Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Electrochemistry Related Abstracts

13 Adsorption and Desorption of Emerging Water Contaminants on Activated Carbon Fabrics

Authors: S. Delpeux-Ouldriane, M. Gineys, S. Masson, N. Cohaut, L. Reinert, L. Duclaux, F. Béguin


Nowadays, a wide variety of organic contaminants are present at trace concentrations in wastewater effluents. In order to face these pollution problems, the implementation of the REACH European regulation has defined lists of targeted pollutants to be eliminated selectively in water. It therefore implies the development of innovative and more efficient remediation techniques. In this sense, adsorption processes can be successfully used to achieve the removal of organic compounds in waste water treatment processes, especially at low pollutant concentration. Especially, activated carbons possessing a highly developed porosity demonstrate high adsorption capacities. More specifically, carbon cloths show high adsorption rates, an easily handling, a good mechanical integrity and regeneration potentialities. When loaded with pollutants, these materials can be indeed regenerated using an electrochemical polarization.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Adsorption, Regeneration, Emerging Contaminants, nanoporous carbons, activated carbon cloths, micropollutants

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12 Carbon Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: Yu. Mateyshina, A. Ulihin, N. Uvarov


Supercapacitors are one of the most promising devices for energy storage applications as they can provide higher power density than batteries and higher energy density than conventional dielectric capacitors. Carbon materials with various microtextures are considered as main candidates for supercapacitors in terms of high surface area, interconnected pore structure, controlled pore size, high electrical conductivity and environmental friendliness. The specific capacitance (C) of the electrode material of the Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) is known to depend on the specific surface area (Ss) and the pore structure. Activated carbons are most commonly used in supercapacitors because of their high surface area (Ss ≥ 1000 m2/g), good adhesion to electrolytes and low cost. In this work, electrochemical properties of new microporous and mesoporous carbon electrode materials were studied. The aim of the work was to investigate the relationship between the specific capacitance and specific surface area in a series of materials prepared from different organic precursors.. As supporting matrixes different carbon samples with Ss = 100-2000 m2/g were used. The materials were modified by treatment in acids (H2SO4, HNO3, acetic acid) in order to enable surface hydrophilicity. Then nanoparticles of transition metal oxides (for example NiO) were deposited on the carbon surfaces using methods of salts impregnation, mechanical treatment in ball mills and the precursors decomposition. The electrochemical characteristics of electrode hybrid materials were investigated in a symmetrical two-electrode cell using an impedance spectroscopy, voltammetry in both potentiodynamic and galvanostatic modes. It was shown that the value of C for the materials under study strongly depended on the preparation method of the electrode and the type of electrolyte (1 M H2SO4, 6 M KOH, 1 M LiClO4 in acetonitryl). Specific capacity may be increased by the introduction of nanoparticles from 50-100 F/g for initial carbon materials to 150-300 F/g for nanocomposites which may be used in supercapacitors. The work is supported by the по SC-14.604.21.0013.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Supercapacitors, carbon electrode, mesoporous carbon

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11 Novel Self-Healing Eco-Friendly Coatings with Antifouling and Anticorrosion Properties for Maritime Applications

Authors: K. N. Kipreou, E. Efthmiadou, G. Kordas


Biofouling represents one of the most crucial problems in the present maritime industries when its control still challenges the researchers all over the world. The present work is referred to the synthesis and characterization CeMo and Cu2O nanocontainers by using a wide range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for marine applications. The above nanosystems will be loaded with active monomers and corrosion rendering healing ability to marine paints. The objective of this project is their ability for self-healing, self-polishing and finally for anti-corrosion activity. One of the driving forces for the exploration of CeMo, is the unique anticorrosive behavior, which will be confirmed by the electrochemistry methodology. It has be highlighted that the nanocontainers of Cu2O with the appropriate antibacterial inhibitor will improve the hydrophobicity and the morphology of the coating surfaces reducing the water friction. In summary, both novel nanoc will increase the lifetime of the paints releasing the antifouling agent in a control manner.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Coating, Antifouling, Biofouling, Copper, SEM, copper oxide, anticorrosion, inhibitors, marinepaints, nanocontainer

