Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Elderly Related Abstracts

67 Relationship between Static Balance and Body Characteristics in the Elderly

Authors: J. W. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, Y. J. Ho, H. M. Jeon, G. M. Eom


The aim of this study was to investigate the association of anthropometry with static balance in the elderly and their possible gender difference. Forty six subjects (23 men and 23 women) participated in this study. COP (Center of Pressure) was measured on a force-platform during quiet feet-together standing. As outcome measures, mean distance were derived from the COP. Weight was significantly correlated with postural variable only in the elderly men. This result suggests that the gender should be considered when normalizing postural variables.

Keywords: Elderly, body characteristics, postural balance, gender difference

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66 Effects of Listening to Pleasant Thai Classical Music on Increasing Working Memory in Elderly: An Electroencephalogram Study

Authors: Anchana Julsiri, Seree Chadcham


The present study determined the effects of listening to pleasant Thai classical music on increasing working memory in elderly. Thai classical music without lyrics that made participants feel fun and aroused was used in the experiment for 3.19-5.40 minutes. The accuracy scores of Counting Span Task (CST), upper alpha ERD%, and theta ERS% were used to assess working memory of participants both before and after listening to pleasant Thai classical music. The results showed that the accuracy scores of CST and upper alpha ERD% in the frontal area of participants after listening to Thai classical music were significantly higher than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05). Theta ERS% in the fronto-parietal network of participants after listening to Thai classical music was significantly lower than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05).

Keywords: Working memory, Elderly, brain wave, pleasant Thai classical music

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65 The Relationship between Exercise Attitude and Performance with Self-Image in Elderly Men in Iran

Authors: Hadis Mahmoodsalehi, Elham Shakoor, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi


Background and aims: Given the importance of health promotion in elderly and attention to health factors including physical activity and self-image reinforcing, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between exercise attitude and performance with self-image concept in elderly men. Methods: In this descriptive–correlational study, 50 different daily exercise activities of the elderly men living in Iran (mean age: 60.94 years) were selected through simple sampling method. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding exercise attitude and performance and Beck self-image concept. Pearson correlation test was used for analysis of the data. Results: The results showed the significant correlation between optimism and exercise performance (p = 0.012) and exercise attitude (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Findings show that exercise performance and attitude are associated positively with optimism in elderly women. So, increasing exercise or improving attitude toward exercise can lead to improving optimism.

Keywords: Elderly, exercise performance and attitude, self-image, descriptive–correlational study

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64 The Application of Rhizophora Wood to Design a Walking Stick for Elderly

Authors: Noppadon Sangwalpetch


The objective of this research is to use Rhizophora wood to design a walking stick for elderly by applying its properties on strength and toughness. The research was conducted by studying the behavior and the type of walking sticks used by 70 elderly aged between 60-80 years in Pragnamdaeng Sub-District, Ampawa District, Samudsongkram Province. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were calculated to find percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1) most elderly use walking sticks due to the Osteoarthritis of the knees. 2) Most elderly need to use walking sticks because the walking sticks help to balance their positioning and prevent from stumble. 3) Most elderly agree that Rhizophora wood is suitable to make a walking stick because of its strength and toughness. In addition, it is a local plant which is available and cheap. 4) The design of the walking stick should be fine and practical with comfortable handle and the tip of the stick must not be slippery.

Keywords: Visual Arts, Elderly, rhizophora wood, the design of a walking stick

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63 Development and Mineral Profile Analysis of Fruit, Vegetable and Wild Herb Based Juices to Be Consumed in Elderly Centres in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Mkhize Xolile, Davies Theopheluis


The purpose of the study was to develop a variety of fruit, vegetable and indigenous wild herb (amaranth) based juices, which can increase mineral consumption (of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Zn). Ten samples of juice varieties were developed. The concentration range for the standards was between 10 and 150 ppm. Standards and samples were analysed using Perkin Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the AAnalyst 400 model was used. The indigenous herb based juice was the most nutritious than all the other varieties developed. Mg and Fe could contribute significantly in improving cardio vascular health, bone functionality and immunity of elderly.

Keywords: Minerals, Hypertension, Intervention, Elderly, juice

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62 Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Elderly Population

Authors: Ajit Kumar Sah, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Phoolgen Sah, Dev Kumar Shah


Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM) prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department. Beers’ criteria are the most widely used tools to assess PIM to elderly patients. Prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD) of a hospital of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2011 to October 2012 to 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) in elderly patients was analyzed using Beers Criteria updated to 2013. In the 869 patients included the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%), amlodipine (23.16%), paracetamol (17.6%), salbutamol (15.72%) and vitamin B complex (13.26%). The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with a number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health-related outcomes in these elderly.

