Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

electroluminescence Related Abstracts

3 Forster Energy Transfer and Optoelectronic Properties of (PFO/TiO2)/Fluorol 7GA Hybrid Thin Films

Authors: Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji Jumali

Abstract:

Forster energy transfer between poly (9,9'-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO)/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a donor and Fluorol 7GA as an acceptor has been studied. The energy transfer parameters were calculated by using mathematical models. The dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer between the donor and acceptor molecules was Forster-type, as evidenced by large values of quenching rate constant, energy transfer rate constant and critical distance of energy transfer. Moreover, these composites which were used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes, were investigated in terms of current density–voltage and electroluminescence spectra.

Keywords: energy transfer parameters, forster-type, electroluminescence, organic light emitting diodes

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2 Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Low Symmetry Coordination Structured Lanthanide Complexes

Authors: Zubair Ahmed, Andrea Barbieri

Abstract:

The need to reduce energy consumption has prompted a considerable research effort for developing alternative energy-efficient lighting systems to replace conventional light sources (i.e., incandescent and fluorescent lamps). Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology offers the distinctive possibility to fabricate large area flat devices by vacuum or solution processing. Lanthanide β-diketonates complexes, due to unique photophysical properties of Ln(III) ions, have been explored as emitting layers in OLED displays and in solid-state lighting (SSL) in order to achieve high efficiency and color purity. For such applications, the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and stability are the two key points that can be achieved simply by selecting the proper organic ligands around the Ln ion in a coordination sphere. Regarding the strategies to enhance the PLQY, the most common is the suppression of the radiationless deactivation pathways due to the presence of high-frequency oscillators (e.g., OH, –CH groups) around the Ln centre. Recently, a different approach to maximize the PLQY of Ln(β-DKs) has been proposed (named 'Escalate Coordination Anisotropy', ECA). It is based on the assumption that coordinating the Ln ion with different ligands will break the centrosymmetry of the molecule leading to less forbidden transitions (loosening the constraints of the Laporte rule). The OLEDs based on such complexes are available, but with low efficiency and stability. In order to get efficient devices, there is a need to develop some new Ln complexes with enhanced PLQYs and stabilities. For this purpose, the Ln complexes, both visible and (NIR) emitting, of variant coordination structures based on the various fluorinated/non-fluorinated β-diketones and O/N-donor neutral ligands were synthesized using a one step in situ method. In this method, the β-diketones, base, LnCl₃.nH₂O and neutral ligands were mixed in a 3:3:1:1 M ratio in ethanol that gave air and moisture stable complexes. Further, they were characterized by means of elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thereafter, their photophysical properties were studied to select the best complexes for the fabrication of stable and efficient OLEDs. Finally, the OLEDs were fabricated and investigated using these complexes as emitting layers along with other organic layers like NPB,N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (hole-transporting layer), BCP, 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (hole-blocker) and Alq3 (electron-transporting layer). The layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO glass substrates. Moreover, co-deposition techniques were used to improve charge transport in the devices and to avoid quenching phenomena. The devices show strong electroluminescence at 612, 998, 1064 and 1534 nm corresponding to ⁵D₀ →⁷F₂(Eu), ²F₅/₂ → ²F₇/₂ (Yb), ⁴F₃/₂→ ⁴I₉/₂ (Nd) and ⁴I1₃/₂→ ⁴I1₅/₂ (Er). All the devices fabricated show good efficiency as well as stability.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, electroluminescence, lanthanides, paramagnetic NMR

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1 Temperature Dependence of the Optoelectronic Properties of InAs(Sb)-based LED Heterostructures

Authors: Antonina Semakova, Karim Mynbaev, Nikolai Bazhenov, Anton Chernyaev, Sergei Kizhaev, Nikolai Stoyanov

Abstract:

At present, heterostructures are used for fabrication of almost all types of optoelectronic devices. Our research focuses on the optoelectronic properties of InAs(Sb) solid solutions that are widely used in fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in middle wavelength infrared range (MWIR). This spectral range (2-6 μm) is relevant for laser diode spectroscopy of gases and molecules, for systems for the detection of explosive substances, medical applications, and for environmental monitoring. The fabrication of MWIR LEDs that operate efficiently at room temperature is mainly hindered by the predominance of non-radiative Auger recombination of charge carriers over the process of radiative recombination, which makes practical application of LEDs difficult. However, non-radiative recombination can be partly suppressed in quantum-well structures. In this regard, studies of such structures are quite topical. In this work, electroluminescence (EL) of LED heterostructures based on InAs(Sb) epitaxial films with the molar fraction of InSb ranging from 0 to 0.09 and multi quantum-well (MQW) structures was studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The growth of the heterostructures was performed by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on InAs substrates. On top of the active layer, a wide-bandgap InAsSb(Ga,P) barrier was formed. At low temperatures (4.2-100 K) stimulated emission was observed. As the temperature increased, the emission became spontaneous. The transition from stimulated emission to spontaneous one occurred at different temperatures for structures with different InSb contents in the active region. The temperature-dependent carrier lifetime, limited by radiative recombination and the most probable Auger processes (for the materials under consideration, CHHS and CHCC), were calculated within the framework of the Kane model. The effect of various recombination processes on the carrier lifetime was studied, and the dominant role of Auger processes was established. For MQW structures quantization energies for electrons, light and heavy holes were calculated. A characteristic feature of the experimental EL spectra of these structures was the presence of peaks with energy different from that of calculated optical transitions between the first quantization levels for electrons and heavy holes. The obtained results showed strong effect of the specific electronic structure of InAsSb on the energy and intensity of optical transitions in nanostructures based on this material. For the structure with MQWs in the active layer, a very weak temperature dependence of EL peak was observed at high temperatures (>150 K), which makes it attractive for fabricating temperature-resistant gas sensors operating in the middle-infrared range.

Keywords: Quantum Wells, electroluminescence, light emitting diode, InAsSb

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