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10 Anticorrosive Properties of Poly(O-Phenylendiamine)/ZnO Nanocomposites Coated Stainless Steel

Authors: Aisha Ganash


Poly(o-phenylendiamine) and poly(ophenylendiamine)/ZnO(PoPd/ZnO) nanocomposites coating were prepared on type-304 austenitic stainless steel (SS) using H2SO4 acid as electrolyte by potentiostatic methods. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composition and structure of PoPd/ZnO nanocomposites. The corrosion protection of polymer coatings ability was studied by Eocp-time measurement, anodic and cathodic potentiodynamic polarization and Impedance techniques in 3.5% NaCl as a corrosive solution. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles improve the barrier and electrochemical anticorrosive properties of poly(o-phenylendiamine).

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Electrochemistry, Conducting polymers, anticorrosion

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9 Electrochemistry and Performance of Bryophylum pinnatum Leaf (BPL) Electrochemical Cell

Authors: M. A. Mamun, M. I. Khan, M. H. Sarker, K. A. Khan, M. Shajahan


The study was carried out to investigate on an innovative invention, Pathor Kuchi Leaf (PKL) cell, which is fueled with PKL sap of widely available plant called Bryophyllum pinnatum as an energy source for use in PKL battery to generate electricity. This battery, a primary source of electricity, has several order of magnitude longer shelf-lives than the traditional Galvanic cell battery, is still under investigation. In this regard, we have conducted some experiments using various instruments including Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), Ultra-Violet Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), pH meter, Ampere-Volt-Ohm Meter (AVO Meter), etc. The AAS, UV-Vis, and pH-metric analysis data provided that the potential and current were produced as the Zn electrode itself acts as reductant while Cu2+ and H+ ions are behaving as the oxidant. The significant influence of secondary salt on current and potential leads to the dissociation of weak organic acids in PKL juice, and subsequent enrichment to the reactant ions by the secondary salt effects. However, the liquid junction potential was not as great as minimized with the opposite transference of organic acid anions and H+ ions as their dissimilar ionic mobilities. Moreover, the large value of the equilibrium constant (K) implies the big change in Gibbs free energy (∆G), the more electromotive force works in electron transfer during the forward electrochemical reaction which coincides with the fast reduction of the weight of zinc plate, revealed the additional electrical work in the presence of PKL sap. This easily fabricated high-performance PKL battery can show an excellent promise during the off-peak across the countryside.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Electricity, organic acids, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), Bryophylum Pinnatum Leaf (BPL)

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8 Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Methoxy and Nitrile-Functionalized Ionic Liquids

Authors: D. A. Bruzon, G. Tapang, I. S. Martinez


Global warming and climate change are significant environmental concerns, which require immediate global action in carbon emission mitigation. The capture, sequestration, and conversion of carbon dioxide to other products such as methane or ethanol are ways to control excessive emissions. Ionic liquids have shown great potential among the materials studied as carbon capture solvents and catalysts in the reduction of CO2. In this study, ionic liquids comprising of a methoxy (-OCH3) and cyano (-CN) functionalized imidazolium cation, [MOBMIM] and [CNBMIM] respectively, paired with tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [FAP] anion were evaluated as effective capture solvents, and organocatalysts in the reduction of CO2. An in-situ electrochemical set-up, which can measure controlled amounts of CO2 both in the gas and in the ionic liquid phase, was used. Initially, reduction potentials of CO2 in the CO2-saturated ionic liquids containing the internal standard cobaltocene were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Chronoamperometric transients were obtained at potentials slightly less negative than the reduction potentials of CO2 in each ionic liquid. The time-dependent current response was measured under a controlled atmosphere. Reduction potentials of CO2 in methoxy and cyano-functionalized [FAP] ionic liquids were observed to occur at ca. -1.0 V (vs. Cc+/Cc), which was significantly lower compared to the non-functionalized analog [PMIM][FAP], with an observed reduction potential of CO2 at -1.6 V (vs. Cc+/Cc). This decrease in the potential required for CO2 reduction in the functionalized ionic liquids shows that the functional groups methoxy and cyano effectively decreased the free energy of formation of the radical anion CO2●⁻, suggesting that these electrolytes may be used as organocatalysts in the reduction of the greenhouse gas. However, upon analyzing the solubility of the gas in each ionic liquid, [PMIM][FAP] showed the highest absorption capacity, at 4.81 mM under saturated conditions, compared to [MOBMIM][FAP] at 1.86 mM, and [CNBMIM][FAP] at 0.76 mM. Also, calculated Henry’s constant determined from the concentration-pressure graph of each functionalized ionic liquid shows that the groups -OCH3 and -CN attached terminal to a C4 alkyl chain do not significantly improve CO2 solubility.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Ionic Liquids, Carbon capture, CO2 Reduction

