Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

eeg Related Abstracts

47 Emotiv EPOC BCI Matrix Speller Based on Single Emokey

Authors: S. M. Abdullah Al Mamun


Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is an excellent area for the researchers to make daily life more simple and fast. Necessary hardware equipments for any BCI are generally expensive and not affordable for most of the people. Emotiv is one of the solutions for this problem, which can provide electroencephalograph (EEG) signal and explain the brain activities. BCI virtual speller was one of the important applications for the people who have lost their hand or speaking ability because of diseases or unexpected accident. In this paper, a matrix speller has been designed for the first time for Bengali speaking people around the world. Bengali is one of the most commonly spoken languages. Among them, a lot of disabled person will be able to express their desire in their mother tongue. This application is also usable for the social networks and daily life communications. For this virtual keyboard, the well-known matrix speller method with column flashing is applied and controlled by single Emokey only. Emokey is a great feature which translates emotional state for application inputs. In this paper, it is presented that the ITR (Information Transfer Rate) were 29.4 bits/min and typing speed achieved up to 7.43 char/per min.

Keywords: Brain Computer Interface, eeg, Emotiv EPOC, virtual keyboard, matrix speller

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
46 Assessment of an ICA-Based Method for Detecting the Effect of Attention in the Auditory Late Response

Authors: Siavash Mirahmadizoghi, Steven Bell, David Simpson


In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of the effect of attention on the major components in the ALR waveform. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the ALR signal and also detect the effect of the attention on the ALR better than the single channel alternative.

Keywords: Attention, eeg, auditory late response (ALR), independent component analysis (ICA), multichannel signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
45 Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients

Authors: Subha D. Puthankattil, Paul K. Joseph


Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.

Keywords: Depression, eeg, wavelet entropy, approximate entropy, relative wavelet energy, multiresolution decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
44 Altered Network Organization in Mild Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Resting-State EEG

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Shin Teng, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan


Brain functional networks based on resting-state EEG data were compared between patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (mAD) and matched patients with amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions and the network analysis based on graph theory to further investigate the alterations of functional networks in mAD compared with aMCI group. We aimed at investigating the changes of network integrity, local clustering, information processing efficiency, and fault tolerance in mAD brain networks for different frequency bands based on several topological properties, including degree, strength, clustering coefficient, shortest path length, and efficiency. Results showed that the disruptions of network integrity and reductions of network efficiency in mAD characterized by lower degree, decreased clustering coefficient, higher shortest path length, and reduced global and local efficiencies in the delta, theta, beta2, and gamma bands were evident. The significant changes in network organization can be used in assisting discrimination of mAD from aMCI in clinical.

Keywords: Graph Theory, eeg, functional connectivity, TFCMI

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
43 Determination of Concentrated State Using Multiple EEG Channels

Authors: Gilwon Yoon, Tae Jin Choi, Jong Ok Kim, Sang Min Jin


Analysis of EEG brainwave provides information on mental or emotional states. One of the particular states that can have various applications in human machine interface (HMI) is concentration. 8-channel EEG signals were measured and analyzed. The concentration index was compared during resting and concentrating periods. Among eight channels, locations the frontal lobe (Fp1 and Fp2) showed a clear increase of the concentration index during concentration regardless of subjects. The rest six channels produced conflicting observations depending on subjects. At this time, it is not clear whether individual difference or how to concentrate made these results for the rest six channels. Nevertheless, it is expected that Fp1 and Fp2 are promising locations for extracting control signal for HMI applications.

Keywords: Human Machine Interface, Biophysical, eeg, Concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
42 EEG Diagnosis Based on Phase Space with Wavelet Transforms for Epilepsy Detection

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Mohmmad A. Obeidat, Amjed Al Fahoum


The recognition of an abnormal activity of the brain functionality is a vital issue. To determine the type of the abnormal activity either a brain image or brain signal are usually considered. Imaging localizes the defect within the brain area and relates this area with somebody functionalities. However, some functions may be disturbed without affecting the brain as in epilepsy. In this case, imaging may not provide the symptoms of the problem. A cheaper yet efficient approach that can be utilized to detect abnormal activity is the measurement and analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The main goal of this work is to come up with a new method to facilitate the classification of the abnormal and disorder activities within the brain directly using EEG signal processing, which makes it possible to be applied in an on-line monitoring system.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Detection, eeg, Wavelet

