Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Egypt Related Abstracts

56 Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Egyptian Children Vaccinated during Infancy

Authors: Thanaa M. Rabah, Iman I. Salama, Samia M. Sami, Somaia I. Salama, Zeinab N. Said, Aida M. Abdel-Mohsin

Abstract:

This is a national community-based project to evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination program in prevention of infection. HBV markers were tested in the sera of 3600 vaccinated children. Infected children were followed up for 1 year. Prevalence of HBV infection was 0.39 % (0.28% positive for anti-HBc, 0.03% positive for HBsAg and 0.08% positive for both). One year later, 50% of positive anti-HBc children turned negative with sustained positivity for positive HBsAg cases. HBV infection was significantly higher at age above 9 years (0.6%) compared to 0.2% at age 3-9 years and 0% at younger age (P < 0.05). Logistic analysis revealed that predictors for HBV infection were history of blood transfusion, regular medical injection, and family history of either HBV infection or drug abuse (adjusted odds ratios 6.2, 5.6, 7.6 & 19.1 respectively). HBV vaccination program produced adequate protection. Adherence to infection control measures and safe blood transfusion are recommended.

Keywords: Children, HBV infection, HBV vaccine, Egypt

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55 Factors Affecting the Ultimate Compressive Strength of the Quaternary Calcarenites, North Western Desert, Egypt

Authors: M. A. Rashed, A. S. Mansour, H. Faris, W. Afify

Abstract:

The calcarenites carbonate rocks of the Quaternary ridges, which extend along the northwestern Mediterranean coastal plain of Egypt, represent an excellent model for the transformation of loose sediments to real sedimentary rocks by the different stages of meteoric diagenesis. The depositional and diagenetic fabrics of the rocks, in addition to the strata orientation, highly affect their ultimate compressive strength and other geotechnical properties. There is a marked increase in the compressive strength (UCS) from the first to the fourth ridge rock samples. The lowest values are related to the loose packing, weakly cemented aragonitic ooid sediments with high porosity, besides the irregularly distributed of cement, which result in decreasing the ability of these rocks to withstand crushing under direct pressure. The high (UCS) values are attributed to the low porosity, the presence of micritic cement, the reduction in grain size and the occurrence of micritization and calcretization processes. The strata orientation has a notable effect on the measured (UCS). The lowest values have been recorded for the samples cored in the inclined direction; whereas the highest values have been noticed in most samples cored in the vertical and parallel directions to bedding plane. In case of the inclined direction, the bedding planes were oriented close to the plane of maximum shear stress. The lowest and highest anisotropy values have been recorded for the first and the third ridges rock samples, respectively, which may attributed to the relatively homogeneity and well sorted grain-stone of the first ridge rock samples, and relatively heterogeneity in grain and pore size distribution and degree of cementation of the third ridge rock samples, besides, the abundance of shell fragments with intra-particle pore spaces, which may produce lines of weakness within the rock.

Keywords: anisotropy, compressive strength, Egypt, calcarenites

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54 The Challenge Confronted by the Developing Countries in Sustainable Urban Development

Authors: Sherine El Sakka

Abstract:

Sustainable urban development (SUD) is influenced by social, cultural, economic and environmental sustainability (ES) of developing and developed countries. Our paper will focus on the challenge confronted by the developing countries in sustainable urban development as an application on Egypt, which will clarify current situation and future challenge and assess the impact of a developing country on sustainable development to propose some possible directions for the future because new solution of improving sustainability of developing cities (SDC) should be found.

Keywords: Egypt, sustainable urban development (SUD), environmental sustainability (ES), sustainability of developing cities (SDC)

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53 Assessing Psycho-Social Stressors for Chronically Infected Hepatitis C Virus Patients in Egypt

Authors: Ammal M. Metwally, Walaa A. Fouad, Dalia M. Elmosalami, Abla G. Khalifa, Lobna A. El Etreby, Mohamed AbdelRahman

Abstract:

People with hepatitis C are likely to experience psychological distress related to adjustment issues following diagnosis. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the psycho-social stressors accompanying Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection. The study focused on immediate and later on reactions to being diagnosed as infected HCV patients. Effect of HCV on disruption of patients’ relationships in term of family relationship and friendship, employment and financial status was assessed. The magnitude and causes of the social stigma and its relation to awareness about illness, level of education were also assessed. Methods: During this study the subjective experiences of people having HCV was explored through a designed questionnaire targeted 540 cases; 359 males and 181 females from ten out of 21 National Treatment Reference Centers of National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institutes of Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals. The study was conducted along a period of six months from September 2011 to March 2012. Results: The study revealed that the financial problems are the commonest problems faced by 75.5 % of the cases. More than 70% of the cases suffered from immediate sadness versus 67.4% suffered from worry. Social stigma was reported by 13 % of HCV +patients, the majority of which were females. Conclusions: Exploring the psychosocial consequences of HCV infection can act as pressing motivators for behavior change needed for limiting HCV endemicity in Egypt.