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7 Electrochemical/Electro-Catalytic Applications of Novel Alcohol Substituted Metallophthalocyanines

Authors: Ipek Gunay, Efe B. Orman, Metin Ozer, Bekir Salih, Ali R. Ozkaya


Phthalocyanines with macrocyclic ring containing at least three heteroatoms have nine or more membered structures. Metal-free phthalocyanines react with metal salts to obtain chelate complexes. This is one of the most important features of metal-free phthalocyanine as ligand structure. Although phthalocyanines have very similar properties with porphyrins, they have some advantages such as lower cost, easy to prepare, and chemical and thermal stability. It’s known that Pc compounds have shown one-electron metal-and/or ligand-based reversible or quasi-reversible reduction and oxidation processes. The redox properties of phthalocyanines are critically related to the desirable properties of these compounds in their technological applications. Thus, Pc complexes have also been receiving increasing interest in the area of fuel cells due to their high electrocatalytic activity in dioxygen reduction and fuel cell applications. In this study, novel phthalocyanine complexes coordinated with Fe(II) and Co (II) to be used as catalyst were synthesized. Aiming this goal, a new nitrile ligand was synthesized starting from 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-nitrophthalonitrile in the presence of K2CO3 as catalyst. After the isolation of the new type of nitrile and metal complexes, the characterization of mentioned compounds was achieved by IR, H-NMR and UV-vis methods. In addition, the electrochemical behaviour of Pc complexes was identified by cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Furthermore, the catalytic performances of Pc complexes for oxygen reduction were tested by dynamic voltammetry measurements, carried out by the combined system of rotating ring-disk electrode and potentiostat, in a medium similar to fuel-cell working conditions.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, phthalocyanine, in-situ spectroelectrochemistry

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6 Demetallization of Crude Oil: Comparative Analysis of Deasphalting and Electrochemical Removal Methods of Ni and V

Authors: Nurlan Akhmetov, Abilmansur Yeshmuratov, Aliya Kurbanova, Gulnar Sugurbekova, Murat Baisariyev


Extraction of the vanadium and nickel compounds is complex due to the high stability of porphyrin, nickel is catalytic poison which deactivates catalysis during the catalytic cracking of the oil, while vanadyl is abrasive and valuable metal. Thus, high concentration of the Ni and V in the crude oil makes their removal relevant. Two methods of the demetallization of crude oil were tested, therefore, the present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits in to the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for Ni and 51.2% for V. Thus, applying the voltammetry, ICP MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, deasphalting of crude oil, demetallization of crude oil, petrolium engineering

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5 Advanced Structural Analysis of Energy Storage Materials