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
41 Robust Heart Rate Estimation from Multiple Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Physiological Signals Using Signal Quality Indices and Kalman Filter

Authors: Shalini Rankawat, Mansi Rankawat, Rahul Dubey, Mazad Zaveri


Physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often seriously corrupted by noise, artifacts, and missing data, which lead to errors in the estimation of heart rate (HR) and incidences of false alarm from ICU monitors. Clinical support in ICU requires most reliable heart rate estimation. Cardiac activity, because of its relatively high electrical energy, may introduce artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), and Electromyogram (EMG) recordings. This paper presents a robust heart rate estimation method by detection of R-peaks of ECG artifacts in EEG, EMG & EOG signals, using energy-based function and a novel Signal Quality Index (SQI) assessment technique. SQIs of physiological signals (EEG, EMG, & EOG) were obtained by correlation of nonlinear energy operator (teager energy) of these signals with either ECG or ABP signal. HR is estimated from ECG, ABP, EEG, EMG, and EOG signals from separate Kalman filter based upon individual SQIs. Data fusion of each HR estimate was then performed by weighing each estimate by the Kalman filters’ SQI modified innovations. The fused signal HR estimate is more accurate and robust than any of the individual HR estimate. This method was evaluated on MIMIC II data base of PhysioNet from bedside monitors of ICU patients. The method provides an accurate HR estimate even in the presence of noise and artifacts.

Keywords: EMG, Data fusion, eeg, Heart Rate, Kalman Filter, ECG, ABP, EOG, ECG artifacts, Teager-Kaiser energy, signal quality index

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
40 Analysis of Matching Pursuit Features of EEG Signal for Mental Tasks Classification

Authors: Zin Mar Lwin


Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Systems have developed for people who suffer from severe motor disabilities and challenging to communicate with their environment. BCI allows them for communication by a non-muscular way. For communication between human and computer, BCI uses a type of signal called Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal which is recorded from the human„s brain by means of an electrode. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is an important information source for knowing brain processes for the non-invasive BCI. Translating human‟s thought, it needs to classify acquired EEG signal accurately. This paper proposed a typical EEG signal classification system which experiments the Dataset from “Purdue University.” Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method via EEGLab Tools for removing artifacts which are caused by eye blinks. For features extraction, the Time and Frequency features of non-stationary EEG signals are extracted by Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm. The classification of one of five mental tasks is performed by Multi_Class Support Vector Machine (SVM). For SVMs, the comparisons have been carried out for both 1-against-1 and 1-against-all methods.

Keywords: eeg, SVM, ICA, BCI

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
39 Electroencephalogram Signals Controlling a Parallax Boe-Bot Robot

Authors: Nema M. Salem, Hanan A. Altukhaifi, Amal Mukhtar, Reemaz K. Hetaimish


Recently, BCI field of research has gained a lot of interest. Apart from motor neuroprosthetics, many studies showed the possibility of controlling a virtual environment of a videogame using the acquired electroencephalogram signals (EEG) from the gamer. In addition, another study had successfully moved a farm tractor using the human’s EEG signals. This article utilizes the use of EEG signals, as a source of technology, in controlling a Parallax Boe-Bot robot. The commercial Emotive Epoc headset has been used in acquiring the EEG signals from rested subjects. Because the human's visual cortex can successfully differentiate between different colors, the red and green colors are used as visual stimuli for generating EEG signals using the Epoc. Arduino and Labview are used to translate the virtually pressed keys into instructions controlling the motion and rotation of the robot. Optimistic results have been achieved except for minor delay and accuracy in the robot’s response.