Keywords: Elderly, Polypharmacy, Beers criteria, potentially inappropriate medicines

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61 The Coexistence of Dual Form of Malnutrition among Portuguese Institutionalized Elderly People

Authors: C. Caçador, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, M. J. Veiga, M. Teixeira Veríssimo, F. Ramos, M. C. Castilho, E. Teixeira-Lemos


In the present study we evaluated the nutritional status of 214 institutionalized elderly residents of both genders, aged 65 years and older of 11 care homes located in the district of Viseu (center of Portugal). The evaluation was based on anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. The mean age of the subjects was 82.3 ± 6.1 years-old. Most of the elderly residents were female (72.0%). The majority had 4 years of formal education (51.9%) and was widowed (74.3%) or married (14.0%). Men presented a mean age of 81.2±8.5 years-old, weight 69.3±14.5 kg and BMI 25.33±6.5 kg/m2. In women, the mean age was 84.5±8.2 years-old, weight 61.2±14.7 kg and BMI 27.43±5.6 kg/m2. The evaluation of the nutritional status using the MNA score showed that 24.0% of the residents show a risk of undernutrition and 76.0% of them were well nourished. There was a high prevalence of obese (24.8%) and overweight residents (33.2%) according to the BMI. 7.5% were considered underweight. We also found that according to their waist circumference measurements 88.3% of the residents were at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 64.0% of them presented very high risk for CVD (WC≥88 cm for women and WC ≥102 cm for men). The present study revealed the coexistence of a dual form of malnutrition (undernourished and overweight) among the institutionalized Portuguese concomitantly with an excess of abdominal adiposity. The high prevalence of residents at high risk for CVD should not be overlooked. Given the vulnerability of the group of institutionalized elderly, our study highlights the importance of the classification of nutritional status based on both instruments: the BMI and the MNA.

Keywords: Elderly, BMI, nutritional satus, MNA

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60 Forms of Promoting and Disseminating Traditional Local Wisdom to Create Occupations among the Elderly in Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Doong District, Udonthani Province

Authors: Pennapa Palapin


This research sought to study the traditional local wisdom and study the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom in order to find the forms of promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly at Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Dung District, UdonThani Province. The criterion used to select the research sample group was, being a person having a role involved in the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly at Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Dung District, UdonThani Province; being an experienced person whom the residents of Nonmueng Community find trustworthy; and having lived in Nonmueng Community for a long time so as to be able to see the development and change that occurs. A total of 16 people were selected. Data was gathered as a qualitative study, through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The collected data was then summarised and discussed according to the research objectives. Finally, the data was presented in a narrative format. Results found that the identifying traditional local wisdom of the community (which grew from the residents’ experience and beneficial usage in daily life, passed down from generation to generation) was the weaving of cloth and basketry. As for the manner of promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom, the skills were passed down through teaching by example to family members, relatives and others in the community. This was done by the elders or elderly members of the community. For the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly, the traditional local wisdom should be supported in every way through participation of the community members. For example, establish a museum of traditional local wisdom for the collection of traditional local wisdom in various fields, both in the past and at present. This would be a source of pride for the community, in order to make traditional local wisdom widely known and to create income for the community’s elderly. Additional ways include exhibitions of products made by traditional local wisdom, finding both domestic and international markets, as well as building both domestic and international networks aiming to find opportunities to market products made by traditional local wisdom.

Keywords: Community, Elderly, occupation, traditional local wisdom

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59 An Assessment of Tai Chi Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Vietnamese Older Adults

Authors: Hung Manh Nguyen, Duong Dai Nguyen


Objective: To evaluate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on cognitive performance of community-dwelling elderly in Vinh city, Vietnam. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Participants: One hundred and two subjected were recruited. Intervention: Subjects were divided randomly into two groups. Tai Chi group was assigned 6-months Tai Chi training. Control group was instructed to maintain their routine daily activities. Outcome measures: Trail Making Test (TMT) is primary outcome measure. Results: Participants in Tai Chi group reported significant improvement in TMT (part A) F(1, 71) = 78.37, p < .001, and in TMT (part B) F(1, 71)= 175.00, p < .001 in comparison with Control group. Conclusion: Tai Chi is beneficial to improve cognitive performance of the elderly.

Keywords: Cognitive, Elderly, tai chi, Vietnam

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58 Effects of Knowledge on Fruit Diets by Integrating Posters and Actual-Sized Fruit Models in Health Education for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Suchada Wongsawat


The objectives of this quasi-experiment were: 1) to compare pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group who were given health education on the “Fruit Diets for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”; and 2) to compare the posttest scores between experimental group and controlled group. The samples of this study were elderly patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Tambon Kanai Health Promoting Hospital, Thailand. The samples were randomly assigned to experimental and controlled groups, with 30 patients in each group. Statistics used in the data analysis included frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, paired t-test and independent t-test. The study revealed that the patients in the experimental group had significantly higher posttest scores than the pretest scores in the health education at the .05 statistical level. The posttest scores of the experimental group in the health education were significantly higher than the controlled group at the .05 statistical level.

