Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Electrical Related Abstracts

7 Urgent Need for E -Waste Management in Mongolia

Authors: Enkhjargal Bat-Ochir

Abstract:

The global market of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has increasing rapidly while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. So, e-waste is becoming the world’s fastest growing waste stream. E-waste is a huge problem when it’s not properly disposed of, as these devices contain substances that are harmful to the environment and to human health as they contaminate the land, water, and air. This paper tends to highlight e-waste problem and harmful effects and can grasp the extent of the problem and take the necessary measures to solve it in Mongolia and to improve standards and human health.

Keywords: Electrical, recycle, e -waste, Mongolia

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6 Development of Composite Material for Thermal and Electrical Insulation

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

Recycling has been greatly stimulated by the market. There are already several products that are produced with recycled materials and various wastes have been studied in various forms of applications. The vast majority of insulation applications in domestic, commercial and industrial systems in the range of low and medium temperatures (up to 180 ° C), using the aggressive nature materials such as glass wool, rock wool, polyurethane, polystyrene. Such materials, while retaining the effectiveness of the heat flux, are disposed as expensive and take years too absorbed by nature. Thus, trying to adapt to a global policy on the preservation of the environment, a study in order to develop an insulating compound of natural / industrial waste and biodegradable materials conducted. Thus, this research presents the development of a composite material based zest tire and latex for thermal and electrical insulation.

Keywords: Electrical, Composite, insulation, latex, scrapes tire

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5 A New Model to Perform Preliminary Evaluations of Complex Systems for the Production of Energy for Buildings: Case Study

Authors: Roberto De Lieto Vollaro, Emanuele de Lieto Vollaro, Gianluca Coltrinari

Abstract:

The building sector is responsible, in many industrialized countries, for about 40% of the total energy requirements, so it seems necessary to devote some efforts in this area in order to achieve a significant reduction of energy consumption and of greenhouse gases emissions. The paper presents a study aiming at providing a design methodology able to identify the best configuration of the system building/plant, from a technical, economic and environmentally point of view. Normally, the classical approach involves a building's energy loads analysis under steady state conditions, and subsequent selection of measures aimed at improving the energy performance, based on previous experience made by architects and engineers in the design team. Instead, the proposed approach uses a sequence of two well known scientifically validated calculation methods (TRNSYS and RETScreen), that allow quite a detailed feasibility analysis. To assess the validity of the calculation model, an existing, historical building in Central Italy, that will be the object of restoration and preservative redevelopment, was selected as a case-study. The building is made of a basement and three floors, with a total floor area of about 3,000 square meters. The first step has been the determination of the heating and cooling energy loads of the building in a dynamic regime by means of TRNSYS, which allows to simulate the real energy needs of the building in function of its use. Traditional methodologies, based as they are on steady-state conditions, cannot faithfully reproduce the effects of varying climatic conditions and of inertial properties of the structure. With TRNSYS it is possible to obtain quite accurate and reliable results, that allow to identify effective combinations building-HVAC system. The second step has consisted of using output data obtained with TRNSYS as input to the calculation model RETScreen, which enables to compare different system configurations from the energy, environmental and financial point of view, with an analysis of investment, and operation and maintenance costs, so allowing to determine the economic benefit of possible interventions. The classical methodology often leads to the choice of conventional plant systems, while RETScreen provides a financial-economic assessment for innovative energy systems and low environmental impact. Computational analysis can help in the design phase, particularly in the case of complex structures with centralized plant systems, by comparing the data returned by the calculation model RETScreen for different design options. For example, the analysis performed on the building, taken as a case study, found that the most suitable plant solution, taking into account technical, economic and environmental aspects, is the one based on a CCHP system (Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power) using an internal combustion engine.