Keywords: Robot, eeg, labview, BCI, Emotiv Epoc headset, Arduino applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
38 Alpha-Theta a Non-Invasive Treatment for the Self-Exploration of Individuals with Conversion Disorder in Pakistani Society

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Khalily


Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of alpha-theta brainwave Neuro feedback treatment for the internal self-exploration of individuals with conversion disorder. Method: A Purposive sample technique was used and data collected from Kalsoom International Hospital Islamabad and Al-Malik Medical Center Rawalpindi. 123 participants were examined, Male child = 5, female child = 6, male adult = 64, female adult = 48. This study retrospectively examined the symptomatic changes in clients with a range of psychiatric disorders particularly 13 (Male = 3, Female = 10) conversion disorder clients who have received Neuro feedback treatment. Results: Our results indicated a significant improvement (P < .001) in the amelioration of our clients’ symptoms which have enabled them to bring their emotional memories into conscious awareness for the peaceful resolution without self-detachment. Conclusion: Majority of the clients improved their psychiatric symptoms including the symptoms of conversion disorder and was discharged from therapy with the accomplishment of therapeutic goals.

Keywords: Therapy, Neurofeedback, eeg, conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
37 Gender Effects in EEG-Based Functional Brain Networks

Authors: Mahdi Jalili


Functional connectivity in the human brain can be represented as a network using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Network representation of EEG time series can be an efficient vehicle to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain function. Brain functional networks – whose nodes are brain regions and edges correspond to functional links between them – are characterized by neurobiologically meaningful graph theory metrics. This study investigates the degree to which graph theory metrics are sex dependent. To this end, EEGs from 24 healthy female subjects and 21 healthy male subjects were recorded in eyes-closed resting state conditions. The connectivity matrices were extracted using correlation analysis and were further binarized to obtain binary functional networks. Global and local efficiency measures – as graph theory metrics– were computed for the extracted networks. We found that male brains have a significantly greater global efficiency (i.e., global communicability of the network) across all frequency bands for a wide range of cost values in both hemispheres. Furthermore, for a range of cost values, female brains showed significantly greater right-hemispheric local efficiency (i.e., local connectivity) than male brains.

Keywords: Brain, Graph Theory, eeg, Network Science, functional networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
36 Epileptic Seizure Onset Detection via Energy and Neural Synchronization Decision Fusion

Authors: Muhammad Ismail, Marwa Qaraqe, Erchin Serpedin


This paper presents a novel architecture for a patient-specific epileptic seizure onset detector using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The proposed architecture is based on the decision fusion calculated from energy and neural synchronization related features. Specifically, one level of the detector calculates the condition number (CN) of an EEG matrix to evaluate the amount of neural synchronization present within the EEG channels. On a parallel level, the detector evaluates the energy contained in four EEG frequency subbands. The information is then fed into two independent (parallel) classification units based on support vector machines to determine the onset of a seizure event. The decisions from the two classifiers are then combined together according to two fusion techniques to determine a global decision. Experimental results demonstrate that the detector based on the AND fusion technique outperforms existing detectors with a sensitivity of 100%, detection latency of 3 seconds, while it achieves a 2:76 false alarm rate per hour. The OR fusion technique achieves a sensitivity of 100%, and significantly improves delay latency (0:17 seconds), yet it achieves 12 false alarms per hour.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Detection, neuron, Electroencephalography, eeg, seizure onset

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
35 The Impact of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety on Oscillatory Brain Activity during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Yulia V. Kovas, Tatyana A. Dolgorukova


The present study compared spectral-power indexes and cortical topography of brain activity in a sample characterized by different levels of trait and mathematical anxiety. 52 healthy Russian-speakers (age 17-32; 30 males) participated in the study. Participants solved an error recognition task under 3 conditions: A lexical condition (simple sentences in Russian), and two numerical conditions (simple arithmetic and complicated algebraic problems). Trait and mathematical anxiety were measured using self-repot questionnaires. EEG activity was recorded simultaneously during task execution. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) were used to analyze spectral-power changes in brain activity. Additionally, sLORETA was applied in order to localize the sources of brain activity. When exploring EEG activity recorded after tasks onset during lexical conditions, sLORETA revealed increased activation in frontal and left temporal cortical areas, mainly in the alpha/beta frequency ranges. When examining the EEG activity recorded after task onset during arithmetic and algebraic conditions, additional activation in delta/theta band in the right parietal cortex was observed. The ERSP plots reveled alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three (lexical, arithmetic and algebraic) conditions. The level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the amplitude of alpha/beta desynchronization. The level of mathematical anxiety was negatively correlated with the amplitude of theta synchronization and of alpha/beta desynchronization. Overall, trait anxiety was related with an increase in brain activation during task execution, whereas mathematical anxiety was associated with increased inhibitory-related activity. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the №11.G34.31.0043 grant from the Government of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: Anxiety, eeg, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, alpha/beta desynchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
34 EEG and ABER Abnormalities in Children with Speech and Language Delay

