Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Electric Vehicle Related Abstracts

25 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud

Abstract:

Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: packaging, Electric Vehicle, vanadium, redox flow battery

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24 Retrofitted Semi-Active Suspension System for a Eelectric Model Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh

Abstract:

A 40 steps manual adjusting shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system for a four-wheel drive electric vehicle. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. A fuzzy logic controller was designed to derive appropriate damping target based on vehicle running condition for semi-active suspension system to follow. The damping ratio control of each wheel axis suspension system is executed with a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC). Different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, accelerometer, semi-active suspension, fuzzy sliding mode control

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23 Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Fleet of Conventional and Heterogenous Electric Vehicles and Time Dependent Charging Costs

Authors: Ons Sassi, Wahiba Ramdane Cherif-Khettaf, Ammar Oulamara

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a new real-life Heterogenous Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Dependant Charging Costs and a Mixed Fleet (HEVRP-TDMF), in which a set of geographically scattered customers have to be served by a mixed fleet of vehicles composed of a heterogenous fleet of Electric Vehicles (EVs), having different battery capacities and operating costs, and Conventional Vehicles (CVs). We include the possibility of charging EVs in the available charging stations during the routes in order to serve all customers. Each charging station offers charging service with a known technology of chargers and time-dependent charging costs. Charging stations are also subject to operating time windows constraints. EVs are not necessarily compatible with all available charging technologies and a partial charging is allowed. Intermittent charging at the depot is also allowed provided that constraints related to the electricity grid are satisfied. The objective is to minimize the number of employed vehicles and then minimize the total travel and charging costs. In this study, we present a Mixed Integer Programming Model and develop a Charging Routing Heuristic and a Local Search Heuristic based on the Inject-Eject routine with three different insertion strategies. All heuristics are tested on real data instances.

Keywords: Optimization, Electric Vehicle, Heuristics, Routing Problem, local search, charging problem

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22 Solar Powered Front Wheel Drive (FWD) Electric Trike: An Innovation

Authors: Michael C. Barbecho, Romeo B. Morcilla

Abstract:

This study focused on the development of a solar powered front wheel drive electric trike for personal use and short distance travel, utilizing solar power and a variable speed transmission to adapt in places where varying road grades and unavailability of plug-in charging stations are of great problems. The actual performance of the vehicle was measured in terms of duration of charging using solar power, distance travel and battery power duration, top speed developed at full power, and load capacity. This project followed the research and development process which involved planning, designing, construction, and testing. Solar charging tests revealed that the vehicle requires 6 to 8 hours sunlight exposure to fully charge the batteries. At full charge, the vehicle can travel 35 km utilizing battery power down to 42%. Vehicle showed top speed of 25 kph at 0 to 3% road grade carrying a maximum load of 122 kg. The maximum climbing grade was 23% with the vehicle carrying a maximum load of 122 kg. Technically the project was feasible and can be a potential model for possible conversion of traditional Philippine made “pedicabs” and gasoline engine powered tricycle into modern electric vehicles. Moreover, it has several technical features and advantages over a commercialized electric vehicle such as the use solar charging system and variable speed power transmission and front drive power train for adaptability in any road gradient.

Keywords: solar power, Electric Vehicle, Solar, solar vehicles, front drive

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21 MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking

Authors: Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control) method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Model Predictive Control, Sliding Mode Control, integral action, slip suppression

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20 Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Bambang Ariantara, Nandy Putra, Rangga Aji Pamungkas

Abstract:

The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gives the best performance that produces the thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm2.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Lithium-Ion Battery, flat-plate loop heat pipe, thermal management system

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19 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

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18 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Zahid Ullah, Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, zero voltage switching, PWM FB converter, circulating energy

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17 Modeling Battery Degradation for Electric Buses: Assessment of Lifespan Reduction from In-Depot Charging

Authors: Curran Crawford, Anaissia Franca, Julian Fernandez, Ned Djilali

Abstract:

A methodology to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of battery electric buses, including degradation effects, for a given driving cycle is presented to support long-term techno-economic analysis integrating electric buses and charging infrastructure. The degradation mechanisms, characterized by both capacity and power fade with time, have been modeled using an electrochemical model for Li-ion batteries. Iterative changes in the negative electrode film resistance and decrease in available lithium as a function of utilization is simulated for every cycle. The cycles are formulated to follow typical transit bus driving patterns. The power and capacity decay resulting from the degradation model are introduced as inputs to a longitudinal chassis dynamic analysis that calculates the power consumption of the bus for a given driving cycle to find the state-of-charge of the battery as a function of time. The method is applied to an in-depot charging scenario, for which the bus is charged exclusively at the depot, overnight and to its full capacity. This scenario is run both with and without including degradation effects over time to illustrate the significant impact of degradation mechanisms on bus performance when doing feasibility studies for a fleet of electric buses. The impact of battery degradation on battery lifetime is also assessed. The modeling tool can be further used to optimize component sizing and charging locations for electric bus deployment projects.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Lithium-Ion Battery, battery electric bus, E-bus, in-depot charging, battery degradation, capacity fade, power fade, SEI, electrochemical models

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16 Energy Consumption Models for Electric Vehicles: Survey and Proposal of a More Realistic Model

Authors: I. Sagaama, A. Kechiche, W. Trojet, F. Kamoun

Abstract:

Replacing combustion engine vehicles by electric vehicles (EVs) is a major step in recent years due to their potential benefits. Battery autonomy and charging processes are still a big issue for that kind of vehicles. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption of electric vehicles becomes a necessity. Many researches target introducing recent information and communication technologies in EVs in order to propose reducing energy consumption services. Evaluation of realistic scenarios is a big challenge nowadays. In this paper, we will elaborate a state of the art of different proposed energy consumption models in the literature, then we will present a comparative study of these models, finally, we will extend previous works in order to propose an accurate and realistic energy model for calculating instantaneous power consumption of electric vehicles.

Keywords: Vehicular Networks, Electric Vehicle, Traffic Simulation, energy models

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15 Designing Ecologically and Economically Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Authors: Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal

Abstract:

The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing worldwide. Replacing gas fueled cars with EVs reduces carbon emission. However, the extensive energy consumption of EVs stresses the energy systems, requiring non-green sources of energy (such as gas turbines) to compensate for the new energy demand caused by EVs in the energy systems. To make EVs even a greener solution for the future energy systems, new EV charging stations are equipped with solar PV panels and batteries. This will help serve the energy demand of EVs through the green energy of solar panels. To ensure energy availability, solar panels are combined with batteries. The energy surplus at any point is stored in batteries and is used when there is not enough solar energy to serve the demand. While EV charging stations equipped with solar panels and batteries are green and ecologically optimal, they might not be financially viable solutions, due to battery prices. To make the system viable, we should size the battery economically and operate the system optimally. This is, in general, a challenging problem because of the stochastic nature of the EV arrivals at the charging station, the available solar energy, and the battery operating system. In this work, we provide a mathematical model for this problem and we compute the return on investment (ROI) of such a system, which is designed to be ecologically and financially optimal. We also quantify the minimum required investment in terms of battery and solar panels along with the operating strategy to ensure that a charging station has enough energy to serve its EV demand at any time.

Keywords: Solar energy, Electric Vehicle, Battery Storage, charging stations

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14 A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology

Authors: Mahdi Zolfaghari, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh, Mehrdad Abedi

Abstract:

This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.

Keywords: Power Quality, Electric Vehicle, Model Predictive Control, V2G technology, virtual active power filter

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13 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari

Abstract:

The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: Design, Electric Vehicle, Manufacture, trolley bus, electric propulsion system

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12 Slip Suppression Sliding Mode Control with Various Chattering Functions

Authors: Tohru Kawabe, Shun Horikoshi

Abstract:

This study presents performance analysis results of SMC (Sliding mode control) with changing the chattering functions applied to slip suppression problem of electric vehicles (EVs). In SMC, chattering phenomenon always occurs through high frequency switching of the control inputs. It is undesirable phenomenon and degrade the control performance, since it causes the oscillations of the control inputs. Several studies have been conducted on this problem by introducing some general saturation function. However, study about whether saturation function was really best and the performance analysis when using the other functions, weren’t being done so much. Therefore, in this paper, several candidate functions for SMC are selected and control performance of candidate functions is analyzed. In the analysis, evaluation function based on the trade-off between slip suppression performance and chattering reduction performance is proposed. The analyses are conducted in several numerical simulations of slip suppression problem of EVs. Then, we can see that there is no difference of employed candidate functions in chattering reduction performance. On the other hand, in slip suppression performance, the saturation function is excellent overall. So, we conclude the saturation function is most suitable for slip suppression sliding mode control.

