Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Electrocatalysts Related Abstracts

3 3D Nanostructured Assembly of 2D Transition Metal Chalcogenide/Graphene as High Performance Electrocatalysts

Authors: Vishnu V. Pillai, Sunil P. Lonkar, Saeed Alhassan

Abstract:

Design and development of highly efficient, inexpensive, and long-term stable earth-abundant electrocatalysts hold tremendous promise for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in water electrolysis. The 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, especially molybdenum disulfide attracted a great deal of interests due to its high electrocatalytic activity. However, due to its poor electrical conductivity and limited exposed active sites, the performance of these catalysts is limited. In this context, a facile and scalable synthesis method for fabrication nanostructured electrocatalysts composed 3D graphene porous aerogels supported with MoS₂ and WS₂ is highly desired. Here we developed a highly active and stable electrocatalyst catalyst for the HER by growing it into a 3D porous architecture on conducting graphene. The resulting nanohybrids were thoroughly investigated by means of several characterization techniques to understand structure and properties. Moreover, the HER performance of these 3D catalysts is expected to greatly improve in compared to other, well-known catalysts which mainly benefits from the improved electrical conductivity of the by graphene and porous structures of the support. This technologically scalable process can afford efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) and hydrodesulfurization catalysts for sulfur-rich petroleum fuels. Owing to the lower cost and higher performance, the resulting materials holds high potential for various energy and catalysis applications. In typical hydrothermal method, sonicated GO aqueous dispersion (5 mg mL⁻¹) was mixed with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) and tungsten molybdate was treated in a sealed Teflon autoclave at 200 ◦C for 4h. After cooling, a black solid macroporous hydrogel was recovered washed under running de-ionized water to remove any by products and metal ions. The obtained hydrogels were then freeze-dried for 24 h and was further subjected to thermal annealing driven crystallization at 600 ◦C for 2h to ensure complete thermal reduction of RGO into graphene and formation of highly crystalline MoS₂ and WoS₂ phases. The resulting 3D nanohybrids were characterized to understand the structure and properties. The SEM-EDS clearly reveals the formation of highly porous material with a uniform distribution of MoS₂ and WS₂ phases. In conclusion, a novice strategy for fabrication of 3D nanostructured MoS₂-WS₂/graphene is presented. The characterizations revealed that the in-situ formed promoters uniformly dispersed on to few layered MoS₂¬-WS₂ nanosheets that are well-supported on graphene surface. The resulting 3D hybrids hold high promise as potential electrocatalyst and hydrodesulfurization catalyst.

Keywords: Graphene, Electrocatalysts, transition metal chalcogenide

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2 Structural Alteration of MoS₂ by Incorporating Fe, Co Composite for an Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Sathiyan, Shanti Gopal Patra, Ronen Bar-Ziv, Tomer Zidki

Abstract:

Developing efficient non-noble metal catalysts that are cheap and durable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a great challenge. Moreover, altering the electronic structure of the catalyst and structural engineering of the materials provide a new direction for enhancing the OER. Herein, we have successfully synthesized Fe and Co incorporated MoS₂ catalysts, which show improved catalytic activity for OER when compared with MoS₂, Fe-MoS₂, and Co-MoS₂. It was found that at an optimal ratio of Fe and Co, the electronic and structural modification of MoS₂ occurs, which leads to change in orientation and thereby enhances the active catalytic sites on the edges, which are more exposed for OER. The nanocomposites have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Elemental Mapping, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. Among all, a particular ratio of FeCo-MoS₂ exhibits a much smaller onset with better catalytic current density. The remarkable catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect from the Fe and Co. Most importantly, our work provides an essential insight in altering the electronic structure of MoS₂ based materials by incorporating promoters such as Co and Fe in an optimal amount, which enhances OER activity.

Keywords: Transition Metals, Electrocatalysts, oxygen evolution reaction, molybdenum disulfide

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1 NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

Authors: Oluwaseun A. Oyetade, Roelof J. Kriek

Abstract:

The development of effective catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great importance to combat energy-related concerns in the environment. Herein, we report a one-step solvothermal method employed for the fabrication of nickel selenide hybrids (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂) and a series of nickel selenide hybrid/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT) as electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media. The catalytic activities of these catalysts were investigated via several electrochemical characterization techniques, such as linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometric studies at constant potential, electrochemical surface area determination, and Tafel slope calculation, under alkaline conditions. Morphological observations demonstrated the agglomeration of non-uniform NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ microspheres around carbon nanotubes (CNTs), demonstrating the successful synthesis of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites. Among the tested electrocatalysts, the 20% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposite demonstrated the highest activity, exhibiting an overpotential of 325 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA.cm⁻² in 0.1 mol.dm⁻³ KOH solution. The NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites showed improved activity toward OER compared to bare NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs, exhibiting an overpotential of 528, 392 and 434 mV for 10%, 30% and 50% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites, respectively. These results compare favourably to the overpotential of noble catalysts, such as RuO₂ and IrO₂. Our results imply that the addition of MWCNTs increased the activity of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids due to an increased number of catalytic sites, dispersion of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrid nanoparticles, and electronic conductivity of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites also demonstrated better long-term stability compared to NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs. Hence, NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites possess the potential as effective electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Carbon Nanotubes, Electrocatalysts, oxygen evolution reaction, nickel selenide hybrids

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