Authors: Bharati Mehta, Manish Parakh, Bharti Bhandari, Sneha Ambwani


Speech and language delay (SLD) is seen commonly as a co-morbidity in children having severe resistant focal and generalized, syndromic and symptomatic epilepsies. It is however not clear whether epilepsy contributes to or is a mere association in the pathogenesis of SLD. Also, it is acknowledged that Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABER), besides used for evaluating hearing threshold, also aid in prognostication of neurological disorders and abnormalities in the hearing pathway in the brainstem. There is no circumscribed or surrogate neurophysiologic laboratory marker to adjudge the extent of SLD. The current study was designed to evaluate the abnormalities in Electroencephalography (EEG) and ABER in children with SLD who do not have an overt hearing deficit or autism. 94 children of age group 2-8 years with predominant SLD and without any gross motor developmental delay, head injury, gross hearing disorder, cleft lip/palate and autism were selected. Standard video Electroencephalography using the 10:20 international system and ABER after click stimulus with intensities 110 db until 40 db was performed in all children. EEG was abnormal in 47.9% (n= 45; 36 boys and 9 girls) children. In the children with abnormal EEG, 64.5% (n=29) had an abnormal background, 57.8% (n=27) had presence of generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), 20% (n=9) had focal epileptiform discharges exclusively from left side and 33.3% (n=15) had multifocal IEDs occurring both in isolation or associated with generalised abnormalities. In ABER, surprisingly, the peak latencies for waves I, III & V, inter-peak latencies I-III & I-V, III-V and wave amplitude ratio V/I, were found within normal limits in both ears of all the children. Thus in the current study it is certain that presence of generalized IEDs in EEG are seen in higher frequency with SLD and focal IEDs are seen exclusively in left hemisphere in these children. It may be possible that even with generalized EEG abnormalities present in these children, left hemispheric abnormalities as a part of this generalized dysfunction may be responsible for the speech and language dysfunction. The current study also emphasizes that ABER may not be routinely recommended as diagnostic or prognostic tool in children with SLD without frank hearing deficit or autism, thus reducing the burden on electro physiologists, laboratories and saving time and financial resources.

Keywords: Speech, eeg, ABER, language delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
33 EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatiana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatiana A. Golovko, Yulia V. Kovas


EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions. The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16-20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band were associated with differences between anterior and posterior cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual resources.

Keywords: eeg, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, brain activity, mathematical and trait anxiety

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
32 The Combined Methodology To Detect Onboard Driver Fatigue

Authors: K. Senthil Nathan, P. Rajasekaran


Fatigue is a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness. Almost everyone becomes fatigued at some time, but driver’s fatigue is a serious problem that leads to thousands of automobile crashes each year. Fatigue process is often a change from the alertness and vigor state to the tiredness and weakness state. It is not only accompanied by drowsiness but also has a negative impact on mood. There have been studies to detect and quantify fatigue from the measurement of physiology variables such as electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), and electromyogram (EMG). This project involves a multimodal sensing of driver’s drowsiness. The first method is to count the eye blinking rate. In the second level, we authenticate the results of eye blink module with a grip sensor. The Flexiforce sensor is placed over the steering wheel. In the third level, the activities are sensed, the time elapsed from the driver’s last activity is counted here. The activities in the sense: Changing gear, applying brake, pressing sound horns, and turning the steering wheel. Absence of these activities is also an indicator of fatigue.