Keywords: Performance Analysis, Electric Vehicle, Sliding Mode Control, slip suppression, chattering function

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11 The Role of Car Dealerships in Promoting Electric Vehicles: Covert Participatory Observations of Car Dealerships in Sweden

Authors: Anne Y. Faxer, Ellen Olausson, Jens Hagman, Ana Magazinius, Jenny J. Stier, Tommy Fransson, Oscar Enerback

Abstract:

While electric vehicles (both battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids) have been on the market for around 6 years, they are still far from mainstream and the knowledge of them is still low among the public. This is likely one of the reasons that Sweden, having one of the highest penetrations of electric vehicles in Europe, still has a long way to go in reaching a fossil free vehicle fleet. Car dealerships are an important medium that connects consumers to vehicles, but somehow, their role in introducing electric vehicles has not yet been thoroughly studied. Research from other domains shows that salespeople can affect customer decisions in their choice of products. The aim of this study is to explore the role of car dealerships when it comes to promoting electric vehicles. The long-term goal is to understand how they could be a key in the effort of achieving a mass introduction of electric vehicles in Sweden. By emulating the customer’s experience, this study investigates the interaction between car salespeople and customers, particularly examining whether they present electric vehicles as viable options. Covert participatory observations were conducted for data collection from four different brands at in total twelve car dealers. The observers worked in pairs and played the role of a customer with needs that could be matched by an electric vehicle. The data was summarized in observation protocols and analyzed using thematic coding. The result shows that only one of twelve salespeople offered an electric vehicle as the first option. When environmental factors were brought up by the observers, the salespeople followed up with lower fuel consumption internal combustion engine vehicles rather than suggesting an electric vehicle. All salespeople possessed at least basic knowledge about electric vehicles but their interest of selling them were low in most cases. One of the reasons could be that the price of electric vehicles is usually higher. This could be inferred from the finding that salespeople tend to have a strong focus on price and economy in their dialogues with customers, regardless which type of car they were selling. In conclusion, the study suggests that car salespeople have the potential to help the market to achieve mass introduction of electric vehicles; however, their potential needs to be exploited further. To encourage salespeople to prioritize electric vehicles in the sales process, right incentives need to be in place.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, market penetration, customer perspective, car dealerships, covert participatory observation

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10 Investigating the Algorithm to Maintain a Constant Speed in the Wankel Engine

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Adam Majczak, Zbigniew Czyz, Michał Bialy

Abstract:

Increasingly stringent emission standards for passenger cars require us to find alternative drives. The share of electric vehicles in the sale of new cars increases every year. However, their performance and, above all, range cannot be today successfully compared to those of cars with a traditional internal combustion engine. Battery recharging lasts hours, which can be hardly accepted due to the time needed to refill a fuel tank. Therefore, the ways to reduce the adverse features of cars equipped with electric motors only are searched for. One of the methods is a combination of an electric engine as a main source of power and a small internal combustion engine as an electricity generator. This type of drive enables an electric vehicle to achieve a radically increased range and low emissions of toxic substances. For several years, the leading automotive manufacturers like the Mazda and the Audi together with the best companies in the automotive industry, e.g., AVL have developed some electric drive systems capable of recharging themselves while driving, known as a range extender. An electricity generator is powered by a Wankel engine that has seemed to pass into history. This low weight and small engine with a rotating piston and a very low vibration level turned out to be an excellent source in such applications. Its operation as an energy source for a generator almost entirely eliminates its disadvantages like high fuel consumption, high emission of toxic substances, or short lifetime typical of its traditional application. The operation of the engine at a constant rotational speed enables a significant increase in its lifetime, and its small external dimensions enable us to make compact modules to drive even small urban cars like the Audi A1 or the Mazda 2. The algorithm to maintain a constant speed was investigated on the engine dynamometer with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring apparatus. The research object was the Aixro XR50 rotary engine with the electronic power supply developed at the Lublin University of Technology. The load torque of the engine was altered during the research by means of the eddy current brake capable of giving any number of load cycles. The parameters recorded included speed and torque as well as a position of a throttle in an inlet system. Increasing and decreasing load did not significantly change engine speed, which means that control algorithm parameters are correctly selected. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, power generator, range extender, Wankel engine

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9 Practical Model of Regenerative Braking Using DC Machine and Boost Converter

Authors: Amit Kumar, Shah Krupa Rajendra

Abstract:

Increasing use of traditional vehicles driven by internal combustion engine is responsible for the environmental pollution. Further, it leads to depletion of limited energy resources. Therefore, it is required to explore alternative energy sources for the transportation. The promising solution is to use electric vehicle. However, it suffers from limited driving range. Regenerative braking increases the range of the electric vehicle to a certain extent. In this paper, a novel methodology utilizing regenerative braking is described. The model comprising of DC machine, feedback based boost converter and micro-controller is proposed. The suggested method is very simple and reliable. The proposed model successfully shows the energy being saved into during regenerative braking process.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, boost converter, regenerative braking, DC machine, micro-controller

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8 Proposed Control Strategy for Bi-Machine Single-Inverter System Used in Electric Vehicles

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani, N. Aouadj, M. Khalfaoui

Abstract:

Based on the analysis of basic direct torque control, a parallel master slave for four in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) fed by two three phase inverters used in electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. A conventional system with multi-inverter and multi-machine comprises a three phase inverter for each machine to be controlled. Another approach consists in using only one three-phase inverter to supply several permanent magnet synchronous machines. A modified direct torque control (DTC) algorithm is used for the control of the bi-machine traction system. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy is well adapted for the synchronism of this system and provide good speed tracking performance.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, multi-machine single-inverter system, multi-machine multi-inverter control, in-wheel motor, master-slave control

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7 Modelling and Technical Assessment of Multi-Motor for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains by Using Electric Differential

Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Monem, Gamal Sowilam, Omar Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a technical assessment of an electric vehicle with two independent rear-wheel motor and an improved traction control system. The electric differential and the control strategy have been implemented to assure that in a straight trajectory, the two rear-wheels run exactly at the same speed, considering the same/different road conditions under the left and right side of the wheels. In case of turning to right/left, the difference between the two rear-wheels speeds assures a vehicle trajectory without sliding, thanks to a harmony between the electric differential and the control strategy. The present article demonstrates a complete model and analysis of a traction control system, considering four different traction scenarios, for two independent rear-wheels motors for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the vehicle model, including wheel dynamics, load forces, electric differential, and control strategy, is designed and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Electric Vehicle, Simulation and Control, multi-motor, electric differential

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6 Improvement of Ride Comfort of Turning Electric Vehicle Using Optimal Speed Control

Authors: Tohru Kawabe, Yingyi Zhou

Abstract:

With the spread of EVs (electric Vehicles), the ride comfort has been gaining a lot of attention. The influence of the lateral acceleration is important for the improvement of ride comfort of EVs as well as the longitudinal acceleration, especially upon turning of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a practical optimal speed control method to greatly improve the ride comfort in the vehicle turning situation. For consturcting this method, effective criteria that can appropriately evaluate deterioration of ride comfort is derived. The method can reduce the influence of both the longitudinal and the lateral speed changes for providing a confortable ride. From several simulation results, we can see the fact that the method can prevent aggravation of the ride comfort by suppressing the influence of longitudinal speed change in the turning situation. Hence, the effectiveness of the method is recognized.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Speed Control, ride comfort, optimal control theory, driving support system

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5 Experimental Analysis of Control in Electric Vehicle Charging Station Based Grid Tied Photovoltaic-Battery System

Authors: M. Khafallah, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba, A. Hassoune

Abstract:

This work presents an improved strategy of control for charging a lithium-ion battery in an electric vehicle charging station using two charger topologies i.e. single ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) and forward converter. In terms of rapidity and accuracy, the power system consists of a topology/control diagram that would overcome the performance constraints, for instance the power instability, the battery overloading and how the energy conversion blocks would react efficiently to any kind of perturbations. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed topologies operated with a power management algorithm based on voltage/peak current mode controls. In order to provide credible findings, a low power prototype is developed to test the control strategy via experimental evaluations of the converter topology and its controls.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Experimental Analysis, battery storage buffer, charging station, management algorithm, switches control

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4 Low-Voltage Multiphase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Mengesha Mamo Wogari

Abstract:

In this paper, low voltage multiphase brushless DC motor with square wave air-gap flux distribution for electric vehicle application is proposed. Ten-phase, 5 kW motor, has been designed and simulated by finite element methods demonstrating the desired high torque capability at low speed and flux weakening operation for high-speed operations. The motor torque is proportional to number of phases for a constant phase current and air-gap flux. The concept of vector control and simple space vector modulation technique is used on MATLAB to control the motor demonstrating simple switching pattern for selected number of phases. The low voltage DC and inverter output AC are desired characteristics to avoid any electric shock in the vehicle, accidentally and during abnormal conditions. The switching devices for inverter are of low-voltage rating and cost effective though their number is equal to twice the number of phases.

