Commenced in January 2007
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electrochemical treatment Related Abstracts

5 Contribution of Electrochemical Treatment in Treating Textile Dye Wastewater

Authors: Usha N. Murthy, Mahaveer Devoor, H. B. Rekha


The introduction of more stringent pollution regulations, in relation to financial and social pressures for sustainable development, has pressed toward limiting the volumes of industrial and domestic effluents discharged into the environment-as well as to increase the efforts within research and development of new or more efficient wastewater treatment technologies. Considering both discharge volume and effluent composition, wastewater generated by the textile industry is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors. The pollution load is mainly due to spent dye baths, which are composed of unreacted dyes, dispersing agents, surfactants, salts and organics. In the present investigation, the textile dye wastewater was characterized by high colour, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH. Electrochemical oxidation process for four plate electrodes was carried out at five different current intensities, out of which 0.14A has achieved maximum percentage removal of COD with 75% and 83% of colour. The COD removal rate in kg COD/h/m2 decreases with increase in the current intensity. The energy consumption increases with increase in the current intensity. Hence, textile dye wastewater can be effectively pre-treated by electrochemical oxidation method where the process limits objectionable colour while leaving the COD associated with organics left for natural degradation thus causing a sustainable reduction in pollution load.

Keywords: Environmental Engineering, Colour, electrochemical treatment, COD

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4 Characteristics of a Dye-Entrapped Polypyrrole Film Prepared in the Presence of a Different Dye

Authors: M. Mominul Haque, Danny KY. Wong


In this paper, we will demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing the azo dye, Acid Red 1, in the presence of a second dye, Indigo Carmine, at conducting polypyrrole films. A long-term goal of this work is to develop an efficient and effective electrochemical treatment of textile effluents that does not yield any toxic by-products. Specifically, pyrrole was initially electrochemically oxidised in the presence of Acid Red 1 to prepare an Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole film. Next, the Acid Red 1 entrapped film was electrochemically reduced to expel the dye from the film. The film was then ready for use in removing the dye in an Acid Red 1 solution. The entrapment efficiency of the film was then studied by spectroscopically determining the change in the absorbance of the dye solution. These experiments were repeated using Indigo Carmine or a mixture of Acid Red 1 and Indigo Carmine, in place of Acid Red 1. Therefore, this has given rise to an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents. In our work, we have also studied the characteristics of Acid Red 1- and Indigo Carmine-entrapped polypyrrole films by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy.

Keywords: electrochemical treatment, polypyrrole, azo dye, Acid Red 1

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3 Estimation and Removal of Chlorophenolic Compounds from Paper Mill Waste Water by Electrochemical Treatment

Authors: C. Sharma, S. Kumar, R. Sharma


A number of toxic chlorophenolic compounds are formed during pulp bleaching. The nature and concentration of these chlorophenolic compounds largely depends upon the amount and nature of bleaching chemicals used. These compounds are highly recalcitrant and difficult to remove but are partially removed by the biochemical treatment processes adopted by the paper industry. Identification and estimation of these chlorophenolic compounds has been carried out in the primary and secondary clarified effluents from the paper mill by GCMS. Twenty-six chorophenolic compounds have been identified and estimated in paper mill waste waters. Electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for oxidation of pollutants and has successfully been used to treat textile and oil waste water. Electrochemical treatment using less expensive anode material, stainless steel electrodes has been tried to study their removal. The electrochemical assembly comprised a DC power supply, a magnetic stirrer and stainless steel (316 L) electrode. The optimization of operating conditions has been carried out and treatment has been performed under optimized treatment conditions. Results indicate that 68.7% and 83.8% of cholorphenolic compounds are removed during 2 h of electrochemical treatment from primary and secondary clarified effluent respectively. Further, there is a reduction of 65.1, 60 and 92.6% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for primary clarified and 83.8%, 75.9% and 96.8% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for secondary clarified effluent. EC treatment has also been found to increase significantly the biodegradability index of wastewater because of conversion of non- biodegradable fraction into biodegradable fraction. Thus, electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for the degradation of cholorophenolic compounds, removal of color, AOX and other recalcitrant organic matter present in paper mill waste water.