Keywords: EMG, eeg, EOG, eye blink sensor, Flexiforce sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
31 Lennox-gastaut Syndrome Associated with Dysgenesis of Corpus Callosum

Authors: A. Bruce Janati, Muhammad Umair Khan, Naif Alghassab, Ibrahim Alzeir, Assem Mahmoud, M. Sammour


Rationale: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome(LGS) is an electro-clinical syndrome composed of the triad of mental retardation, multiple seizure types, and the characteristic generalized slow spike-wave complexes in the EEG. In this article, we report on two patients with LGS whose brain MRI showed dysgenesis of corpus callosum(CC). We review the literature and stress the role of CC in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony(SBS). Method: This was a clinical study conducted at King Khalid Hospital. Results: The EEG was consistent with LGS in patient 1 and unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in patient 2. The MRI showed hypoplasia of the splenium of CC in patient 1, and global hypoplasia of CC combined with Joubert syndrome in patient 2. Conclusion: Based on the data, we proffer the following hypotheses: 1-Hypoplasia of CC interferes with functional integrity of this structure. 2-The genu of CC plays a pivotal role in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony. 3-Electrodecremental seizures in LGS emanate from pacemakers generated in the brain stem, in particular the mesencephalon projecting abnormal signals to the cortex via thalamic nuclei. 4-Unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in the context of mental retardation and multiple seizure types may represent a variant of LGS, justifying neuroimaging studies.

Keywords: MRI, eeg, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, corpus callosum

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
30 The Findings EEG-LORETA about Epilepsy

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ahmad Esmali Kooraneh, Hossein Taghi Derakhshi


Neural activity in the human brain starts from the early stages of prenatal development. This activity or signals generated by the brain are electrical in nature and represent not only the brain function but also the status of the whole body. At the present moment, three methods can record functional and physiological changes within the brain with high temporal resolution of neuronal interactions at the network level: the electroencephalogram (EEG), the magnet oencephalogram (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); each of these has advantages and shortcomings. EEG recording with a large number of electrodes is now feasible in clinical practice. Multichannel EEG recorded from the scalp surface provides a very valuable but indirect information about the source distribution. However, deep electrode measurements yield more reliable information about the source locations، Intracranial recordings and scalp EEG are used with the source imaging techniques to determine the locations and strengths of the epileptic activity. As a source localization method, Low Resolution Electro-Magnetic Tomography (LORETA) is solved for the realistic geometry based on both forward methods, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Finite Difference Method (FDM). In this paper, we review The findings EEG- LORETA about epilepsy.

Keywords: Epilepsy, eeg, EEG-LORETA

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
29 Behavioral and EEG Reactions in Native Turkic-Speaking Inhabitants of Siberia and Siberian Russians during Recognition of Syntactic Errors in Sentences in Native and Foreign Languages

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatiana N. Astakhova, Mikhail S. Vlasov, Natalia V. Borisova, Alexandera G. Karpova, Urana N. Kavai-ool, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatyana A. Golovko, Elena D. Mokur-ool, Nikolay A. Kolchanov, Lubomir I. Aftanas


The aim of the study is to compare behaviorally and EEG reactions in Turkic-speaking inhabitants of Siberia (Tuvinians and Yakuts) and Russians during the recognition of syntax errors in native and foreign languages. 63 healthy aboriginals of the Tyva Republic, 29 inhabitants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and 55 Russians from Novosibirsk participated in the study. All participants completed a linguistic task, in which they had to find a syntax error in the written sentences. Russian participants completed the task in Russian and in English. Tuvinian and Yakut participants completed the task in Russian, English, and Tuvinian or Yakut, respectively. EEG’s were recorded during the solving of tasks. For Russian participants, EEG's were recorded using 128-channels. The electrodes were placed according to the extended International 10-10 system, and the signals were amplified using ‘Neuroscan (USA)’ amplifiers. For Tuvinians and Yakuts EEG's were recorded using 64-channels and amplifiers Brain Products, Germany. In all groups 0.3-100 Hz analog filtering, sampling rate 1000 Hz were used. Response speed and the accuracy of recognition error were used as parameters of behavioral reactions. Event-related potentials (ERP) responses P300 and P600 were used as indicators of brain activity. The accuracy of solving tasks and response speed in Russians were higher for Russian than for English. The P300 amplitudes in Russians were higher for English; the P600 amplitudes in the left temporal cortex were higher for the Russian language. Both Tuvinians and Yakuts have no difference in accuracy of solving tasks in Russian and in their respective national languages (Tuvinian and Yakut). However, the response speed was faster for tasks in Russian than for tasks in their national language. Tuvinians and Yakuts showed bad accuracy in English, but the response speed was higher for English than for Russian and the national languages. With Tuvinians, there were no differences in the P300 and P600 amplitudes and in cortical topology for Russian and Tuvinian, but there was a difference for English. In Yakuts, the P300 and P600 amplitudes and topology of ERP for Russian were the same as Russians had for Russian. In Yakuts, brain reactions during Yakut and English comprehension had no difference and were reflected foreign language comprehension -while the Russian language comprehension was reflected native language comprehension. We found out that the Tuvinians recognized both Russian and Tuvinian as native languages, and English as a foreign language. The Yakuts recognized both English and Yakut as a foreign language, only Russian as a native language. According to the inquirer, both Tuvinians and Yakuts use the national language as a spoken language, whereas they don’t use it for writing. It can well be a reason that Yakuts perceive the Yakut writing language as a foreign language while writing Russian as their native.