Keywords: Finite element methods, Electric Vehicle, brushless dc motors, multiphase, Low-voltage inverter

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3 Design and Development of Tandem Dynamometer for Testing and Validation of Motor Performance Parameters

Authors: Vedansh More, Lalatendu Bal, Ronak Panchal, Atharva Kulkarni

Abstract:

The project aims at developing a cost-effective test bench capable of testing and validating the complete powertrain package of an electric vehicle. Emrax 228 high voltage synchronous motor was selected as the prime mover for study. A tandem type dynamometer comprising of two loading methods; inertial, using standard inertia rollers and absorptive, using a separately excited DC generator with resistive coils was developed. The absorptive loading of the prime mover was achieved by implementing a converter circuit through which duty of the input field voltage level was controlled. This control was efficacious in changing the magnetic flux and hence the generated voltage which was ultimately dropped across resistive coils assembled in a load bank with all parallel configuration. The prime mover and loading elements were connected via a chain drive with a 2:1 reduction ratio which allows flexibility in placement of components and a relaxed rating of the DC generator. The development will aid in determination of essential characteristics like torque-RPM, power-RPM, torque factor, RPM factor, heat loads of devices and battery pack state of charge efficiency but also provides a significant financial advantage over existing versions of dynamometers with its cost-effective solution.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Powertrain, pulse width modulation, DC generator, reduction ratio, absorptive load, chain drive, chordal action, dynamometer, inertia rollers, load bank, road load, testbench

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2 Aggregation of Electric Vehicles for Emergency Frequency Regulation of Two-Area Interconnected Grid

Authors: S. Agheb, G. Ledwich, G.Walker, Z.Tong

Abstract:

Frequency control has become more of concern for reliable operation of interconnected power systems due to the integration of low inertia renewable energy sources to the grid and their volatility. Also, in case of a sudden fault, the system has less time to recover before widespread blackouts. Electric Vehicles (EV)s have the potential to cooperate in the Emergency Frequency Regulation (EFR) by a nonlinear control of the power system in case of large disturbances. The time is not adequate to communicate with each individual EV on emergency cases, and thus, an aggregate model is necessary for a quick response to prevent from much frequency deviation and the occurrence of any blackout. In this work, an aggregate of EVs is modelled as a big virtual battery in each area considering various aspects of uncertainty such as the number of connected EVs and their initial State of Charge (SOC) as stochastic variables. A control law was proposed and applied to the aggregate model using Lyapunov energy function to maximize the rate of reduction of total kinetic energy in a two-area network after the occurrence of a fault. The control methods are primarily based on the charging/ discharging control of available EVs as shunt capacity in the distribution system. Three different cases were studied considering the locational aspect of the model with the virtual EV either in the center of the two areas or in the corners. The simulation results showed that EVs could help the generator lose its kinetic energy in a short time after a contingency. Earlier estimation of possible contributions of EVs can help the supervisory control level to transmit a prompt control signal to the subsystems such as the aggregator agents and the grid. Thus, the percentage of EVs contribution for EFR will be characterized in the future as the goal of this study.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, aggregation, emergency frequency regulation, Lyapunov energy function

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1 A Novel Multi-Objective Park and Ride Control Scheme Using Renewable Energy Sources: Cairo Case Study

Authors: Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy Elsayed Abouzeid, Tomonobu Senjyu

Abstract:

A novel multi-objective park and ride control approach is presented in this research. Park and ride will encourage the owners of the vehicles to leave their cars in the nearest points (on the edges of the crowded cities) and use public transportation facilities (train, bus, metro, or mon-rail) to reach their work inside the crowded city. The proposed control scheme is used to design electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) to charge 1000 electric vehicles (EV) during their owners' work time. Cairo, Egypt is used as a case study. Photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) are used to meet the EVCS demand. Two multi-objective optimization techniques (MOGA and epsilon-MOGA) are utilized to get the optimal sizes of PV and BESS so as to meet the load demand and minimize the total life cycle cost. Detailed analysis and comparison are held to investigate the performance of the proposed control scheme using MATLAB.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Photovoltaic, multi-objective, Battery Energy Storage System, Park and Ride

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