Keywords: Health Education, Diabetes, Elderly, Fruit

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57 Associated Factors to Depression of the Elderly in Ladboakao Sub-District, Banpong District, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Yadchol Tawetanawanich


Depression of elderly is a mental health problem that impacts tremendously on the elderly themselves, their family, and society. the purposes of this descriptive research were to examine prevalence rate of elderly depression and to study factors related to depression in elderly including 1) individual factors: sex, education, marital status, 2) economic factors: occupation, adequate income 3) health factors: chronic illnesses , disability, 4) social factors: family relationship, community relationship, 5) knowledge of depression, and 6) self-care behavior. The subject in this study included 273 elderly in Ladboakao sub-district, Banpong district, Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Data were collected through questionnaires and were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, and one-way ANOVA. The results of the study revealed that: The prevalence rate of elderly depression were 21.61%, factors included economic factors, health factors, knowledge about depression, and self-care behavior were statistically significant positively related to depression of elderly (p<0.05), but individual factors and social factors were not significantly related to depression. It is also important for nurses to assess factors related to depression of the elderly in order to develop the model of care and use self-care strategies to contribute the positive outcomes.

Keywords: Depression, Elderly, Self-Care, associated factors

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56 Effects of Chemicals in Elderly

Authors: Ali Kuzu


There are about 800 thousand chemicals in our environment and the number is increasing more than a thousand every year. While most of these chemicals are used as components in various consumer products, some are faced as industrial waste in the environment. Unfortunately, many of these chemicals are hazardous and affect humans. According to the “International Program on Chemical Safety” of World Health Organization; Among the chronic health effects of chemicals, cancer is of major concern. Many substances have found in recent years to be carcinogenic in one or more species of laboratory animals. Especially with respect to long-term effects, the response to a chemical may vary, quantitatively or qualitatively, in different groups of individuals depending on predisposing conditions, such as nutritional status, disease status, current infection, climatic extremes, and genetic features, sex and age of the individuals. Understanding the response of such specific risk groups is an important area of toxicology research. People with age 65+ is defined as “aged (or elderly)”. The elderly population in the world is about 600 million, which corresponds to ~8 percent of the world population. While every 1 of each 4 people is aged in Japan, the elderly population is quite close to 20 percent in many developed countries. And elderly population in these countries is growing more rapidly than the total population. The negative effects of chemicals on elderly take an important place in health-care related issues in last decades. The aged population is more susceptible to the harmful effects of environmental chemicals. According to the poor health of the organ systems in elderly, the ability of their body to eliminate the harmful effects and chemical substances from their body is also poor. With the increasing life expectancy, more and more people will face problems associated with chemical residues.

Keywords: aged care, Elderly, chemicals’ effects, care need

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55 From a Distance: A Grounded Theory Study of Incarcerated Filipino Elderly's Separation Anxiety

Authors: Allan B. de Guzman, Rochelle Gabrielle R. Gatan, Ira Bianca Mae G. Gesmundo, Astley Justine H. Golosinda


Background: While in prison, the elderly, like the younger prisoners, face specific problems and deprivations arising directly from their imprisonment, one of which is forced separation from family and loved ones. Despite the numerous studies that examined the impact of separation and separation anxiety on the emotions and behavior of young individuals, little is known about separation anxiety in the elderly population. Objective: This grounded theory study purports to describe the process of separation anxiety among incarcerated Filipino elderly men. Method: Individual interviews and participant observations were conducted with 25 incarcerated elderly Filipino men who are first-time prisoners, sentenced to lifetime imprisonment and were analyzed using constant comparative method. Results: Following Strauss and Corbin’s protocol, a four-part process emerged to describe the studied layer of human experience. The Tectonic Model of Separation Anxiety among incarcerated Filipino elderly men comprises of four phases: Winkling, Wilting, Weeding, and Weaving. Conclusion: This study has inductively and creatively explored the process of separation anxiety among the Filipino incarcerated elderly men. Findings of this study invite nurses and other clinicians to identify developmentally appropriate strategies and interventions for this vulnerable and neglected sector of society.

Keywords: Elderly, Grounded theory, Filipino, separation anxiety, incarcerated

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54 Quality of Life of Elderly People in Urban West Bengal, India

Authors: Debalina Datta, Pratyaypratim Datta, Kunal Kanti Majumdar


Introduction: In India 8.1% of total population is elderly. The standard of living and meaningfulness of life are indirectly measured by assessing quality of life of elderly. So, it is important to improve quality of life. Quality of life is an individual’s understanding of his/ her life situation with respect to his/ her values and cultural context as well as in relation to his/her goals, expectations and concerns. The present study was planned to assess the quality of life of geriatric people in urban West Bengal, India. Materials and methods: It was a community based cross sectional observational study conducted among people aged 60 years and above in Kolkata and Sonarpur region of West Bengal, India. Data collection was done by house to house visit using Quality of Life- BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BERF) developed by WHO. Analysis of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental domain was done using SPSS (version 16.0). Results: Transformed score (0-100 scale) was used for each domain. Mean of physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental domain were found to be 42.25, 40.84, 39.62 and 48.36 respectively. There was no significant difference in score between Kolkata and Sonarpur people in any domain except social relationship domain, where people living at Sonarpur scored significantly better. Conclusion: Rehabilitation of old age people can be done by improving their quality of life. Social interaction with people of all ages, allowing them to take important family decision, engaging them in different social activities can help a lot.