Keywords: Energy, Electrical, Building, System, Cooling

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4 Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of a Functionally Graded Micro-Beam under a Step DC Voltage

Authors: Ali Raheli, Rahim Habibifar, Behzad Mohammadi-Alasti, Mahdi Abbasgholipour

Abstract:

This paper presents vibration behavior of a FGM micro-beam and its pull-in instability under a nonlinear electrostatic pressure. An exponential function has been applied to show the continuous gradation of the properties along thickness. Nonlinear integro-differential-electro-mechanical equation based on Euler–Bernoulli beam theory has been derived. The governing equation in the static analysis has been solved using Step-by-Step Linearization Method and Finite Difference Method. Fixed points or equilibrium positions and singular points have been shown in the state control space. In order to find the response to a step DC voltage, the nonlinear equation of motion has been solved using Galerkin-based reduced-order model and time histories and phase portrait for different applied voltages have been shown. The effects of electrostatic pressure on stability of FGM micro-beams having various amounts of the ceramic constituent have been investigated.

Keywords: Electrical, MEMS, Nonlinear Vibration, FGM, dynamic pull-in voltage

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3 Energy Savings with the Use of LED Lights at the Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Kishen Prathivadi

Abstract:

The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) is a Joint Powers Authority formed in 1976 and provides secondary wastewater treatment to an average flow of 2.0 million gallons per day. SAM owns and operates a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and a sanitary sewage collection system that collects sewage from its three member agencies: the City of Half Moon Bay, the Granada Community Services District and Montara Water and Sanitary District. The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) partnered with Pacific Gas & Electric, and its contractor GEL America, to review and replace all inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs at the SAM treatment plant and administrative office. The project focused on replacing old and inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs, reducing annual operating and maintenance costs, and reducing SAM’s carbon footprint. The project resulted in a 55% overall energy reduction, higher light quality and acuity, and a total operational savings of $495,000 over ten years.

Keywords: Electrical, Lighting, LED, Energy Savings

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2 Design Optimization of a Compact Quadrupole Electromagnet for CLS 2.0

Authors: W. J. Zhang, Md. Armin Islam, Les Dallin, Mark Boland

Abstract:

This paper reports a study on the optimal magnetic design of a compact quadrupole electromagnet for the Canadian Light Source (CLS 2.0). The nature of the design is to determine a quadrupole with low relative higher order harmonics and better field quality. The design problem was formulated as an optimization model, in which the objective function is the higher order harmonics (multipole errors) and the variable to be optimized is the material distribution on the pole. The higher order harmonics arose in the quadrupole due to truncating the ideal hyperbola at a certain point to make the pole. In this project, the arisen harmonics have been optimized both transversely and longitudinally by adjusting material on the poles in a controlled way. For optimization, finite element analysis (FEA) has been conducted. A better higher order harmonics amplitudes and field quality have been achieved through the optimization. On the basis of the optimized magnetic design, electrical and cooling calculation has been performed for the magnet.

Keywords: Electrical, drift, quadrupole, and cooling calculation, integrated field, magnetic field gradient, multipole errors

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1 A Preliminary Geophysical Assessment of Soil Contaminants around Wacot Rice Factory Argungu, North-Western Nigeria Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Method

Authors: Augie A.I., Alhassan Y., Ologe O., Gado A.A.

Abstract:

Geophysical Investigation was carried out at WACOT rice factory Argungu of North Western Nigeria, using Electrical resistivity method.The area falls between latitude 12˚44′23ʺN and 12˚44′50ʺN and longitude 4032′18′′E to 4032′39′′E covering a total area of about 1.85 Km. The data obtained from the study area was modelled using RES2DIVN software which gave an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity data. Inverse resistivity models of the profiles show the high resistivity values ranging from 208Ωm to 651Ωm which is an indication that the area is free from leachate contaminations. However, also from the inverse sections there are regions of low resistivity values (1Ωm to 18Ωm) which were observed and identified as most contaminated zones in all the geologic sectionsthat were derived from the inverse modelsof the study area. These regions of low resistivity are thereby indicated the leachate plume or the highly leachate concentrated zone due to similar resistivity values in both clayey and leachate. The regions of leachate are mainly from the factory into the surrounding area and groundwater. The maximum leachate infiltration was estimated at depth 1m to 15.9m (P1) and 6m to 15.9m (P2) vertically. Also, along the profiles from 67m to 75m (P1), 155m to 180m (P1) and 115m to 192m (P2) laterally.

Keywords: Electrical, Groundwater, Soil, Leachate, resistivity, contaminant

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