Keywords: wastewater, effluent, electrochemical treatment, chlorophenolics

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2 Role of SiOx Interlayer on Lead Oxide Electrodeposited on Stainless Steel for Promoting Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Textile Dye

Authors: Latifa Bousselmi, Hanene Akrout, Ines Elaissaoui, Sabrina Grassini, Daniele Fulginiti


The main objective of this work is to investigate the efficiency of depollution power related to PbO₂ layer deposited onto a stainless steel (SS) substrate with SiOx as interlayer. The elaborated electrode was used as anode for anodic oxidation of wastewater containing Amaranth dye, as recalcitrant organic pollutant model. SiOx interlayer was performed using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition ‘PECVD’ in plasma fed with argon, oxygen, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, Si precursor) in different ratios, onto the SS substrate. PbO₂ layer was produced by pulsed electrodeposition on SS/SiOx. The morphological of different surfaces are depicted with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and the composition of the lead oxide layer was investigated by X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that the SiOx interlayer with more rich oxygen content improved better the nucleation of β-PbO₂ form. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements undertaken on different interfaces (at optimized conditions) revealed a decrease of Rfilm while CPE film increases for SiOx interlayer, characterized by a more inorganic nature and deposited in a plasma fed by higher O2-to-TEOS ratios. Quantitative determinations of the Amaranth dye degradation rate were performed in terms of colour and COD removals, reaching a 95% and an 80% respectively removal at pH = 2 in 300 min. Results proved the improvement of the degradation wastewater containing the amaranth dye. During the electrolysis, the Amaranth dye solution was sampled at 30 min intervals and analyzed by ‘High-performance Liquid Chromatography’ HPLC. The gradual degradation of the Amaranth dye confirmed by the decrease in UV absorption using the SS/SiOx(20:20:1)/PbO₂ anode, the reaction exhibited an apparent first-order kinetic for electrolysis time of 5 hours, with an initial rate constant of about 0.02 min⁻¹.

Keywords: plasma, electrochemical treatment, COD removal, PbO₂ anodes

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1 Treatment of Leather Industry Wastewater with Advance Treatment Methods

Authors: Seval Yilmaz, Filiz Bayrakci Karel, Ali Savas Koparal


Textile products produced by leather have been indispensable for human consumption. Various chemicals are used to enhance the durability of end-products in the processing of leather products. The wastewaters from the leather industry which contain these chemicals exhibit toxic effects on the receiving environment and threaten the natural ecosystem. In this study, leather industry wastewater (LIW), which has high loads of contaminants, was treated using advanced treatment techniques instead of conventional methods. During the experiments, the performance of electrochemical methods was investigated. During the electrochemical experiments, the performance of batch electrooxidation (EO) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with monopolar configuration for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from LIW were investigated. The influences of electrolysis time, current density (which varies as 5 mA/cm², 10 mA/cm², 20 mA/cm², 30 mA/cm², 50 mA/cm²) and initial pH (which varies as 3,80 (natural pH of LIW), 7, 9) on removal efficiency were investigated in a batch stirred cell to determine the best treatment conditions. The current density applied to the electrochemical reactors is directly proportional to the consumption of electric energy, so electrical energy consumption was monitored during the experiment. The best experimental conditions obtained in electrochemical studies were as follows: electrolysis time = 60 min, current density = 30.0 mA/cm², pH 7. Using these parameters, 53.59% COD removal rates for LIW was achieved and total energy consumption was obtained as 13.03 kWh/m³. It is concluded that electrooxidation process constitutes a plausible and developable method for the treatment of LIW.

Keywords: electrochemical treatment, COD removal, BDD electrodes, leather industry wastewater

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