Keywords: Quality of Life, India, Elderly, Urban West Bengal

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53 The Influence of Wealth on the Enjoyment of Role and Status of the Rural Elderly in Bangladesh

Authors: Aminul Islam


The issue of aging is now an emerging aspect of all over the world. Both the rural and urban societies of our country are not immune from this problem. This study mainly explored the influence of wealth on the enjoyment of role and status of the elderly in rural Bangladesh. It is based on empirical findings from the four villages of Gopalnagar union of Dhunat upazila of Bogra district. The study depicted that wealth has much influence regarding the enjoyment of role and status. Mixed approach has been given priority in this study. Survey, observation, case study and life history methods and focus group discussion technique have also been used in this study. Data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Simple random sampling procedure has also been followed in this study.

Keywords: Elderly, wealth, role status

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52 Creatine Associated with Resistance Training Increases Muscle Mass in the Elderly

Authors: Camila Lemos Pinto, Juliana Alves Carneiro, Patrícia Borges Botelho, João Felipe Mota


Sarcopenia, a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, currently affects over 50 million people and increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life and death. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on muscle mass in the elderly. A 12-week, double blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the following groups: placebo with resistance training (PL+RT, n=14) and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR + RT, n=13). The subjects from CR+RT group received 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate and the subjects from the PL+RT group were given the same dose of maltodextrin. Participants were instructed to ingest the supplement on non-training days immediately after lunch and on training days immediately after resistance training sessions dissolved in a beverage comprising 100 g of maltodextrin lemon flavored. Participants of both groups undertook a supervised exercise training program for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary outcome was muscle mass, assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The secondary outcome included diagnose participants with one of the three stages of sarcopenia (presarcopenia, sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia) by skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), handgrip strength and gait speed. CR+RT group had a significant increase in SMI and muscle (p<0.0001), a significant decrease in android and gynoid fat (p = 0.028 and p=0.035, respectively) and a tendency of decreasing in body fat (p=0.053) after the intervention. PL+RT only had a significant increase in SMI (p=0.007). The main finding of this clinical trial indicated that creatine supplementation combined with resistance training was capable of increasing muscle mass in our elderly cohort (p=0.02). In addition, the number of subjects diagnosed with one of the three stages of sarcopenia at baseline decreased in the creatine supplemented group in comparison with the placebo group (CR+RT, n=-3; PL+RT, n=0). In summary, 12 weeks of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training resulted in increases in muscle mass. This is the first research with elderly of both sexes that show the same increase in muscle mass with a minor quantity of creatine supplementation in a short period. Future long-term research should investigate the effects of these interventions in sarcopenic elderly.

Keywords: Elderly, Resistance Training, creatine, dietetic supplement

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51 Psychological and Emotional Functioning of Elderly in Pakistan a Comparison in Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan

Authors: Najma Najam, Rukhsana Kausar, Rabia Hussain Kanwal, Saira Batool, Anum Javed


In Pakistan, elderly population though increasing but it has been neglected by the researchers and policy makers which resulted in compromised quality of life of the ageing population. Two regions, Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) were selected for comparison as Lahore and Multan (Punjab) are highly urbanized, large cities whereas Gilgit and Skardu are remote and mountain bounded valleys in GB. This study focuses on psychological and emotional functioning of elderly and a series of measures translated and adapted in Urdu language was used to assess quality of life, psychological and mental well-being, actual and perceived social support, attachment patterns, forgiveness, affects, geriatric depression, and emotional disturbance patterns (depression, anxiety, and stress) in elderly. A gender-equated sample of 201 elderly participants, 93 from GB (60 from Gilgit, 33 from Skardu) and 108 from Punjab (61 from Lahore, 47 from Multan) with over 60 years age was collected from the multiethnic community of Punjab and GB through purposive convenient sampling technique. Findings revealed that elderly from Multan have better psychological and emotional functioning, higher levels of social support, tendency to forgive, better mental wellbeing and quality of life and lower levels of stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and attachment avoidance and anxiety related to partner as compared to the elderly from Lahore. Furthermore, both elderly male of Gilgit & Skardu have adequate mental well-being including subjective well-being and psychological functioning which showed positive aspects of mental health but elderly female are more attached to their home and neighbourhood which shows their social and environmental mastery. Gilgiti elderly male reported more degree of positive affect such as enthusiasm, active, alertness, excitement and strong whereas among elderly from Skardu shows more negative affect i.e. aversive mood states, irritability, hostility, and general distress. The need of psychosocial therapy and family counseling for the elderly in urban areas has been identified, which can facilitate in reducing or preventing the depressive and stressful tendencies. The findings are expected to have implications for improving quality of life of the elderly, designing interventions, support system and rehabilitation services to help them. However, findings may attract attention of policy makers and researchers as currently this is the most neglected population in Pakistan.

