Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

effect Related Abstracts

20 Effect of Farmers Field School on Vegetables Production in District Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Sumeera Abbasi

Abstract:

The Farmers Field School (FFS) aims at benefiting poor farmers by improving their knowledge of existing agricultural technologies and integrated crop management to become independent and confident in their decision. The study on effect of farmer’s field school on vegetables production before and after FFS implementation in district Peshawar in four selected villages on each crop in 2011 was conducted from 80 farmers. The results were compared by using paired t-test. It was observed that 80% of the respondents were satisfied with FFS approach as there was a significant increase in vegetable production. The seed rate of tomato and cucumber decreased from 0.185kg/kanal to 0.1 kg/ kanal and 0.120kg/kanal to 0.01kg/kanal while production of tomato and cucumber were increased from 8158.75kgs/kanal to 1030.25kgs/kanal and 3230kgs/kanal to 5340kgs/kanal, respectively after the activities of FFS. FFS brought a positive effect on vegetable production and technology adoption improving their income, skills and knowledge ultimately lead farmers towards empowerment. The input cost including seed, crop management, FYM, and weedicides for tomato were reduced by Rs.28, Rs. 3170 and Rs.658 and cucumber reduced by Rs.35, Rs.570 and Rs.430. Only fertilizers cost was increased by Rs. 2200 in case of tomato and 465 in case of cucumber. FFS facilitator and coordinator should be more skilled and practical oriented to facilitate poor farmers. In light of the above study, more FFS should be planned so that the more farmers should be benefited.

Keywords: effect, farmer field school, vegetables production, integrated crop management

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19 Powerful Media: Reflection of Professional Audience

Authors: Hamide Farshad, Mohammadreza Javidi Abdollah Zadeh Aval

Abstract:

As a result of the growing penetration of the media into human life, a new role under the title of "audience" is defined in the social life .A kind of role which is dramatically changed since its formation. This article aims to define the audience position in the new media equations which is concluded to the transformation of the media role. By using the Library and Attributive method to study the history, the evolutionary outlook to the audience and the recognition of the audience and the media relation in the new media context is studied. It was perceived in past that public communication would result in receiving the audience. But after the emergence of the interactional media and transformation in the audience social life, a new kind of public communication is formed, and also the imaginary picture of the audience is replaced by the audience impact on the communication process. Part of this impact can be seen in the form of feedback which is one of the public communication elements. In public communication, the audience feedback is completely accepted. But in many cases, and along with the audience feedback, the media changes its direction; this direction shift is known as media feedback. At this state, the media and the audience are both doers and consistently change their positions in an interaction. With the greater number of the audience and the media, this process has taken a new role, and the role of this doer is sometimes taken by an audience while influencing another audience, or a media while influencing another media. In this article, this multiple public communication process is shown through representing a model under the title of ”The bilateral influence of the audience and the media.” Based on this model, the audience and the media power are not the two sides of a coin, and as a result, by accepting these two as the doers, the bilateral power of the audience and the media will be complementary to each other. Also more, the compatibility between the media and the audience is analyzed in the bilateral and interactional relation hypothesis, and by analyzing the action law hypothesis, the dos and don’ts of this role are defined, and media is obliged to know and accept them in order to be able to survive. They also have a determining role in the strategic studies of a media.

Keywords: Media, Interaction, effect, audience, action laws

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18 Using Set Up Candid Clips as Viral Marketing via New Media

Authors: P. Suparada, D. Eakapotch

Abstract:

This research’s objectives were to analyze the using of new media in the form of set up candid clip that affects the product and presenter, to study the effectiveness of using new media in the form of set up candid clip in order to increase the circulation and audience satisfaction and to use the earned information and knowledge to develop the communication for publicizing and advertising via new media. This research is qualitative research based on questionnaire from 50 random sampling representative samples and in-depth interview from experts in publicizing and advertising fields. The findings indicated the positive and negative effects to the brands’ image and presenters’ image of product named “Scotch 100” and “Snickers” that used set up candid clips via new media for publicizing and advertising in Thailand. It will be useful for fields of publicizing and advertising in the new media forms.