Keywords: eeg, Language Comprehension, native and foreign languages, Siberian inhabitants

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
28 Event-Related Potentials and Behavioral Reactions during Native and Foreign Languages Comprehension in Bilingual Inhabitants of Siberia

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatiana N. Astakhova, Mikhail S. Vlasov, Natalia V. Borisova, Alexandera G. Karpova, Urana N. Kavai-ool, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatyana A. Golovko, Elena D. Mokur-ool, Nikolay A. Kolchanov, Lubomir I. Aftanas


The study is dedicated to the research of brain activity in bilingual inhabitants of Siberia. We compared behavioral reactions and event-related potentials in Turkic-speaking inhabitants of Siberia (Tuvinians and Yakuts) and Russians. 63 healthy aboriginals of the Tyva Republic, 29 inhabitants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and 55 Russians from Novosibirsk participated in the study. All the healthy and right-handed participants, matched on age and sex, were students of different universities. EEG’s were recorded during the solving of linguistic tasks. In these tasks, participants had to find a syntax error in the written sentences. There were four groups of sentences: Russian, English, Tuvinian, and Yakut. All participants completed the tasks in Russian and English. Additionally, Tuvinians and Yakuts completed the tasks in Tuvinian or Yakut respectively. For Russians, EEG's were recorded using 128-channels according to the extended International 10-10 system, and the signals were amplified using “Neuroscan (USA)” amplifiers. For Tuvinians and Yakuts, EEG's were recorded using 64-channels and amplifiers Brain Products, Germany. In all groups, 0.3-100 Hz analog filtering and sampling rate 1000 Hz were used. As parameters of behavioral reactions, response speed and the accuracy of recognition were used. Event-related potentials (ERP) responses P300 and P600 were used as indicators of brain activity. The behavioral reactions showed that in Russians, the response speed for Russian was faster than for English. Also, the accuracy of solving tasks was higher for Russian than for English. The peak P300 in Russians were higher for English, the peak P600 in the left temporal cortex were higher for the Russian language. Both Tuvinians and Yakuts have no difference in accuracy of solving tasks in Russian and in their respective national languages. However, the response speed was faster for tasks in Russian than for tasks in their national language. Tuvinians and Yakuts showed bad accuracy in English, but the response speed was higher for English than for Russian and the national languages. This can be explained by the fact that they did not think carefully and gave a random answer for English. In Tuvinians, The P300 and P600 amplitudes and cortical topology were the same for Russian and Tuvinian and different for English. In Yakuts, the P300 and P600 amplitudes and topology of ERP for Russian were the same as what Russians had for Russian. In Yakuts, brain reactions during Yakut and English comprehension had no difference, and were reflected to foreign language comprehension - while the Russian language comprehension was reflected to native language comprehension. We found out that the Tuvinians recognized both Russian and Tuvinian as native languages, and English as a foreign language. The Yakuts recognized both English and Yakut as a foreign language, and only Russian as a native language. According to the inquirer, both Tuvinians and Yakuts use the national language as a spoken language, whereas they don’t use it for writing. It can well be a reason that Yakuts perceive the Yakut writing language as a foreign language while writing Russian as their native.

