Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

EIS Related Abstracts

15 Electrochemical Studies of Some Schiff Bases on the Corrosion of Steel in H2SO4 Solution

Authors: Ahmed A. Farag, M. A. Hgazy

Abstract:

The influence of three Schiff bases (SB-I, SB-II, and SB-III) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the Schiff bases and follow the trend: SB-III > SB-II > SB-I. Tafel polarization measurements revealed that the three tested inhibitors function as anodic inhibitors. The thermodynamic parameters Kads and ΔGºads are calculated and discussed. The Langmuir isotherm equation was found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behaviour of the investigated Schiff bases. Depending on the results, the inhibitive mechanism was proposed.

Keywords: Adsorption, Corrosion Inhibitors, Schiff bases, EIS

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14 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution

Authors: M. S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy, A. I. Al-Negheimish

Abstract:

The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH which are the compounds commonly observed in ordinary portland cement concrete pore solution. In addition to that, commonly used mineral admixtures (silica fume, natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added to the simulated concrete pore solution. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, silica fume has been shown to have a negative influence on the film quality though it has positive effect on the concrete properties. Fly ash and natural pozzolan increase the protective qualities of the passive film. The research data in this area is very limited in the past and needed further investigation.

Keywords: Concrete, EIS, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, Tafel scan, rebar, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

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13 Haemocompatibility of Surface Modified AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Tested in Artificial Plasma

Authors: W. Walke, J. Przondziono, K. Nowińska

Abstract:

The study comprises evaluation of suitability of passive layer created on the surface of AISI 316L stainless steel for products that are intended to have contact with blood. For that purpose, prior to and after chemical passivation, samples were subject to 7 day exposure in artificial plasma at the temperature of T=37°C. Next, tests of metallic ions infiltration from the surface to the solution were performed. The tests were performed with application of spectrometer JY 2000, by Yobin – Yvon, employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). In order to characterize physical and chemical features of electrochemical processes taking place during exposure of samples to artificial plasma, tests with application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were suggested. The tests were performed with application of measuring unit equipped with potentiostat PGSTAT 302n with an attachment for impedance tests FRA2. Measurements were made in the environment simulating human blood at the temperature of T=37°C. Performed tests proved that application of chemical passivation process for AISI 316L stainless steel used for production of goods intended to have contact with blood is well-grounded and useful in order to improve safety of their usage.

Keywords: EIS, AISI 316L stainless steel, chemical passivation, artificial plasma, ions infiltration

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12 The Corrosion Resistance of the 32CrMoV13 Steel Nitriding

Authors: Said Benramache, Okba Belahssen, Lazhar Torchane, Abdelouahed Chala

Abstract:

This paper presents corrosion behavior of the plasma-nitrided 32CrMoV13 steel. Different kinds of samples were tested: non-treated, plasma nitrided samples. The structure of layers was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). The corrosion tests were carried out in acid chloride solution (HCl 1M). Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer are nobler than the substrate but may promote, by galvanic effect, a localized corrosion through open porosity. The better corrosion protection was observed for nitrided sample.

Keywords: Corrosion, EIS, plasma-nitrided

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11 The Effect of Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars

Authors: Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy, M.S. Ashraf

Abstract:

The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH. In addition to that, commonly used supplementary cementitious materials (natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, natural pozzolans has been shown to have a highly positive influence on the film quality. Fly ash also increases the protective qualities of the passive film.

Keywords: Concrete, EIS, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, Tafel scan, rebar, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

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10 Aqueous Extract of Argemone Mexicana Roots for Effective Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in HCl Environment

Authors: Gopal Ji, Priyanka Dwivedi, Shanthi Sundaram, Rajiv Prakash

Abstract:

Inhibition effect of aqueous Argemone Mexicana root extract (AMRE) on mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl has been studied by weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Results indicate that inhibition ability of AMRE increases with the increasing amount of the extract. A maximum corrosion inhibition of 94% is acknowledged at the extract concentration of 400 mg L-1. Polarization curves and impedance spectra reveal that both cathodic and anodic reactions are suppressed due to passive layer formation at metal-acid interface. It is also confirmed by SEM micro graphs and FTIR studies. Furthermore, the effects of acid concentration (1-5 M), immersion time (120 hours) and temperature (30-60˚C) on inhibition potential of AMRE have been investigated by weight loss method and electrochemical techniques. Adsorption mechanism is also proposed on the basis of weight loss results, which shows good agreement with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: Polarization, SEM, EIS, acid corrosion, mild steel, green inhibition

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9 Corrosion Monitoring of Weathering Steel in a Simulated Coastal-Industrial Environment

Authors: Thee Chowwanonthapunya, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke

Abstract:

The atmospheres in many cities along the coastal lines in the world have been rapidly changed to coastal-industrial atmosphere. Hence, it is vital to investigate the corrosion behavior of steel exposed to this kind of environment. In this present study, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrography (EIS) and film thickness measurements were applied to monitor the corrosion behavior of weathering steel covered with a thin layer of the electrolyte in a wet-dry cyclic condition, simulating a coastal-industrial environment at 25 oC and 60 % RH. The results indicate that in all cycles, the corrosion rate increases during the drying process due to an increase in anion concentration and an acceleration of oxygen diffusion enhanced by the effect of the thinning out of the electrolyte. During the wet-dry cyclic corrosion test, the long-term corrosion behavior of this steel depends on the periods of exposure. Corrosion process is first accelerated and then decelerated. The decelerating corrosion process is contributed to the formation of the protective rust, favored by the wet-dry cycle and the acid regeneration process during the rusting process.

Keywords: Atmospheric Corrosion, EIS, low alloy, rust

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8 Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Medium Using an Aromatic Hydrazide Derivative

Authors: Preethi Kumari P., Shetty Prakasha, Rao Suma A.

Abstract:

Mild steel has been widely employed as construction materials for pipe work in the oil and gas production such as down hole tubular, flow lines and transmission pipelines, in chemical and allied industries for handling acids, alkalis and salt solutions due to its excellent mechanical property and low cost. Acid solutions are widely used for removal of undesirable scale and rust in many industrial processes. Among the commercially available acids hydrochloric acid is widely used for pickling, cleaning, de-scaling and acidization of oil process. Mild steel exhibits poor corrosion resistance in presence of hydrochloric acid. The high reactivity of mild steel in presence of hydrochloric acid is due to the soluble nature of ferrous chloride formed and the cementite phase (Fe3C) normally present in the steel is also readily soluble in hydrochloric acid. Pitting attack is also reported to be a major form of corrosion in mild steel in the presence of high concentrations of acids and thereby causing the complete destruction of metal. Hydrogen from acid reacts with the metal surface and makes it brittle and causes cracks, which leads to pitting type of corrosion. The use of chemical inhibitor to minimize the rate of corrosion has been considered to be the first line of defense against corrosion. In spite of long history of corrosion inhibition, a highly efficient and durable inhibitor that can completely protect mild steel in aggressive environment is yet to be realized. It is clear from the literature review that there is ample scope for the development of new organic inhibitors, which can be conveniently synthesized from relatively cheap raw materials and provide good inhibition efficiency with least risk of environmental pollution. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the electrochemical parameters for the corrosion inhibition behavior of an aromatic hydrazide derivative, 4-hydroxy- N '-[(E)-1H-indole-2-ylmethylidene)] benzohydrazide (HIBH) on mild steel in 2M hydrochloric acid using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques at 30-60 °C. The results showed that inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreased marginally with increase in temperature. HIBH showed a maximum inhibition efficiency of 95 % at 8×10-4 M concentration at 30 °C. Polarization curves showed that HIBH act as a mixed-type inhibitor. The adsorption of HIBH on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process of HIBH at the mild steel/hydrochloric acid solution interface followed mixed adsorption with predominantly physisorption at lower temperature and chemisorption at higher temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process and kinetic parameters for the metal dissolution reaction were determined.

Keywords: EIS, mild steel, electrochemical parameters, tafel polarization

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7 Development of an Inexpensive Electrocatalytic Energy Material: Cu-Ni-CeO2 for High Performance Alcoholic Fuel Cell

Authors: Sujit Kumar Guchhait, Subir Paul

Abstract:

One of the major research areas is to find an alternative source of energy to fulfill the energy crisis and environmental problems. The Fuel cell is such kind of energy producing unit. Use of fuel cell to produce renewable energy for commercial purpose is limited by the high cost of Pt based electrode material. Development of high energetic, as well as inexpensive fuel cell electrode materials, is needs of hour to produce clean energy using derive bio-fuel. In this present investigation, inexpensive Cu-Ni-CeO2 electrode material has been synthesized by using pulse current. The surface morphology of the electrode materials is controlled by several deposition parameters to increase the rate of electrochemical oxidation of alcoholic fuel, ethanol. The electrochemical characterization of the developed material was done by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Chronoamperometry (CA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy test. It is interesting to find that both these materials have shown high electrocatalytic properties in terms of high exchange current density (I0), low polarization resistance (Rp) and low impedance. It is seen that the addition of CeO2 to Ni-Cu has outperformed Pt as far as high electrocatalytic properties are concerned. The exchange current density on the Cu-Ni-CeO2 electrode surface for ethanol oxidation is about eight times higher than the same on the Pt surface with much lower polarization resistance than the later. The surface morphology of the electrode materials has been revealed by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). It is seen that grains are narrow and subspherical with 3D surface containing pores in between two elongated grains. XRD study exhibits the presence of Ni and CeO2 on the Cu surface.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, SEM, EIS, XRD, potentiodynamic polarization, electro-catalyst, alcoholic fuel