Keywords: Egypt, HCV infection, psycho-social adjustment, stigma

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52 Taphonomy and Paleoecology of Cenomanian Oysters (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Egypt

Authors: Heba Mansour, Ahmed El-Sabbagh, Magdy El-Hedeny

Abstract:

This study provided a taphonomic alteration and paleoecology of Cenomanian oysters from the Musabaa Salama area, south western Sinai, Egypt. Three oyster zones can be recognized in the studied area, a lower one of Amphidonte (Ceratostreon) flabellatum (lower-middle Cenomanian), a middle zone of Ilymatogyra (Afrogyra) africana (upper Cenomanian) and an upper one of Exogyra (Costagyra) olisiponensis (upper Cenomanian). Taphonomic features including disarticulation, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses. The analyses showed that the distributions of the identified ichnospecies were greatly similar within the identified oyster zones in the Musabaa Salama section. With rare exceptions, Entobia cretacea, Gastrochaenolites torpedo and Maeandropolydora decipiens are considered as common to abundant ichnospecies within the three recorded oyster zones. In contrast, and with some exceptions, E. ovula, E. retiformis and Rogerella pattei are considered as frequent to common ichnospecies within the identified oyster zones. Other ichnospecies, including Caulostrepsis cretacea, G. orbicularis, Trypanites solitarius, E. geometrica and C. taeniola, are mostly recorded in rare to frequent occurrences. Careful investigation of these host shells and the preserved encrusters and/or bioerosion sculptures provided data concerning: 1) the substrate characteristics, 2) time of encrustation and bioerosion, 3) rate of sedimentation, 4) the planktonic productivity level, and 5) the general bathymetry and the rate of transgression across the substrate.

Keywords: Palaeoecology, Taphonomy, Egypt, oysters, Cenomanian, Sinai

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51 Impact of Climate Change on Some Physiological Parameters of Cyclic Female Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Ismail Abo-Ghanema, Nabil Abu-Heakal, Basma Hamed Merghani

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of seasonal variations in Egypt on hematological parameters, reproductive and metabolic hormones of Egyptian buffalo-cows. This study lasted one year extending from December 2009 to November 2010 and was conducted on sixty buffalo-cows. Group of 5 buffalo-cows at estrus phase were selected monthly. Then, after blood sampling through tail vein puncture in the 2nd day after natural service, they were divided in two samples: one with anticoagulant for hematological analysis and the other without anticoagulant for serum separation. Results of this investigation revealed that the highest atmospheric temperature was in hot summer 32.61±1.12°C versus 26.18±1.67°C in spring and 19.92±0.70°C in winter season, while the highest relative humidity % was in winter season 43.50±1.60% versus 32.50±2.29% in summer season. The rise in temperature-humidity index from 63.73±1.29 in winter to 78.53±1.58 in summer indicates severe heat stress which is associated with significant reduction in total red blood cell count (3.20±0.15×106), hemoglobin concentration (8.83±0.43 g/dl), packed cell volume (30.73±0.12%), lymphocytes % (40.66±2.33 %), serum progesterone hormone concentration (0.56±0.03 ng/mll), estradiol17-B concentration (16.8±0.64 ng/ml), triiodothyronin (T3) concentration (2.33±0.33 ng/ml) and thyroxin hormone (T4) concentration (21.66±1.66 ng/ml), while hot summer resulted in significant increase in mean cell volume (96.55±2.25 fl), mean cell hemoglobin (30.81±1.33 pg), total white blood cell count (10.63±0.97×103), neutrophils % (49.66±2.33%), serum prolactin hormone (PRL) concentration (23.45±1.72 ng/ml) and cortisol hormone concentration (4.47±0.33 ng/ml) compared to winter season. There was no significant seasonal variation in mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). It was concluded that in Egypt there was a seasonal variation in atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI) and the rise in THI above the upper critical level (72 units), which, for lactating buffalo-cows in Egypt is the major constraint on buffalo-cows' hematological parameters and hormonal secretion that affects animal reproduction. Hence, we should improve climatic conditions inside the dairy farm to eliminate or reduce summer infertility.