Keywords: Social Network, New Media, candid clip, effect

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17 Evaluation of Affecting Factors on Effectiveness of Animal Artificial Insemination Training Courses in Zanjan Province

Authors: Ali Ashraf Hamedi Oghul Beyk

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This research is aimed in order to demonstrate the factors affecting on effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training courses in Zanjan province. The research method is descriptive and correlation. Research tools a questionnaire and research sample are 104 persons who participated in animal artificial insemination training courses. The data resulted from this procedure was analysed by using SPSS software under windows system.independent variables include :individual, sociological, technical, and organizational, dependent variable is: affecting factors on effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training courses the finding of this study indicates that there is a significant correlation(99/0) between individual variables such as motivation and interest and experiment and effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training courses. There is significant correlation (95/0) between sociological variables such as job and education and effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training course. There is significant correlation (99/0) between techn ical variables such as training quality media and instructional materials. Moreover, effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training course there is significant correlation(0/95) between organizational variables such as trainers combination,place conditions.

Keywords: Effectiveness, effect, animal artificial insemination, training courses, Zanjan

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16 Comparison of the Effect of Feldspathic Porcelain and Zirconia on Natural Tooth Wear

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Elham Hamidi Shishavan

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Enamel wear is among the main disadvantages of ceramic restorations. Recently, use of full zirconia crowns without dental porcelain has been suggested. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feldspathic porcelain and zirconia on the wear of natural teeth. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 22 zirconia specimens were fabricated; out of which, 11 specimens were polished and used as zirconia specimens while the remaining 11 were used to fabricate porcelain specimens. A total of 22 natural human teeth were also collected. The natural teeth were photographed by a stereomicroscope in a fixed position and the distance from the cusp tip to a reference point was measured. Next, 11 teeth opposed zirconia and the remaining 11 opposed porcelain specimens in a chewing simulator and subjected to 120,000 masticatory cycles. The teeth were photographed again and the greatest difference between the before and after values was recorded. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) wear rate was 153.8±95.68 and 306.3±127.74, in the zirconia and porcelain groups, respectively; and the two groups had a statistically significant difference in this respect (P=0.007). Conclusion: The mean wear was significantly lower in teeth opposing zirconia than in those opposing feldspathic porcelain.

Keywords: effect, zirconia, natural tooth wear, feldspathic porcelain

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15 Toxic Activity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and taking a conscience prompted researchers and institutions to lean towards the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on part of the cuticle the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria. Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of the bio-control agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment by direct spraying of the cuticle, 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticle which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: effect, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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14 The Effect of Excess Workload on Lecturers in Higher Institution and Its Relation with Instructional Technology a Case Study of North-West Nigeria

Authors: Shitu Sani

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The paper is advanced on the historical background of the effects of excess work load on lecturers in higher institutions of learning which will assess the socio-economic and psychological disposition of lecturers in the realm of quality production. The paper further discusses the significant roles played by excess work load in general transformation of higher education, which will give the management and stake holders input for successful development of higher education. Even though all forms of work and organizational procedures are potential source of stress and stressors. In higher institution of leaning, lecturers perform many responsibilities such as lecturing, carrying out research and engaging in community services. If these multiple roles could not be handle property it would have result in stress which may have negative impact on job performance, and it’s relation with instructional technology. A sample 191 lecturers were randomly selected from the higher institutions in the northern west zone in Nigerian using two instruments i.e. work load stress management question and job performance Approval, data were collected on lecturers of socio-economic and physiological stress and job performances. Findings of the study shows that lecture experienced excess work load in academic activities. Lecturer’s job performance was negatively influences by socio-economic and psychological work stress. Among the recommendation made were the need for organizing regular induction courses for lecturers on stress, and enhance interpersonal relations among the lecturers as well as provision of electronic public address system to reduce the stress.

Keywords: workload, effect, lecturers, excess

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13 Evaluating Effect of Business Process Reengineering Performance of Private Banks

Authors: Elham Fakhrpoor, Daryush Mohammadi Zanjirani, Maziyar Nojaba

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Business process reengineering is one of the most important strategies in banks in recent years that not only it increases customers’ satisfaction, but also it increases performance of banks. The purpose of elementary (initial) business process reengineering is reinforcing banks abilities to obtain new customers and making long-term relationships with existed customers and increasing customers’ satisfaction among service quality in global level. Banks specially the private ones are the main streams of state, because cash flow is necessary to survive a state. What guarantees survival and permanency of financial institutes’ activities is providing favorite, certain, and proper services. Capital market being small and state financial system being bank-oriented needs optimum usage from banks. According to this fact and role and importance of developing banking system, the present study tried to offer a constructed model using Lisrel and also spss software to evaluate effects of business process reengineering on performance of private banks. We have one min hypothesis and four sub-hypotheses. The main hypothesis says reengineering factors have positive effects on bank performances (balanced- scores card aspects). These hypotheses were tested by structural equations modeling.