Keywords: Psychological, Aging, Quality of Life, Emotional, Elderly

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50 Elderly in Sub Saharan Africa

Authors: Obinna Benedict Duru


This study focuses on the elderly and the challenges that confront them. The elderly are that particular segment of our population who by virtue of the aging process have attained the stage in most cases where they are confronted with the challenges of economic dependency and social marginality. These challenges are as a result of the physical and biological decline occasioned by social myths and realities which portray the elderly as a dependent population whose members could not and should not work and who need social assistance that the younger population is obliged to provide. From the moment of birth to the moment of death, our bodies are constantly changing. We are all enmeshed in the process of growing old, a transition from youthfulness to elderliness. In youth-oriented modern societies like ours, we tend to attach positive importance and significance to the biological changes that occur early in life and define later physical changes in negative terms. Children growing up and young adults receive more attention, greater responsibilities and more legal rights to reward them on their way. But few people are congratulated on getting old. We commiserate with people who are getting old and make jokes about their supposedly physical, mental and biological decline. Wrinkles, loss of weight and vitality are all parts of the aging process. In almost all parts of the world, earlier researches have shown that about fifty percent of the elderly who suffer from stroke, arthritis, senility and other age related diseases are the disengaged and neglected elderly. Rapid technological changes render the knowledge and skills of the elderly obsolete; education is geared toward the young and the generational competition for jobs leads to pressures on the elderly to retire. Control of initial resources are shifted to the middle-aged and older workers are pushed into positions of economic dependency. This study therefore, among other things tend to discover how some government policies have affected the elderly particularly in Africa. To discover the prospects and possibilities of the elderly for a better living. To make a comparison of the advances in healthcare giving made in the advanced western societies to the practice in Sub Saharan Africa etc. The hypotheses of this study include: that the elderly in Sub Saharan Africa are more vulnerable than their counterparts in Europe and America. The elderly are more prone to social isolation, and that the elderly are mostly affected by age-related sickness etc. With a survey method as the research design, and sample size of about 500 respondents,probability sampling technique was used. Data which were analyzed using chi-square and tables were collected through primary and secondary sources. The findings made include: that the elderly suffer pains of old age especially when disengaged from work or social activity. That loss of income condemn the elderly to a life of vegetable existence, and that those who do not have other means of re-integration usually see old age with regret and despair. It is therefore, recommended among other things that social welfare scheme and the process of re-integration at old age be introduced for the non pensionable elderly in Africa.

Keywords: Elderly, social isolation, dependency, re-integration

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49 Evaluation of Actual Nutrition Patients of Osteoporosis

Authors: Aigul Abduldayeva, Gulnar Tuleshova


Osteoporosis (OP) is a major socio-economic problem and is a major cause of disability, reduced quality of life and premature death of elderly people. In Astana, the study involved 93 respondents, of whom 17 were men (18.3%), and 76 were women (81.7%). Age distribution of the respondents is as follows: 40-59 (66.7%), 60-75 (29.0%), 75-90 (4.3%). In the city of Astana general breach of bone mass (CCM) was determined in 83.8% (nationwide figure - RRP - 79.0%) of the patients, and normal levels of ultrasound densitometry were detected in 16.1% (RRP 21.0%) of the patients. OP was diagnosed in 20.4% of people over 40 (RRP for citizens is 19.0%), 25.4% in the group older than 50 (23.4% PIU), 22,6% in the group older than 60 (RRP 32.6%), 25.0% in the group older than 70 (47.6% of RRP). OPN was detected in 63.4% (RRP 59.6%) of the surveyed population. These data indicate that, there is no sharp difference between Astana and other cities in the country regarding the incidence of OP, that is, the situation with the OP is not aggravated by any regional characteristics. In the distribution of respondents by clusters it was found that 80.0% of the respondents with CCM were in the "best urban cluster", 93.8% were in "average urban cluster", and 77.4% were in a "poor urban cluster". There is a high rate construction of new buildings in Astana, presumably, that the new settlers inhabit the outskirts of the city, and very difficult to trace the socio-economic differences there. Based on these data the following conclusions can be made: 1. According to the ultrasound densitometry of the calcaneus the prevalence rate of NCM among the residents of Astana is 83.3%, OP - 20.4%, which generally coincides with data elsewhere in the country. 2. The urban population of Astana is under a high degree of risk for low energetic fracture, 46.2% of the population had medium and high risks of fracture, while the nationwide index is 26.7%. 3. In the development of CCM residents of Akmola region play a significant role gender, age, ethnic factors. According to the ultrasound densitometry women are more prone to Astana OP - 22.4% of respondents than men - 11.8% of respondents.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Nutrition, Urban Population, Elderly

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48 The Effect of Rowing Exercise on Elderly Health