Authors: Disha Gupta


The aim of this research is to conduct X-ray and e-beam characterization techniques on lithium-ion battery materials for the improvement of battery performance. The key characterization techniques employed are the synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain a more holistic approach to understanding material properties. This research effort provides additional battery characterization knowledge that promotes the development of new cathodes, anodes, electrolyte and separator materials for batteries, hence, leading to better and more efficient battery performance. Both ex-situ and in-situ synchrotron experiments were performed on LiFePO₄, one of the most common cathode material, from different commercial sources and their structural analysis, were conducted using Athena/Artemis software. This analysis technique was then further extended to study other cathode materials like LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ and even some sulphate systems like Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂ and Li₂Co0.5Mn₀.₅ (SO₄)₂. XAS data were collected for Fe and P K-edge for LiFePO4, and Fe, Mn and P-K-edge for LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ to conduct an exhaustive study of the structure. For the sulphate system, Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂, XAS data was collected at both Mn and S K-edge. Finite Difference Method for Near Edge Structure (FDMNES) simulations were also conducted for various iron, manganese and phosphate model compounds and compared with the experimental XANES data to understand mainly the pre-edge structural information of the absorbing atoms. The Fe K-edge XAS results showed a charge compensation occurring on the Fe atom for all the differently synthesized LiFePO₄ materials as well as the LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ systems. However, the Mn K-edge showed a difference in results as the Mn concentration changed in the materials. For the sulphate-based system Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂, however, no change in the Mn K-edge was observed, even though electrochemical studies showed Mn redox reactions.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, XRD, Li-ion batteries

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4 Dual Electrochemical Immunosensor for IL-13Rα2 and E-Cadherin Determination in Cell, Serum and Tissues from Cancer Patients

Authors: Amira ben Hassine, A. Valverde, V. Serafín, C. Muñoz-San Martín, M. Garranzo-Asensio, M. Gamella, R. Barderas, M. Pedrero, N. Raouafi, S. Campuzano, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, J. M. Pingarrón


This work describes the development of a dual electrochemical immunosensing platform for accurate determination of two target proteins, IL-13 Receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) and E-cadherin (E-cad). The proposed methodology is based on the use of sandwich immunosensing approaches (involving horseradish peroxidase-labeled detector antibodies) implemented onto magnetic microbeads (MBs) and amperometric transduction at screen-printed dual carbon electrodes (SPdCEs). The magnetic bioconjugates were captured onto SPdCEs and the amperometric transduction was performed using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ) system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the developed bio platform demonstrates linear concentration ranges of 1.0–25 and 5.0-100 ng mL-1, detection limits of 0.28 and 1.04 ng mL-1 for E-cad and IL-13Rα2, respectively, and excellent selectivity against other non-target proteins. The developed immuno-platform also offers a good reproducibility among amperometric responses provided by nine different sensors constructed in the same manner (Relative Standard Deviation values of 3.1% for E-cad and 4.3% for IL-13Rα2). Moreover, obtained results confirm the practical applicability of this bio-platform for the accurate determination of the endogenous levels of both extracellular receptors in colon cancer cells (both intact and lysed) with different metastatic potential and serum and tissues from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at different grades. Interesting features in terms of, simplicity, speed, portability and sample amount required to provide quantitative results, make this immuno-platform more compatible than conventional methodologies with the clinical diagnosis and prognosis at the point of care.

Keywords: Biosensors, Electrochemistry, E-cadherin, mmunosensors, IL-13 receptor α2, cancer colorectal

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3 High-Throughput Screening and Selection of Electrogenic Microbial Communities Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells Based on 96-Well Plate Array

Authors: Lukasz Szydlowski, Jiri Ehlich, Igor Goryanin


We demonstrate a single chamber, 96-well-plated based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) with printed, electronic components. This invention is aimed at robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under specific conditions, e.g., electrode potential, pH, nutrient concentration, salt concentration that can be altered within the 96 well plate array. This invention enables robust selection of electrogenic microbial community under the homogeneous reactor, with multiple conditions that can be altered to allow comparative analysis. It can be used as a standalone technique or in conjunction with other selective processes, e.g., flow cytometry, microfluidic-based dielectrophoretic trapping. Mobile conductive elements, like carbon paper, carbon sponge, activated charcoal granules, metal mesh, can be inserted inside to increase the anode surface area in order to collect electrogenic microorganisms and to transfer them into new reactors or for other analytical works. An array of 96-well plate allows this device to be operated by automated pipetting stations.