Keywords: Climate Change, Egypt, buffalo, physiological parameters

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50 Characteristics of Phytophthora infestans: The Causal Fungus of Potato Late Blight Disease

Authors: A. E. Elkorany, Eman Elsrgawy

Abstract:

Eighty six isolates of Phytophthora infestans dating back to 2006 were recovered from potato tubers that were on sale in Alexandria markets, Egypt. The isolates were characterized for mating type and colony morphology. Both A1 and A2 mating types were detected in the isolate collection, however, the A2 constituted 5.8% of the total isolates made while the A1 mating type isolates constituted 91.9%. The self-fertile phenotype was also detected but at a lower percentage of 2.3% of the total isolates. This indicated that Mexico, the probable origin of the disease, is no longer the only place where A2 mating type ever exists. The lumpy phenotype was the only trait observed linked to the A2 mating type isolates on rye A agar medium. The self-fertile isolates, however, exhibited colonies of a waxy appearance with little aerial hyphae and the culture were backed full with oospores. The A1 mating colonies were of smooth white abundant aerial hyphae. The metalaxyl resistant isolates were also detected among the analyzed isolates and constituted 4.6% of the total (86) isolates investigated. The appearance of the A2 mating type outside Mexico and the variation revealed in the population of Phytophthora infestans investigated supported the hypothesis of a second worldwide migration of the fungus from its origin which could constitute a threat to potato cultivation around the world.

Keywords: Egypt, potato, Phytophthora infestans, fungus

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
49 Gender, Tutoring, and Track in Egyptian Education

Authors: Ray Langsten, Eman Shady

Abstract:

In Egypt, girls have traditionally been educationally disadvantaged. This disadvantage, however, has been focused on the failure to enter school. Increasingly it is recognized that girls who ever-enroll are at least as likely to complete primary and secondary education as boys. Still the belief persists that girls, especially those from poor families, will be disadvantaged in terms of school expenditures and the transitions to secondary and higher education. We use data from the 2005-06 Egypt Household Education Survey to examine expenditures on tutoring during the final year of preparatory school, and the transition to specific tracks of secondary education. Tests during the last year of preparatory largely determine a student’s educational future. Results show that girls, even girls from poor families, are not disadvantaged in terms of expenditures, whether for tutoring, fees or general expenses. Moreover, girls are more likely than boys to advance to general secondary education, the track that leads to higher education.

Keywords: Gender, Egypt, tutoring, track

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48 The Adoption of Technological Innovations in a B2C Context: An Empirical Study on the Higher Education Industry in Egypt

Authors: Maha Mourad, Rania Samir

Abstract:

This paper seeks to explain the adoption of technological innovations in a business to consumer context. Specifically, the use of web based technology (WEBCT/blackboard) in the delivery of educational material and communication with students at universities in Egypt is the focus of this study. The analysis draws on existing research in a B2C context which highlights the importance of internal organization characteristics, perceived attributes of the innovation as well as consumer based factors as the main drivers of adoption. A distinctive B2C model is developed drawing on Roger’s innovation adoption model, as well as theoretical and empirical foundations in previous innovation adoption literature to study the adoption of technological innovations in higher education in Egypt. The model proposes that the adoption decision is dependent on a combination of perceived attributes of the innovation, inter-organization factors and consumer factors. The model is testified drawing on the results of empirical work in the form of a large survey conducted on students in three different universities in Egypt (one public, one private and one international). In addition to the attributes of the innovation, specific organization factors (such as university resources) as well as consumer factors were identified as likely to have an important influence on the adoption of technological innovations in higher education.

Keywords: Higher Education, Innovation, Adoption, Egypt, WEBCT

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47 Factors Affecting Mobile Internet Adoption in an Emerging Market

Authors: Maha Mourad, Fady Todros

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to find an explanatory model to define the most important variables and factors that affect the acceptance of Mobile Internet in the Egyptian market. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted to support the conceptual framework followed with a quantitative research in the form of a survey distributed among 411 respondents. It was clear that relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, perceived price level and perceived playfulness have a dominant role in influencing consumers to adopt mobile internet, while observability is correlated to the adoption but when measured with the other factors it lost its value. The perceived price level has a negative relationship with the adoption as well the compatibility.

Keywords: Innovation, Communication Technologies, Egypt, diffusion, innovation adoption, emerging market

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46 Micro-Analytical Data of Au Mineralization at Atud Gold Deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: M. Budakoglu, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral, B. Zoheir, P. Weihed, L. Gumus

Abstract:

Atud gold deposits located at the central part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert of Egypt. It represents the vein-type gold mineralization at the Arabian-Nubian Shield in North Africa. Furthermore, this Au mineralization was closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration haloes along the NW-SE brittle-ductile shear zone at the mined area. This study reports new data about the mineral chemistry of the hydrothermal and metamorphic minerals as well as the geothermobarometry of the metamorphism and determines the paragenetic interrelationship between Au-bearing sulfides and gangue minerals in Atud gold mine by using the electron microprobe analyses (EMPA). These analyses revealed that the ore minerals associated with gold mineralization are arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, tetrahedrite and gersdorffite-cobaltite. Also, the gold is highly associated with arsenopyrite and As-bearing pyrite as well as sphalerite with an average ~70 wt.% Au (+26 wt.% Ag) whereas it occurred either as disseminated grains or along microfractures of arsenopyrite and pyrite in altered wallrocks and mineralized quartz veins. Arsenopyrite occurs as individual rhombic or prismatic zoned grains disseminated in the quartz veins and wallrock and is intergrown with euhedral arsenian pyrite (with ~2 atom % As). Pyrite is As-bearing pyrite that occurs as disseminated subhedral or anhedral zoned grains replacing by chalcopyrite in some samples. Inclusions of sphalerite and pyrrhotite are common in the large pyrite grains. Secondary minerals such as sericite, calcite, chlorite and albite are disseminated either in altered wallrocks or in quartz veins. Sericite is the main secondary and alteration mineral associated with Au-bearing sulfides and calcite. Electron microprobe data of the sericite show that its muscovite component is high in all analyzed flakes (XMs= an average 0.89) and the phengite content (Mg+Fe a.p.f.u.) varies from 0.10 to 0.55 and from 0.13 to 0.29 in wallrocks and mineralized veins respectively. Carbonate occurs either as thin veinlets or disseminated grains in the mineralized quartz vein and/or the wallrocks. It has higher amount of calcite (CaCO3) and low amount of MgCO3 as well as FeCO3 in the wallrocks relative to the quartz veins. Chlorite flakes are associated with arsenopyrite and their electron probe data revealed that they are generally Fe-rich composition (FeOt 20.64–20.10 wt.%) and their composition is clinochlore either pycnochlorite or ripidolite with Al (iv) = 2.30-2.36 pfu and 2.41-2.51 pfu and with narrow range of estimated formation temperatures are (289–295°C) and (301-312°C) for pycnochlorite and ripidolite respectively. Albite is accompanied with chlorite with an Ab content is high in all analyzed samples (Ab= 95.08-99.20).

Keywords: Mineral Chemistry, Egypt, micro-analytical data, EMPA, Atud gold deposit

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45 Effectuation of Interactive Advertising: An Empirical Study on Egyptian Tourism Advert

Authors: Bassant Eyada, Hanan Atef Kamal Eldin

Abstract:

Advertising has witnessed a diffusion and development in technology to promote products and services, increasingly relying on the interactivity between the consumer and the advertisement. Consumers seek, self-select, process, use and respond to the information provided, hence, providing the potential to increase consumers’ efficiency, involvement, trustworthiness, response and satisfaction towards the advertised product or service. The power of interactive personalized messages shifts the focus of traditional advertising to more concentrated consumers, sending out tailored messages with more specific individual needs and preferences, defining the importance and relevance that consumers attach to the advertisement, therefore, enhancing the ability to persuade, and the quality of decision making. In this paper, the researchers seek to discuss and explore innovative interactive advertising, its’ effectiveness on consumers and the benefits the advertisements provide, through designing an interactive ad to be placed at the international airports promoting tourism in Egypt.

Keywords: Advertising, Effectiveness, Egypt, interactivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
44 Benthic Foraminiferal Responses to Coastal Pollution for Some Selected Sites along Red Sea, Egypt

Authors: Ramadan M. El-Kahawy, M. A. El-Shafeiy, Mohamed Abd El-Wahab, S. A. Helal, Nabil Aboul-Ela

Abstract:

Due to the economic importance of Safaga Bay, Quseir harbor and Ras Gharib harbor , a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to invistigate 27 surfecial sediment samples from the three sites and 9 samples for each in order to use the benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators for characterization of the environmental variations. Grain size analyses indicate that the bottom facies in the inner part of quseir is muddy while the inner part of Ras Gharib and Safaga is silty sand and those close to the entrance of Safaga bay and Ras Gharib is sandy facies while quseir still also muddy facies. geochemical data show high concentration of heavy-metals mainly in Ras Gharib due to oil leakage from the hydrocarbon oil field and Safaga bay due to the phosphate mining while quseir is medium concentration due to anthropocentric effect.micropaelontological analyses indicate the boundaries of the highest concentration of heavy metals and those of low concentration as well.the dominant benthic foraminifera in these three sites are Ammonia beccarii, Amphistigina and sorites. the study highlights the worsening of environmental conditions and also show that the areas in need of a priority recovery.

Keywords: Egypt, benthic foraminifera, Ras Gharib, Safaga, Quseir, Red Sea

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43 Isolation and Identification of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Type-2 (GAT2) Genes from Three Egyptian Olive Cultivars

Authors: Yahia I. Mohamed, Ahmed I. Marzouk, Mohamed A. Yacout

Abstract:

Aim of this work was to study the genetic basis for oil accumulation in olive fruit via tracking DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) gene in three Egyptian Origen Olive cultivars namely Toffahi, Hamed and Maraki using molecular marker techniques and bioinformatics tools. Results illustrate that, firstly: specific genomic band of Maraki cultivars was identified as DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) and identical for this gene in Olea europaea with 100 % of similarity. Secondly, differential genomic band of Maraki cultivars which produced from RAPD fingerprinting technique reflected predicted distinguished sequence which identified as DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) in Fragaria vesca subsp. Vesca with 76% of sequential similarity. Third and finally, specific genomic specific band of Hamed cultivars was indentified as two fragments, 1-Olea europaea cultivar Koroneiki diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 mRNA, complete cds with two matches regions with 99% or 2-PREDICTED: Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2-like (LOC101313050), mRNA with 86% of similarity.