Authors: Rachnavy Pornthep, Khaothin Thawichai


The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of rowing ergometer exercise on older persons health. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 was control group (10 male and 10 female) Group 2 was experimental group (10 male and 10 female). The time for study was 12 week. Group 1 engage in normal daily activities Group 2 Training with rowing machine for 20 minutes three days a week. The average age of the experimental group was 73.7 years old, mean weight 55.4 kg, height 154.8 cm in the control group, mean age was 74.95 years, mean weight 48.6 kg, mean height 153.85 cm. Physical fitness test composted of body size, flexibility, Strength, muscle endurance and cardiovascular endurance. The comparison between the experimental and control groups before training showed that body weight, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were significantly different. The flexibility, strength, cardiovascular endurance was not significantly different. The comparison between the control group and the experimental group after training showed that body weight, body mass index and cardiovascular endurance were significantly different. The ratio of waist to hips, flexibility and muscular strength were not significantly different. Comparison of physical fitness before training and after training of the control group showed that body weight, flexibility (Sit and reach) and muscular strength (30 – Second chair stand) were significantly different. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, muscles flexible (Shoulder girdle flexibility), muscle strength (30 – Second arm curl) and the cardiovascular endurance were not significantly difference. Comparison of physical fitness before training and after training the experimental group showed that waist to hip ratio, flexibility (sit and reach) muscle strength (30 – Second chair stand), cardiovascular endurance (Standing leg raises - up to 2 minutes) were significantly different. The Body mass index and the flexibility (Shoulder girdle flexibility) no significantly difference. The study found that exercising with rowing machine can improve the physical fitness of the elderly, especially the cardiovascular endurance, corresponding with the past research on the effects of exercise in the elderly with different exercise such as cycling, treadmill, walking on the elliptical machine. Therefore, we can conclude that exercise by using rowing machine can improve cardiovascular system and flexibility in the elderly.

Keywords: Exercise, Rowing, Elderly, effect

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47 Rising Prevalence of Diabetes among Elderly People in Kerala: Evidence from NSS Data

Authors: Narendra Kumar


In developing countries, the majority of people with diabetes are in the age range of 45-64 years and more women than men. As in many areas of the India, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has become major problems. Now it is spreading among the middle class and poor at an alarming stage in India and Kerala is turning to be the world capital of diabetes. This study uses two round NSS data from the ‘National Sample Survey Organization, India’ to investigate the predictors of diabetes in Kerala. The overall estimates for diabetes prevalence among elderly show that higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics, further respondent working status, caste/tribe have substantial impact on diabetes in Kerala. The disease is more common for people who are mostly physically inactive. This whole picture is very much prominent in the urban areas compared with the rural ones. Not working elderly have significantly higher with diabetes than for those working in elderly. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with diabetes prevalence. For men and women, the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption was more prevalent in the rural population. High alcohol intake increases diabetes risk among elderly. Finally these findings specified that an increase improve health care services and changing life style of elderly which should in turn raise diabetes patient survival and should decrease comorbidities due to diabetes in Kerala.

Keywords: Diabetes, Elderly, Prevalence, Kerala

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46 Frailty and Quality of Life among Older Adults: A Study of Six LMICs Using SAGE Data

Authors: Mamta Jat


Background: The increased longevity has resulted in the increase in the percentage of the global population aged 60 years or over. With this “demographic transition” towards ageing, “epidemiologic transition” is also taking place characterised by growing share of non-communicable diseases in the overall disease burden. So, many of the older adults are ageing with chronic disease and high levels of frailty which often results in lower levels of quality of life. Although frailty may be increasingly common in older adults, prevention or, at least, delay the onset of late-life adverse health outcomes and disability is necessary to maintain the health and functional status of the ageing population. This is an effort using SAGE data to assess levels of frailty and its socio-demographic correlates and its relation with quality of life in LMICs of India, China, Ghana, Mexico, Russia and South Africa in a comparative perspective. Methods: The data comes from multi-country Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE), consists of nationally representative samples of older adults in six low and middle-income countries (LMICs): China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. For our study purpose, we will consider only 50+ year’s respondents. The logistic regression model has been used to assess the correlates of frailty. Multinomial logistic regression has been used to study the effect of frailty on QOL (quality of life), controlling for the effect of socio-economic and demographic correlates. Results: Among all the countries India is having highest mean frailty in males (0.22) and females (0.26) and China with the lowest mean frailty in males (0.12) and females (0.14). The odds of being frail are more likely with the increase in age across all the countries. In India, China and Russia the chances of frailty are more among rural older adults; whereas, in Ghana, South Africa and Mexico rural residence is protecting against frailty. Among all countries china has high percentage (71.46) of frail people in low QOL; whereas Mexico has lowest percentage (36.13) of frail people in low QOL.s The risk of having low and middle QOL is significantly (p<0.001) higher among frail elderly as compared to non–frail elderly across all countries with controlling socio-demographic correlates. Conclusion: Women and older age groups are having higher frailty levels than men and younger aged adults in LMICs. The mean frailty scores demonstrated a strong inverse relationship with education and income gradients, while lower levels of education and wealth are showing higher levels of frailty. These patterns are consistent across all LMICs. These data support a significant role of frailty with all other influences controlled, in having low QOL as measured by WHOQOL index. Future research needs to be built on this evolving concept of frailty in an effort to improve quality of life for frail elderly population, in LMICs setting.