Keywords: Business, Reengineering, effect, private bank

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12 Effect of Building Construction Sizes on Project Delivery Methods in Nigeria

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Mohammad Sani

Abstract:

The performance of project delivery methods has been an issue of concern to various stakeholders in the construction industry. The contracting system of project delivery is the traditional system used in the delivery of most public projects in Nigeria. The direct labor system is used most times as an alternative to the traditional system. There were so many complain about the performance of contracting system and the suitability of direct labor as an alternative to the delivery of public projects. Therefore, this paper is aimed at investigating the effect of project size on the project delivery methods in the completed public buildings. Questionnaires were self-administered to managerial staff in the study area and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings reveals that contracting system was choosing for large size building construction project delivery with higher frequency (F) of 40 (76.9%) against direct labor with 12 (23.1%). While the small size project, the result revealed a frequency (F) of 26 (50%) for contracting system and direct labor system respectively. Base on the research findings, the contracting system, was recommended for all sizes of building construction project delivery while direct labor system can only use as an alternative for small size building construction projects delivery.

Keywords: effect, construction size, contracting system, direct labour

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11 The Effect of Rowing Exercise on Elderly Health

Authors: Rachnavy Pornthep, Khaothin Thawichai

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of rowing ergometer exercise on older persons health. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 was control group (10 male and 10 female) Group 2 was experimental group (10 male and 10 female). The time for study was 12 week. Group 1 engage in normal daily activities Group 2 Training with rowing machine for 20 minutes three days a week. The average age of the experimental group was 73.7 years old, mean weight 55.4 kg, height 154.8 cm in the control group, mean age was 74.95 years, mean weight 48.6 kg, mean height 153.85 cm. Physical fitness test composted of body size, flexibility, Strength, muscle endurance and cardiovascular endurance. The comparison between the experimental and control groups before training showed that body weight, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were significantly different. The flexibility, strength, cardiovascular endurance was not significantly different. The comparison between the control group and the experimental group after training showed that body weight, body mass index and cardiovascular endurance were significantly different. The ratio of waist to hips, flexibility and muscular strength were not significantly different. Comparison of physical fitness before training and after training of the control group showed that body weight, flexibility (Sit and reach) and muscular strength (30 – Second chair stand) were significantly different. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, muscles flexible (Shoulder girdle flexibility), muscle strength (30 – Second arm curl) and the cardiovascular endurance were not significantly difference. Comparison of physical fitness before training and after training the experimental group showed that waist to hip ratio, flexibility (sit and reach) muscle strength (30 – Second chair stand), cardiovascular endurance (Standing leg raises - up to 2 minutes) were significantly different. The Body mass index and the flexibility (Shoulder girdle flexibility) no significantly difference. The study found that exercising with rowing machine can improve the physical fitness of the elderly, especially the cardiovascular endurance, corresponding with the past research on the effects of exercise in the elderly with different exercise such as cycling, treadmill, walking on the elliptical machine. Therefore, we can conclude that exercise by using rowing machine can improve cardiovascular system and flexibility in the elderly.

Keywords: Exercise, Rowing, Elderly, effect

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10 Simulation and Analysis of Different Parameters in Hydraulic Circuit Due to Leakage

Authors: J.Das, Gyan Wrat

Abstract:

Leakage is the main gradual failure in the fluid power system, which is usually caused by the impurity in the oil and wear of matching surfaces between parts and lead to the change of the gap value. When leakage occurs in the system, the oil will flow from the high pressure chamber into the low pressure chamber through the gap, causing the reduction of system flow as well as the loss of system pressure, resulting in the decreasing of system efficiency. In the fluid power system, internal leakage may occur in various components such as gear pump, reversing valve and hydraulic cylinder, and affect the system work performance. Therefore, component leakage in the fluid power system is selected as the study to characterize the leakage and the effect of leakage on the system. Effect of leakage on system pressure and cylinder displacement can be obtained using pressure sensors and the displacement sensor. The leakage can be varied by changing the orifice using a flow control valve. Hydraulic circuit for leakage will be developed in Matlab/Simulink environment and simulations will be done by changing different parameters.