Keywords: Fingerprinting, Egypt, Olea europaea, diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2 (DGAT2)

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42 Design of a Small Mobile PV Driven RO Water Desalination Plant to be Deployed at the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Hosam A. Shawky, Amr A. Abdel Fatah, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFad, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar

Abstract:

Water desalination projects based on reverse osmosis technology are being introduced in Egypt to combat drinking water shortage in remote areas. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is a pressure driven process. This paper focuses on the design of an integrated brackish water and seawater RO desalination and solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology. A small Mobile PV driven RO desalination plant prototype without batteries is designed and tested. Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially break the dependence of conventional desalination on fossil fuels, reduce operational costs, and improve environmental sustainability. Moreover, the innovative features incorporated in the newly designed PV-RO plant prototype are focusing on improving the cost effectiveness of producing drinkable water in remote areas. This is achieved by maximizing energy yield through an integrated automatic single axis PV tracking system with programmed tilting angle adjustment. An autonomous cleaning system for PV modules is adopted for maximizing energy generation efficiency. RO plant components are selected so as to produce 4-5 m3/day of potable water. A basic criterion in the design of this PV-RO prototype is to produce a minimum amount of fresh water by running the plant during peak sun hours. Mobility of the system will provide potable water to isolated villages and population as well as ability to provide good drinking water to different number of people from any source that is not drinkable.

Keywords: Energy, Design, Desalination, Reverse osmosis, Photovoltaic, Egypt

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41 Reproductive Behaviour of the Red Sea Immigrant Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from the Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud Farrag, Alaa Elhaweet, El-Sayed Akel, Mohsen Moustafa

Abstract:

The present work aimed to study the reproductive strategy of the common lesspsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmeln, 1879) from the Egyptian Mediterranean Waters. It is a famous migratory species plays an important role in the field of fisheries and ecology of aquatic ecosystem. The obtained results illustrated seven maturity stages of gonads as; I- Thread like stage: II- Immature stage (Virgin stage), III- Maturing stage (Developing Virgin and recovering spent), IV - Nearly ripe stage, V- Fully ripe; VI-Spawning stage, VII- Spent stage. Sex ratio, exhibited males had higher number than females representing 52.44 % of the total fishes with sex ratio 1: 0.91. Fish length corresponding to 50% maturation was 38.5 cm for males and 41 cm for females. The corresponding ages (age at first maturity) are equal to 2.14 and 2.27 years for male and female respectively. The gonado somatic index (GSI) increased from April for both sexes with peak in June (8.567±4.729) for males and May (6.769±4.662) for females, then the sharp decrease was observed in October showing prolong spawning season from April to September for both sexes. The hepato somatic indices (HSI) for males were lower values than those of females, it were high from December to early spawning (April & May), with the peak in April (5.217 ± 2.167) for males, and in March (5.453± 1.792) for females, then these values started to decrease towards the end of spawning period. The ova diameter ranged from 0.02 to 0.85mm, the mature ova ranged from 0.16 to 0.85mm and showed progressive increase from April towards September during spawning period introducing one peak of mature and ripe eggs. The absolute fecundity increased as the fish grew in weight and length; it was ranged from 260288 to 2372931 for fish weight and ranged from 698 to 3285 cm for length with an average of 1449522±720975. The relative fecundity ranged from 373 to 722 for fish weight with an average of 776±231, while it range from 5784 to 32957 for fish length groups ranged from 43-45 to 70-72 cm with an average of 24478 ±10011 eggs. Histological characters of gonads during the year of study indicating this fish species has prolonged spawning season from April to September where ripe oocytes were observed during this period. This species is considered totally or uni spawner with synchronous group as it contained one to two developmental stages at the same gonad and releases its ripe ova in one batch during the spawning season. These results illustrated more adaptation of this species in new habitat.

Keywords: Reproductive Biology, Histology, Egypt, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Mediterranean Sea

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40 Developing Commitment to Change in Egyptian Modern Bureaucracies

Authors: Nada Basset

Abstract:

Purpose: To examine the nature of the civil service sector as an employer through identifying the likely ways to develop employees’ commitment towards change in the civil service sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: a qualitative research approach was followed. Data was collected via a triangulation of interviews, non-participant observation and archival documents analysis. Non-probability sampling took place with a case-study method applied on a sample of 33 civil servants working in the Egyptian Ministry of State for Administrative Development (MSAD) which is the civil service entity acting as the change agent responsible for managing the government administrative reforms plan in the civil service sector. All study participants were actually working in one of the change projects/programmes and had a minimum of 12 months of service in the civil service. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed in the form of MS-Word documents, and data transcripts were analyzed manually using MS-Excel worksheets and main research themes were developed and statistics drawn using those Excel worksheets. Findings: The results demonstrate that developing the civil servant’s commitment towards change may require a number of suggested solutions like (1) employee involvement and participation in the planning and implementation processes, (2) linking the employee support to change to some tangible rewards and incentives, (3) appointing some inspirational change leaders that should act as role models, and (4) as a last resort, enforcing employee’s commitment towards change by coercion and authoritarianism. Practical Implications: it is clear that civil servants’ lack of organizational commitment is not directly related to their level of commitment towards change. The research findings showed that civil servants’ commitment towards change can be raised and promoted by getting them involved in the planning and implementation processes, as this develops some sense of belongingness and ownership, thus there is a fair chance that low organizationally committed civil servants can develop high commitment towards change; given they are provided a favorable environment where they are invited to participate and get involved into the move of change. Originality/Value: the research addresses a relatively new area of ‘developing organizational commitment in modern bureaucracies’ by virtue of investigating the levels of civil servants’ commitment towards their jobs and/or organizations -on one hand- and suggesting different ways of developing their commitment towards administrative reform and change initiatives in the Egyptian civil service sector.

Keywords: Change, Bureaucracy, Egypt, commitment

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39 Effectuation of Interactive Advertising: An Empirical Study on Egyptian Tourism Advertising

Authors: Bassant Eyada, Hanan Atef Kamal Eldin

Abstract:

Advertising has witnessed a diffusion and development in technology to promote products and services, increasingly relying on the interactivity between the consumer and the advertisement. Consumers seek, self-select, process, use and respond to the information provided, hence, providing the potential to increase consumers’ efficiency, involvement, trustworthiness, response, and satisfaction towards the advertised product or service. The power of interactive personalized messages shifts the focus of traditional advertising to more concentrated consumers, sending out tailored messages with more specific individual needs and preferences, defining the importance and relevance that consumers attach to the advertisement, therefore, enhancing the ability to persuade, and the quality of decision making. In this paper, the researchers seek to discuss and explore innovative interactive advertising, its’ effectiveness on consumers and the benefits the advertisements provide, through designing an interactive ad to be placed at the international airports promoting tourism in Egypt.

Keywords: Advertising, Effectiveness, Egypt, interactivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
38 The Impact of Female Education on Fertility: A Natural Experiment from Egypt

Authors: Fatma Romeh, Shiferaw Gurmu

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of female education on fertility, using the change in length of primary schooling in Egypt in 1988-89 as the source of exogenous variation in schooling. In particular, beginning in 1988, children had to attend primary school for only five years rather than six years. This change was applicable to all individuals born on or after October 1977. Using a nonparametric regression discontinuity approach, we compare education and fertility of women born just before and after October 1977. The results show that female education significantly reduces the number of children born per woman and delays the time until first birth. Applying a robust regression discontinuity approach, however, the impact of education on the number of children is no longer significant. The impact on the timing of first birth remained significant under the robust approach. Each year of female education postponed childbearing by three months, on average.

Keywords: Fertility, Egypt, female education, robust regression discontinuity

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37 Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Test the Dimensional Structure of Tourism Service Quality

Authors: Ibrahim A. Elshaer, Alaa M. Shaker

Abstract:

Several previous empirical studies have operationalized service quality as either a multidimensional or unidimensional construct. While few earlier studies investigated some practices of the assumed dimensional structure of service quality, no study has been found to have tested the construct’s dimensionality using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). To gain a better insight into the dimensional structure of service quality construct, this paper tests its dimensionality using three CFA models (higher order factor model, oblique factor model, and one factor model) on a set of data collected from 390 British tourists visited Egypt. The results of the three tests models indicate that service quality construct is multidimensional. This result helps resolving the problems that might arise from the lack of clarity concerning the dimensional structure of service quality, as without testing the dimensional structure of a measure, researchers cannot assume that the significant correlation is a result of factors measuring the same construct.

Keywords: Service Quality, Egypt, dimensionality, confirmatory factor analysis

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36 The Relationships between Energy Consumption, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, and GDP for Egypt: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee

Abstract:

The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: crude oil, coal, natural gas, electricity), CO2 emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Egypt using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test for stationarity, Johansen maximum likelihood method for co-integration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests some negative impacts of the CO2 emissions and the coal and natural gas use on the GDP. Conversely, a positive long-run causality from the electricity consumption to the GDP is found to be significant in Egypt during the period. In the short-run, some positive unidirectional causalities exist, running from the coal consumption to the GDP, and the CO2 emissions and the natural gas use. Further, the GDP and the electricity use are positively influenced by the consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil. Overall, the results support arguments that there are relationships among environmental quality, energy use, and economic output in both the short term and long term; however, the effects may differ due to the sources of energy, such as in the case of Egypt for the period of 1980-2010.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Time Series Analysis, Co2 Emissions, Egypt, GDP

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35 Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, Maha Mohamed Hady Ali

Abstract:

Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.