Keywords: Quality of Life, Elderly, frailty, Keywords: Ageing

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45 Living Arrangement of Elderly in India: An Exploration from BKPAI Study

Authors: Jitendra Gouda, Chander Shekhar


With the addition of 27 million elderly in India in past census decade from 2001 to 2011, it is imperative to work towards exploring the issues and concerns of this increasingly aged population. In Indian society, the elderly person is assumed to be looked after by the family members, especially by children but with changing economy, society, and lifestyle, this assumption demands examining. This paper is an attempt to explore the living arrangement of the elderly and their perceptions about this in India. The findings are based on the BKPAI dataset of 2011, which was conducted in seven states – Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. The result shows that three fourth of elderly lives with their children. Having son and staying with children is positively associated among elderly. More than 40 percent as compared to 37 percent of elderly feels comfortable living with sons and daughters respectively. Half of elderly across sexes viewed that sons are the best person to live with. The result of discriminant analysis suggest that health status and living arrangement of elderly are the good discriminators to ensure their importance in the family.

Keywords: India, Elderly, discriminant analysis, living arrangment

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44 Volcanoscape Space Configuration Zoning Based on Disaster Mitigation by Utilizing GIS Platform in Mt. Krakatau Indonesia

Authors: Vega Erdiana Dwi Fransiska, Abyan Rai Fauzan Machmudin


Particularly, space configuration zoning is the very first juncture of a complete space configuration and region planning. Zoning is aimed to define discrete knowledge based on a local wisdom. Ancient predecessor scientifically study the sign of natural disaster towards ethnography approach by operating this knowledge. There are three main functions of space zoning, which are control function, guidance function, and additional function. The control function refers to an instrument for development control and as one of the essentials in controlling land use. Hence, the guidance function indicates as guidance for proposing operational planning and technical development or land usage. Any additional function is useful as a supplementary for region or province planning details. This phase likewise accredits to define boundary in an open space based on geographical appearance. Informant who is categorized as an elder lives in earthquake prone area, to be precise the area is the surrounding of Mount Krakatau. The collected data is one of method for analyzed with thematic model. Later on, it will be verified. In space zoning, long-range distance sensor is applied to determine visualization of the area, which will be zoned before the step of survey to validate the data. The data, which is obtained from long-range distance sensor and site survey, will be overlaid using GIS Platform. Comparing the knowledge based on a local wisdom that is well known by elderly in that area, some of it is relevant to the research, while the others are not. Based on the site survey, the interpretation of a long-range distance sensor, and determining space zoning by considering various aspects resulted in the pattern map of space zoning. This map can be integrated with disaster mitigation affected by volcano eruption.

Keywords: Elderly, local wisdom, GIS platform, space zoning

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43 The Study of Self-Care Regarding to the Valuable Living in Thai Elderly

Authors: Pannathorn Chachvarat, Smarnjit Piromrun


Aging is the reality for the future world. An urgent priority for the development of the elderlies’ quality living is needed. The promotion of quality the elderly to live longer in their dignity and being independence are essential. The objective of this descriptive research was to study the self-care regarding to the valuable living in Thai elderly. The randomized sample was 100 elderly who live in Muang district of Phayao province. The tools included 2 parts; 1) Personal data (gender, age, income, occupation, marital status, living condition and disease), and 2) the self-care regarding to the valuable living questionnaire consisted of 3 domains, physical (21items), spiritual (13 items) and social domain (12 items). The content validity tool was tested the IOC ranged between 0.60 – 1.00 and the reliability test, Cronbach Alpha was 0.82. The research found that; The most participants were female (60 %), Farmer (37%), and underlying disease (65 %). The range of age was 68 years. Overall of the self-care regarding to the valuable living of physical, spiritual and social were at the high level.The highest level of physical activities was self-taking bath twice a day (morning and evening), and slept at least 5-6 hours at night time.The highest level of spirit activities was a good member of the family, contributions to persons in family, good emotion. Additionally were enjoyable, accepting changes in the body such as the dry skin and the blurred vision, accepting the roles and duties in taking care of house and grandchildren, selecting the applicable activities and practice according to religious Buddhateachingfor the happiness and meditated life.The highest of the social activities were the good relationship between other elderlies and family members, happy to help social activities as of their capacity, and being happy to help other people who have problems.