Keywords: Analysis, effect, leakage causes, MATLAB simulation, hydraulic circuit

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9 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar

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The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: laser, Imaging, tissue, Ultrasound, effect

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8 Terrorism and National Development: A Critique of Its Aftermath on Educational Attainment

Authors: David Chapola Nggada

Abstract:

Although the concept of terrorism is not a new phenomenon to Nigeria, the protracted terrorist activities experiencing in the north-eastern part of the country since 2009, had left an indelible mark on virtually every aspects of lives whether directly or indirectly, particularly the educational sector. Indeed, since the abduction of over 200 schoolgirls at Chibok in 2014 by the insurgence, education had witnessed a setback as most school remains closed for sometimes. The aftermath of this development on education and its future multiplier effect on national development is a source of concern. Consequently, this paper is designed to examine the consequences of terrorism on educational attainment and national development among the Chibok community of Borno State. The technique employed involves a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative research work on a sample size of 79 secondary school students currently displaced from Chibok, Damboa and Askira-Uba, now residing as internally displaced persons(IDPs) in Biu, Gombe, Maiduguri. A random sample technique is used. Structured and semi-unstructured questionnaire were administered. The result shows that, a significant number of students over these years, lacked access to education and this posed a great danger to national development. Recommendations towards reinvigorating education as a panacea to social, economic cum political vices were articulated. Concerted effort should be made to create confidence in the community.

Keywords: Education, Development, Terrorism, National, effect

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7 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: Electric Field, Boiling, effect, single bubbles

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6 Effects of Education on Farmers’ Productivity Outputs in Rural Nigeria

Authors: Thomas Ogilegwu Orohu

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This paper highlights the effect of education on farmers’ productivity in rural Nigeria which includes potential to obtain paid employment or generate income through self-help employment using skills learnt in school. The paper emphasizes that education help farmers’ in agro-processing units in production to reduce post harvest wastage. It highlights the benefits of schooling for farmers’ productivity, particularly in terms of efficiency gains and increased farm productivity. As technological innovation spread more widely within the country, the importance of formal education in farm production ought to become more apparent. Education help farmers to improve attitudes, beliefs and habits that may lead to greater willingness to accept risk, adopts innovation, save investment and generally to embrace productive practices. Finally factors affecting farmers’ education and appropriate recommendation were given with the hope that if resolutely implemented would bring the attainment of desired farm education to farmers to improve farm productivity outputs.

Keywords: Education, Productivity, effect, benefit

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5 Dealing the Disruptive Behaviour amongst Students with Autism through Circus

Authors: K. A. Razhiyah

Abstract:

Disruptive behavior is a problem that is usually associated with those with autism. There is a need to overcome this behavioral problem because the negative impact of this problem does not only effect the social relation of the students but also can cause uneasiness to those around them. This condition will be worse if the techniques used failed to motivate students to change the behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the circus games technique on the disruptive behavior amongst students with autism. The positive results of the intervention that was carried out for three months show the reduction in disruptive behaviour, and also improvement in the turn-taking and focusing ability aspect. Positive changes shown by the students had an encouraging effect and in a way are helping them in the teaching and learning process.

Keywords: autism, effect, desruptive behaviour, circus

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4 Softening Finishing: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

Softening applied on textile products based on several reasons. First, the synthetic detergent removes natural oils and waxes, thus lose the softness. Second, compensate the harsh handle of resin finishing. Also, imitate natural fibres and improve the comfort of fabric are the reasons to apply softening. There are different types of softeners for softening finishing of textiles, nonionic softener, anionic softener, cationic softener and silicone softener. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of different softeners and their final softening effect in textiles. The results could also provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: Textiles, effect, softening, learning materials

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3 The Effects of Mobile Communication on the Nigerian Populace

Authors: Chapman Eze Nnadozie

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Communication, the activity of conveying information, remains a vital resource for the growth and development of any given society. Mobile communication, popularly known as global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM, which is a wireless technology, remains the fastest growing communication means worldwide. Indeed, mobile phones have become a critical business tool and part of everyday life in both developed and developing countries. This study examines the effects of mobile communication on the Nigerian populace. The methodology used in this study is the survey research method with the main data collection tool as questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to a total of seventy respondents in five cities across the country, namely: Aba, Enugu, Bauchi, Makurdi, and Lagos. The result reveals that though there is some quality of service issues, mobile communication has very significant positive efforts on the economic and social development of the Nigerian populace.