Keywords: Bioengineering, Electrochemistry, Electromicrobiology, microbial fuel cell

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2 Development of a Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Dots and Graphitic Carbon Nitride for the Detection of Arsenic and 2-Chlorophenol in Water

Authors: Theo H. G. Moundzounga


Over the past few decades, the quality of portable water has been degrading continuously. Many forms of impurities such as pesticides, fertilizers, dyes, heavy metals, aromatic pollutants (nitrophenols, chloroanilines, and 2-Chlorophenol) contribute to the pollution of water when present above the permissible limits. Several conventional methods are available for the detection of heavy metals and chlorophenols such as atomic absorbance spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy; however, they have some limitation such as heavy equipment, complex sample handling. Thus to overcome those limitations, electrochemical methods have been developed; they possess high sensitivity and selectivity and are simple and produce results in relatively short times. Different electrochemical techniques have been used in recent years for the determination of heavy metals and chlorophenols in aqueous media; electrochemical recognition based on graphitic carbon nitride and carbon dots composite (g-C₃N₄/CDS) was presented for 2-chlorophenol detection in this study. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) method and electroanalytical methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were performed for characterizations of the material (g-C₃N₄/CDS). After that, 2-chlorophenol voltammetric sensor on graphitic carbon nitride/carbon dots composite was carried out in the presence of 0.1 M Phosphate-buffered saline solution containing 2mM of 2-chlorophenol via differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). g-C3N4 /CDS electrode showed high sensitivity for 2-chlorophenol recognition and detection limit of (LOD) of 3.0 × 10⁻¹³ M. Further, the oxidation potential of 2-chlorophenol was found to be 0.3 V which is lower than the average potentials in several studies implying higher catalytic properties of the fabricated sensor using which uses less energy. Graphitic carbon nitride/carbon dots sensor was applied to wastewater samples for 2-chlorophenol sensing. The sensitivity of the working electrode toward the detection of 2-chlorophenol was enhanced by modifying the surface of the bare electrode with graphitic carbon nitride/carbon dots composite, which confirmed its excellent sensing capabilities.

Keywords: Sensor, Electrochemistry, Electrode, limit of detection

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1 Macrocycles Enable Tuning of Uranyl Electrochemistry by Lewis Acids

Authors: Amit Kumar, Davide Lionetti, Victor Day, James Blakemore


Capture and activation of the water-soluble uranyl dication (UO22+) remains a challenging problem, as few rational approaches are available for modulating the reactivity of this species. Here, we report the divergent synthesis of heterobimetallic complexes in which UO22+ is held in close proximity to a range of redox-inactive metals by tailored macrocyclic ligands. Crystallographic and spectroscopic studies confirm assembly of homologous UVI(μ-OAr)2Mn+ cores with a range of mono-, di-, and trivalent Lewis acids (Mn+). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) data suggest preferential binding of K+ in an 18-crown-6-like cavity and Na+ in a 15-crown-5-like cavity, both appended to Schiff-base type sites that selectively bind UO22+. CV data demonstrate that the UVI/UV reduction potential in these complexes shifts positive and the rate of electron transfer decreases with increasing Lewis acidity of the incorporated redox-inactive metals. Moreover, spectroelectrochemical studies confirm the formation of [UV] species in the case of monometallic UO22+ complex, consistent with results from prior studies. However, unique features were observed during spectroelectrochemical studies in the presence of the K+ ion, suggesting new insights into electronic structure may be accessible with the heterobimetallic complexes. Overall, these findings suggest that interactions with Lewis acids could be effectively leveraged for rational tuning of the electronic and thermochemical properties of the 5f elements, reminiscent of strategies more commonly employed with 3d transition metals.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Lewis acid, macrocycle, uranyl

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