Keywords: Elderly, Self-Care, Thai, valuable living

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42 Community‐Based Participatory Research in Elderly Health Care of Paisanee Ramintra 65 Community, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: A. Kulprasutidilok


In order to address the social factors of elderly health care, researcher and community members have turned to more inclusive and participatory approaches to research and interventions. One such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, has received increased attention as the academic and public health communities struggle to address the persistent problems of disparities in the use of health care and health outcomes for several over the past decade. As Thailand becomes an ageing society, health services and proper care systems specifically for the elderly group need to be prepared and well established. The purpose of this assignment was to study the health problems and was to explore the process of community participation in elderly health care. Participants in this study were member of elderly group of Paisanee Ramintra 65 community in Bangkok, Thailand. The results indicated two important components of community participation process in elderly health care: 1) a process to develop community participation in elderly health care, and 2) outcomes resulting from such process. The development of community participation consisted of four processes. As for the outcomes of the community participation development process, they consisted of elderly in the community got jointly and formulated a group, which strengthened the project because of collaborative supervision among themselves. Moreover, inactive health care services have changed to being energetic and focus on health promotion rather than medical achievement and elderly association of community can perform health care activities for chronically illness through the achievement of this development; consequently, they increasingly gained access to physical, cognitive, and social activity.

Keywords: Community-Based Participatory Research, Elderly, Thailand, heath care

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41 The Role of Spiritual Experience, Gerotranscendence and Social Engagement on Successful Aging among Incarcerated Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

Authors: Les Paul Valdez, Rowena Manzarate, Joseph Carl Lunizo, Mary Thereze Mabaquiao, Mary Deo Luigi Mabunay


Background: Across the literature, varying definitions of successful aging can be found. As a result, several determinants have been associated with successful aging. However, there is a paucity of literature exploring the relationship between successful aging and factors such as spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, and social engagement. Objective: Thus, this study purports to ascertain the relationship between and among spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, social engagement and successful aging. Methods: The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), Social Engagement Scale (SES), Gerotranscendence Scale Revised (GS-R) and Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA) were fielded to 349 incarcerated elderly to measure spiritual experience, social engagement, gerotranscendence and successful aging respectively. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling through AMOS 21. The hypothesized model was evaluated using the goodness of fit and parsimony indices. Results: Social engagement (β= .179, p=.128) and spiritual experience (β= .375, p=.262) contribute to successful aging through the mediating effect of gerotranscendence (β= .973, p=.718). Conclusion: Today more than ever, healthcare providers in penal institutions are challenged to ensure that incarcerated elderly are socially and spiritually engaged; and have high levels of gerotranscendence.

Keywords: Elderly, Social Engagement, Filipino, gerotranscendence, spiritual experience, successful aging

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40 The Meaning and Roles of Leisure among Elderly People

Authors: Jureerat Kilsomporn, Chularat Howharn


The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning of leisure and the role of leisure among elderly people aged more than 80. Participants were purposive selected. Inclusion criteria were age more than 80 year, has no disease, and independent for daily life activities. Data were collected by in-depth interview. Each participant was interviewed two times and 45-60 minutes in each time of interview. Content analyses were conducted to describe the findings. The findings were as followed. Ten active aging participated in this study. All of them are Buddhist with age between 83-89 years old. Most of them completed the primary school. All of them were active members of community club such as elderly club, women club, and funeral association. Active aging described leisure as activities that connected them with their communities. Leisure could be categorized into three groups which were religious activities, entertainment activities, and hobbies. Examples of religious activities were ordination, house-blessing ceremony, and wedding ceremony. Examples of entertainment activities were Thai dance, beat a drum, and sang local songs. Participants described more that they joined and did in leisure for a sake of pleasure. These leisure played significant roles; significantly affect were their minds and their spiritual. Religious activities play a significant role in spiritual well-being while entertainment activities play a significant role in maintaining good status of mental health. Effect of hobby activities which most of these were payable activities were increased their self-valued. Although it was not high incomes but they can use their own money as they designed. Moreover, participants describe that they have a feeling of use their time wisely since they can earn the money, they can have an exercise, and they can share the time with their neighborhood with these activities. Suggestions from this study were that authorized personnel should promote leisure for aging regularly and continuously. Any facilities that meet with their need and their desired should be promoted since these can facilitate aging to maintain their good health status.

Keywords: Active Aging, Leisure, activities, Elderly

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39 The Links between Cardiovascular Risk and Psychological Wellbeing in Elderly

Authors: Laura Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Dalia Luksiene, Dalia Virviciute


The cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the EU, especially in the middle aged and elderly population. Psychological wellbeing (PWB) has been linked with better cardiovascular health and survival in the elderly. The aim of the study is to evaluate associations between CVD risk and PWB in middle-aged and elderly population. 10,940 middle aged and older Lithuanians of age 45-74 years, were invited to participate in the study. A study sample was a random and stratified by gender and age. In 2006-2008 7,087 responders participated in the survey, so the response rate was 64.8%. A follow-up study was conducted from 2006 till 2015. New CVD cases and deaths from CVD were evaluated using the Kaunas population-based CVD register and death register of Kaunas. Study results revealed that good PWB predicts longer life in female participants (Log Rank = 13.7, p < 0.001). In the fully adjusted model for socio-demographic, social and CVD risk factors, hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was lower amongst women with good PWB (HR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.72), but not significantly for men. Our study concludes, that lower CVD mortality rates is being associated with better PWB in female aged 45-74 years.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, Elderly, Survival, psychological well-being

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38 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana


Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: Elderly, Blood Pressure, hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing

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