Keywords: Mobile Communication, Wireless Technology, GSM, effect, mobile phone, populace

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2 The Effect of Photochemical Smog on Respiratory Health Patients in Abuja Nigeria

Authors: Christabel Ihedike, John Mooney, Monica Price

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Summary: This study aims to critically evaluate effect of photochemical smog on respiratory health in Nigeria. Cohort of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was recruited from two large hospitals in Abuja Nigeria. Respiratory health questionnaires, daily diaries, dyspnoea scale and lung function measurement were used to obtain health data and investigate the relationship with air quality data (principally ozone, NOx and particulate pollution). Concentrations of air pollutants were higher than WHO and Nigerian air quality standard. The result suggests a correlation between measured air quality and exacerbation of respiratory illness. Introduction: Photochemical smog is a significant health challenge in most cities and its effect on respiratory health is well acknowledged. This type of pollution is most harmful to the elderly, children and those with underlying respiratory disease. This study aims to investigate impact of increasing temperature and photo-chemically generated secondary air pollutants on respiratory health in Abuja Nigeria. Method and Result: Health data was collected using spirometry to measure lung function on routine attendance at the clinic, daily diaries kept by patients and information obtained using respiratory questionnaire. Questionnaire responses (obtained using an adapted and internally validated version of St George’s Hospital Respiratory Questionnaire), shows that ‘time of wheeze’ showed an association with participants activities: 30% had worse wheeze in the morning: 10% cannot shop, 15% take long-time to get washed, 25% walk slower, 15% if hurry have to stop and 5% cannot take-bath. There was also a decrease in Forced expiratory volume in the first second and Forced Vital Capacity, and daily change in the afternoon–morning may be associated with the concentration level of pollutants. Also, dyspnoea symptoms recorded that 60% of patients were on grade 3, 25% grade 2 and 15% grade 1. Daily frequency of the number of patients in the cohort that cough /brought sputum is 78%. Air pollution in the city is higher than Nigerian and WHO standards with NOx and PM10 concentrations of 693.59ug/m-3 and 748ugm-3 being measured respectively. The result shows that air pollution may increase occurrence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Conclusion: High temperature and local climatic conditions in urban Nigeria encourages formation of Ozone, the major constituent of photochemical smog, resulting also in the formation of secondary air pollutants associated with health challenges. In this study we confirm the likely potency of the pattern of secondary air pollution in exacerbating COPD symptoms in vulnerable patient group in urban Nigeria. There is need for better regulation and measures to reduce ozone, particularly when local climatic conditions favour development of photochemical smog in such settings. Climate change and likely increasing temperatures add impetus and urgency for better air quality standards and measures (traffic-restrictions and emissions standards) in developing world settings such as Nigeria.

Keywords: Respiratory Health, effect, Abuja-Nigeria, photochemical smog

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1 Effect of Reflective Practices on the Performance of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Madiha Zahid, Afifa Khanam

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the effect of reflective teaching practices on prospective teachers’ performance. Reflective teaching practice helps teachers to plan, implement and improve their performance by rethinking about their strengths and weaknesses. An action research was conducted by the researcher. All prospective teachers of sixth semester in a women university’s teacher education program were the population of the study. From 40 students, 20 students were taken as experimental group, and the rest of 20 students were taken as control group. During the action research a cyclic process of producing a module, training teachers for the reflective practices and then observing them during their class for reflective practice was done by the researchers. The research used a set of rubrics and checklists for assessing prospective teachers’ performance during their class. Finally, the module was modified with the help of findings. It was found that the training has improved the performance of teachers as they revised and modified their teaching strategies through reflective practice. However, they were not able to train their students for reflective practice as per expectation. The study has implications for teacher training programs to include reflective practice modules as part of their course work for making them better teachers.

Keywords: Performance, effect, prospective teacher, reflective practices

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