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6 Allura Red, Sunset Yellow and Amaranth Azo Dyes for Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 0.5 H₂SO₄ Solutions

Authors: Gopal Ji, Rajiv Prakash, Ashish Kumar Singh, Preeti Tiwari, Shubham Srivastava, Herman Terryn

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibition potential of azo dyes namely Allura red (AR), Sunset Yellow (SY) and Amaranth (AN) have been investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Tafel polarization curves, linear polarization curves, open circuit potential (ocp) curves, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Amaranth dye is found to provide highest corrosion inhibition (90 %) against mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid solutions among all the tested dyes; while SY and AR dye shows 80% and 78% corrosion inhibition efficiency respectively. The electrochemical measurements and surface morphology analysis reveal that molecular adsorption of dyes at metal acid interface is accountable for inhibition of mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions. The adsorption behavior of dyes has been investigated by various isotherms models, which verifies that it is in accordance with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: EIS, mild steel, langmuir isotherm, azo dye

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5 Olive Leaf Extract as Natural Corrosion Inhibitor for Pure Copper in 0.5 M NaCl Solution: A Study by Voltammetry around OCP

Authors: Chahla Rahal, Philippe Refait

Abstract:

Oleuropein-rich extract from olive leaf and acid hydrolysates, rich in hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid was prepared under different experimental conditions. These phenolic compounds may be used as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibitive action of these extracts and its major constituents on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurements. The product of extraction was analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whose analysis shows that olive leaf extract are greatly rich in phenolic compounds, mainly Oleuropeine (OLE), Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid (EA). After the acid hydrolysis and high temperature of extraction, an increase in hydroxytyrosol concentration was detected, coupled with relatively low oleuropeine content and high concentration of elenolic acid. The potentiodynamic measurements have shown that this extract acts as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor, and good inhibition efficiency is observed with the increase in HT and EA concentration. These results suggest that the inhibitive effect of olive leaf extract might be due to the adsorption of the various phenolic compounds onto the copper surface.

Keywords: Corrosion, Copper, EIS, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, Olive leaf extract, elenolic acid, HPLC/DAD, Polarisation

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4 Inhibition of the Corrosion of Copper in 0.5 NaCl Solutions by Aqueous Extract and Hydrolysis Acid of Olive Leaf Extract

Authors: Chahla Rahal, Philippe Refait

Abstract:

Oleuropein-rich extract from olive leaf and acid hydrolysates, rich in hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid was prepared under different experimental conditions. These phenolic compounds may be used as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibitive action of these extracts and its major constituents on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurements. The product of extraction was analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whose analysis shows that olive leaf extract are greatly rich in phenolic compounds, mainly Oleuropeine (OLE), Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid (EA). After the acid hydrolysis and high temperature of extraction, an increase in hydroxytyrosol concentration was detected, coupled with relatively low oleuropeine content and high concentration of elenolic acid. The potentiodynamic measurements have shown that this extract acts as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor, and good inhibition efficiency is observed with the increase in HT and EA concentration. These results suggest that the inhibitive effect of olive leaf extract might be due to the adsorption of the various phenolic compounds onto the copper surface.

Keywords: Corrosion, HPLC, Copper, Voltammetry, EIS, oleuropein, Olive leaf extract

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3 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Cyclic Voltammetry, EIS, potentiodynamic polarization, electroless Ni–P coating

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2 Chaotic Response of Electrical Insulation System with Gaseous Dielectric under High AC and DC Voltages

Authors: Arijit Basuray

Abstract:

It is well known that if an electrical insulation system is stressed under high voltage then discharge may occur in various form and if the system is made of composite dielectric having interfaces of materials having different dielectric constant discharge may occur due to gross mismatch of dielectric constant causing intense local field in the interfaces. Here author has studied, firstly, behavior of discharges in gaseous dielectric circuit under AC and DC voltages. A gaseous dielectric circuit is made such that a pair of electrode of typical geometry is used to make the discharges occur under application of AC and DC voltages. Later on, composite insulation system with air gap is also studied. Discharge response of the dielectric circuit is measured across a typically designed impedance. The time evolution of the discharge characteristics showed some interesting chaotic behavior. Author here proposed some analysis of such behavior of the discharge pattern and discussed about the possibility of presence of such discharge circuit in lumped electric circuit.

Keywords: Chaos, EIS, discharge, electrical insulation system, composite dielectric

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1 Investigation of Acidizing Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

Authors: Ambrish Singh

Abstract:

The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran derivatives (AP) on mild steel in 15% HCl was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, weight loss, contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, DFT and molecular dynamic simulation. The adsorption of APs on the surface of mild steel obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization study confirmed that inhibitors are mixed type with cathodic predominance. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface. The theoretical data obtained are, in most cases, in agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: dft, Molecular Simulation, EIS, mild steel, acidizing inhibitor, pyran derivatives

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