and electrolyte values before prescription, suggesting the inclusion of a suggested intravenous fluid of choice in the prescription chart of the trust and the inclusion of a session within the introduction programme revising intravenous fluid therapy and daily electrolyte requirements. Moving forward, once the interventions have been implemented then, the data will be reaudited in six months to note any improvement in maintenance fluid choice. Alongside this, an audit of the rate of intravenous maintenance fluid therapy would be proposed to further increase patient safety by avoiding unintentional fluid overload which may cause unnecessary harm to patients within the hospital. In conclusion, prescription of maintenance fluid therapy was poor within the Emergency Department, and there is a great deal of opportunity for improvement. Therefore, the measures listed above will be implemented and the data reaudited.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Medicine, Electrolyte, Maintenance, Fluid, Emergency Department, Major trauma, intravenous, potassium, sodium, chloride, fluid therapy

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2 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Siloxane Matrix

Authors: Tinatin Kuchukhidze, Natia Jalagonia

Abstract:

Polymer electrolytes (PE) play an important part in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells. To achieve optimal performance, the PE must maintain a high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability at both high and low relative humidity. The polymer electrolyte also needs to have excellent chemical stability for long and robustness. According to the prevailing theory, ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes is facilitated by the large-scale segmental motion of the polymer backbone, and primarily occurs in the amorphous regions of the polymer electrolyte. Crystallinity restricts polymer backbone segmental motion and significantly reduces conductivity. Consequently, polymer electrolytes with high conductivity at room temperature have been sought through polymers which have highly flexible backbones and have largely amorphous morphology. The interest in polymer electrolytes was increased also by potential applications of solid polymer electrolytes in high energy density solid state batteries, gas sensors and electrochromic windows. Conductivity of 10-3 S/cm is commonly regarded as a necessary minimum value for practical applications in batteries. At present, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based systems are most thoroughly investigated, reaching room temperature conductivities of 10-7 S/cm in some cross-linked salt in polymer systems based on amorphous PEO-polypropylene oxide copolymers.. It is widely accepted that amorphous polymers with low glass transition temperatures Tg and a high segmental mobility are important prerequisites for high ionic conductivities. Another necessary condition for high ionic conductivity is a high salt solubility in the polymer, which is most often achieved by donors such as ether oxygen or imide groups on the main chain or on the side groups of the PE. It is well established also that lithium ion coordination takes place predominantly in the amorphous domain, and that the segmental mobility of the polymer is an important factor in determining the ionic mobility. Great attention was pointed to PEO-based amorphous electrolyte obtained by synthesis of comb-like polymers, by attaching short ethylene oxide unit sequences to an existing amorphous polymer backbone. The aim of presented work is to obtain of solid polymer electrolyte membranes using PMHS as a matrix. For this purpose the hydrosilylation reactions of α,ω-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methyl¬hydrosiloxane with allyl triethylene-glycol mo¬nomethyl ether and vinyltriethoxysilane at 1:28:7 ratio of initial com¬pounds in the presence of Karstedt’s catalyst, platinum hydrochloric acid (0.1 M solution in THF) and platinum on the carbon catalyst in 50% solution of anhydrous toluene have been studied. The synthesized olygomers are vitreous liquid products, which are well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp ≈ 0.05 - 0.06. The synthesized olygomers were analysed with FTIR, 1H, 13C, 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized polysiloxanes were investigated with wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography, and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate (triflate) or lithium bis¬(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)¬imide polymer systems solid polymer electrolyte membranes have been obtained. The dependence of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and salt concentration was investigated and the activation energies of conductivity for all obtained compounds are calculated

Keywords: Synthesis, Electrolyte, Membrane, PMHS

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1 Carbon Coated Yarn Supercapacitors: Parametric Study of Performance Output

Authors: Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Sabu John, Sania Waqar, Lijing Wang, Mac Fergusson, Ilija Najdovski

Abstract:

Evolution of textiles, from its orthodox to more interactive role has stirred the researchers to uncover its application in numerous arenas. The idea of using textile based materials for wearable energy harvesting and storage devices have gained immense popularity. This is mainly due to textile comfort and flexibility features. In this work, nano-carbonous materials were infused on cellulosic fibers using caustic soda treatment. This paper presents the complete procedure of yarn supercapacitors fabrication process through dip coating technique and its characterization method. The main objective is to study, the effect of varying caustic soda concentration on mass loading of activated carbon on yarns and the related capacitance output of the designed yarn supercapacitor. Polyvinyl alcohol and Phosphoric acid were used as electrolyte in a two-electrode cell assembly to measure device electrochemical performance. The results show a promising increase in capacitance value using this technique.

Keywords: Electrolyte, activated carbon, dip coating, yarn supercapacitors, caustic soda, electrochemical characterization

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