Keywords: Iron, Copper, Selenium, Egypt, camel, zinc, feed stuff

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34 An Explanatory Study into the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Egyptian Beggars

Authors: Essam Mansour

Abstract:

The key purpose of this study is to provide first-hand information about beggars in Egypt, especially from the perspective of their information seeking behaviour including their information needs. The researcher tries to investigate the information-seeking behaviour of Egyptian beggars with regard to their thoughts, perceptions, motivations, attitudes, habits, preferences as well as challenges that may impede their use of information. The research methods used were an adapted form of snowball sampling of a heterogeneous demographic group of participants in the beggary activity in Egypt. This sampling was used to select focus groups to explore a range of relevant issues. Data on the demographic characteristics of the Egyptian beggars showed that they tend to be men, mostly with no formal education, with an average age around 30s, labeled as low-income persons, mostly single and mostly Muslims. A large number of Egyptian beggars were seeking for information to meet their basic needs as well as their daily needs, although some of them were not able to identify their information needs clearly. The information-seeking behaviour profile of a very large number of Egyptian beggars indicated a preference for informal sources of information over formal ones to solve different problems and meet the challenges they face during their beggary activity depending on assistive devices, such as mobile phones. The high degree of illiteracy and the lack of awareness about the basic rights of information as well as information needs were the most important problems Egyptian beggars face during accessing information. The study recommended further research to be conducted about the role of the library in the education of beggars. It also recommended that beggars’ awareness about their information rights should be promoted through educational programs that help them value the role of information in their life.

Keywords: Egypt, information-seeking behaviour, information needs, user studies, information sources, beggars

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33 A Study on the Influence of Aswan High Dam Reservoir Loading on Earthquake Activity

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy

Abstract:

Aswan High Dam Reservoir extends for 500 km along the Nile River; it is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It was created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam between 1958 and 1970; about 95% of the main water resources for Egypt are from it. The purpose of this study is to discuss and understand the effect of the fluctuation of the water level in the reservoir on natural and human-induced environmental like earthquakes in the Aswan area, Egypt. In summary, the correlation between the temporal variations of earthquake activity and water level changes in the Aswan reservoir from 1982 to 2014 are investigated and analyzed. This analysis confirms a weak relation between the fluctuation of the water level and earthquake activity in the area around Aswan reservoir. The result suggests that the seismicity in the area becomes active during a period when the water level is decreasing from the maximum to the minimum. Behavior of the water level in this reservoir characterized by a special manner that is the unloading season extends to July or August, and the loading season starts to reach its maximum in October or November every year. Finally, daily rate of change in the water level did not show any direct relation with the size of the earthquakes, hence, it is not possible to be used as a single tool for prediction.

Keywords: Environmental, Egypt, Aswan high dam reservoir, earthquake activity

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32 A Study on Earthquake Activities and Tectonic Setting in the Northeastern Part of Egypt

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy

Abstract:

Northeastern part of Egypt is considered one of the few regions of the world whereas evidence of historical activities has been documented during the last 48 centuries or more. Instrumental, historical and pre-historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The main aims in the present study were to redraw attention to the fact that the northeastern part of Egypt is seismically active and this result is associated with earthquake risk in the region. The interaction of the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates and Sinai subplate, is the main factor behind the earthquake activities of northeastern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south-west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez-Cairo-Alexandria trend.

Keywords: Egypt, earthquake ectivities, northeastern, tectonic setting

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31 Seismic Activity and Groundwater Behavior at Kalabsha Area, Aswan, Egypt

Authors: S. M. Moustafa, A. Ezzat, Y. S. Taha, G. H. Hassib, S. Hamada

Abstract:

After the occurrence of 14, Nov, 1981 earthquake (M = 5.3), on Kalabska fault, south of Egypt, seismic stations distributed in and around the Kalabsha area, in order to monitoring, recording and studying the seismic activity in the area. In addition of that, from 1989 a number of piezometer wells drilled in the same area, distribed on at the both side of the active faults area and in different water bearing formations, in order to measuring the groundwater parameters (level, temperature, ph, and conductivity) to monitoring the relationship between those parameters and the seismic activity at Kalabsha area. The behavior of groundwater due to seismic activity over the world studied by several scientists i.e. H. Wakita (1979) on Izu-Oshima earthquake (M= 7.0) at Japan, M. E. Contadakis & G.asteriadis (1972), and Evans (1966), they found an anomalies on groundwater measurements prior, co, and post the occurrence of bigger earthquakes, referring to the probability of precursory evidence of impending earthquakes. In Kalabsha area south of Egypt, this study has been done using recorded seismic data, and the measurements of underground water parameters. same phenomena of anomalies founded on groundwater measurements pre, co. and post the occurrence of earthquakes with magnitude bigger than 3, and no systematic regularity exists for epicenter distance, duration of anomalies or time lag between anomalies appear and occurrence of events. Also the results found present strong relation between the groundwater in the upper unconfined aquifer Nubian Sandstone formation, and Kalabsha seismic activity, otherwise no relation between the seismic activities in the area with the deep groundwater in the lower confined aquifer Sandstone.

Keywords: Groundwater, seismicity, Egypt, Aswan

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30 Seismic Microzonation of El-Fayoum New City, Egypt

Authors: Suzan Salem, Heba Moustafa, Abd El-Aziz Abd El-Aal

Abstract:

Seismic micro hazard zonation for urban areas is the first step towards a seismic risk analysis and mitigation strategy. Essential here is to obtain a proper understanding of the local subsurface conditions and to evaluate ground-shaking effects. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard considering local site effects by carrying out detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization in El-Fayoum New City. Seismic hazard analysis and microzonation of El-Fayoum New City are addressed in three parts: in the first part, estimation of seismic hazard is done using seismotectonic and geological information. The second part deals with site characterization using geotechnical and shallow geophysical techniques. In the last part, local site effects are assessed by carrying out one-dimensional (1-D) ground response analysis using the equivalent linear method by program SHAKE 2000. Finally, microzonation maps have been prepared. The detailed methodology, along with experimental details, collected data, results and maps are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Egypt, microzonation, El-Fayoum, seismotectonic

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29 Nutritional Quality of Partially Processed Chicken Meat Products from Egyptian and Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Ali Meawad Ahmad, Hosny A. Abdelrahman

Abstract:

Chicken meat is a good source of protein of high biological value which contains most of essential amino-acids with high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and low cholesterol level. Besides, it contain many vitamins as well as minerals which are important for the human body. Therefore, a total of 150 frozen chicken meat product samples, 800g each within their shelf-life, were randomly collected from commercial markets from Egypt (75 samples) and Saudi Arabian (75 samples) for chemical evaluation. The mean values of fat% in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 16.0% and 4.6% for chicken burger; 15.0% and 11% for nuggets and 11% and 11% for strips respectively. The mean values of moisture % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 67.0% and 81% for chicken burger; 66.0% and 78% for nuggets and 71.0% and 72% for strips respectively. The mean values of protein % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 15% and 17% for chicken burger; 16% and 16% for nuggets and 16% and 17% for strips respectively. The obtained results were compared with the Egyptian slandered and suggestions for improving the chemical quality of chicken products were given.

Keywords: Nutrition, Markets, Egypt, chicken meat

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28 Sustainable Tourism Development: Assessment of Egyptian Sustainable Resorts

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb

Abstract:

Tourism can do a great deal of good in destinations, whether it be by bringing economic benefits to local communities, helping with conservation efforts or in placing a value on aspects of cultural heritage. As responsive travelers, we must all try to do more of the good and less of the negative. This is simply description of the sustainable tourism. This paper aims to set some criteria of successful sustainable tourism development and then through these criteria analyzing the development of some resorts in Egypt known as sustainable resorts. Hence, a comprehensive improvement of the touristic areas is certainly needed to ensure a successful sustainable tourism development radiated the sense of uniformity and coherence. Egypt can benefit from these criteria to develop its resorts in order to preserve and revitalize its unique natural character and achieve mixed uses and tourism development.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, Tourism Development, Egypt, resorts

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27 Impacts of the Mineralogical Composition on the Petrophysical Behavior of the Amygdaloidal and Vesicular Basalts of Wadi Wizr, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: Nadia A. Wassif, Bassem S. Nabawy

Abstract:

This paper gives an account of the petrophysical characteristics and the petrographical descriptions of Tertiary vesicular and amygdaloidal olivine basalt samples from Wadi Wizr in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The petrographical studies indicated that the studied vesicular basalt is rich in calcic-plagioclase, augite and olivine in addition to numerous amounts of fine opaque minerals and vesicules filled with carbonate and quartz amygdales. The degree of oxidation and alteration of magnetite and ilmenite were discussed in details. Petrophysically, the studied samples can be grouped into two main groups; the first group of samples is amygdaloidal basalt as the second group is vesicular. The vesicular group (the permeable one) is characterized by fair to very good porosity ‘Φ’, good to very good permeability ‘k’, very low true formation factor ‘F’ and micro to ultra micropores. On the other hand, the amygdaloidal basalt group (impermeable group) is characterized by very low storage capacity properties, fair porosity, negligible permeability, medium to high true formation factor and ultra micorpores. It has been found that; the petrophysical behavior is strongly dependent on the degree of oxidation and alteration; and in particular on the rate of cooling and oxidation of the ore minerals which caused filling in the primarily produced vesicules by low temperature secondary minerals.

Keywords: Petrophysics, Egypt, vesicular, amygdaloidal, basalt

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