Keywords: ERP, eeg, Siberian inhabitants, native and foreign languages comprehension

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
27 Non-linear Analysis of Spontaneous EEG After Spinal Cord Injury: An Experimental Study

Authors: Yong Hu, Hongyan Cui, Jiangbo Pu, Hanhui Xu, Yazhou Wang


Spinal cord injury (SCI) brings great negative influence to the patients and society. Neurological loss in human after SCI is a major challenge in clinical. Instead, neural regeneration could have been seen in animals after SCI, and such regeneration could be retarded by blocking neural plasticity pathways, showing the importance of neural plasticity in functional recovery. Here we used sample entropy as an indicator of nonlinear dynamical in the brain to quantify plasticity changes in spontaneous EEG recordings of rats before and after SCI. The results showed that the entropy values were increased after the injury during the recovery in one week. The increasing tendency of sample entropy values is consistent with that of behavioral evaluation scores. It is indicated the potential application of sample entropy analysis for the evaluation of neural plasticity in spinal cord injury rat model.

Keywords: Nonlinear, Complex System, eeg, sample entropy, spinal cord injury (SCI), firing pattern, spontaneous activity, Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) score

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
26 EEG and DC-Potential Level Сhanges in the Elderly

Authors: Irina Deputat, Anatoly Gribanov, Yuliya Dzhos, Alexandra Nekhoroshkova, Tatyana Yemelianova, Irina Bolshevidtseva, Irina Deryabina, Yana Kereush, Larisa Startseva, Tatyana Bagretsova, Irina Ikonnikova


In the modern world the number of elderly people increases. Preservation of functionality of an organism in the elderly becomes very important now. During aging the higher cortical functions such as feelings, perception, attention, memory, and ideation are gradual decrease. It is expressed in the rate of information processing reduction, volume of random access memory loss, ability to training and storing of new information decrease. Perspective directions in studying of aging neurophysiological parameters are brain imaging: computer electroencephalography, neuroenergy mapping of a brain, and also methods of studying of a neurodynamic brain processes. Research aim – to study features of a brain aging in elderly people by electroencephalogram (EEG) and the DC-potential level. We examined 130 people aged 55 - 74 years that did not have psychiatric disorders and chronic states in a decompensation stage. EEG was recorded with a 128-channel GES-300 system (USA). EEG recordings are collected while the participant sits at rest with their eyes closed for 3 minutes. For a quantitative assessment of EEG we used the spectral analysis. The range was analyzed on delta (0,5–3,5 Hz), a theta - (3,5–7,0 Hz), an alpha 1-(7,0–11,0 Hz) an alpha 2-(11–13,0 Hz), beta1-(13–16,5 Hz) and beta2-(16,5–20 Hz) ranges. In each frequency range spectral power was estimated. The 12-channel hardware-software diagnostic ‘Neuroenergometr-KM’ complex was applied for registration, processing and the analysis of a brain constant potentials level. The DC-potential level registered in monopolar leads. It is revealed that the EEG of elderly people differ in higher rates of spectral power in the range delta (р < 0,01) and a theta - (р < 0,05) rhythms, especially in frontal areas in aging. By results of the comparative analysis it is noted that elderly people 60-64 aged differ in higher values of spectral power alfa-2 range in the left frontal and central areas (р < 0,05) and also higher values beta-1 range in frontal and parieto-occipital areas (р < 0,05). Study of a brain constant potential level distribution revealed increase of total energy consumption on the main areas of a brain. In frontal leads we registered the lowest values of constant potential level. Perhaps it indicates decrease in an energy metabolism in this area and difficulties of executive functions. The comparative analysis of a potential difference on the main assignments testifies to unevenness of a lateralization of a brain functions at elderly people. The results of a potential difference between right and left hemispheres testify to prevalence of the left hemisphere activity. Thus, higher rates of functional activity of a cerebral cortex are peculiar to people of early advanced age (60-64 years) that points to higher reserve opportunities of central nervous system. By 70 years there are age changes of a cerebral power exchange and level of electrogenesis of a brain which reflect deterioration of a condition of homeostatic mechanisms of self-control and the program of processing of the perceptual data current flow.

Keywords: Brain, eeg, elderly people, DC-potential level

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25 EEG Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Language Disorders

Authors: Hamed Alizadeh Dashagholi, Hossein Yousefi-Banaem, Mina Naeimi


Current study established for EEG signal analysis in patients with language disorder. Language disorder can be defined as meaningful delay in the use or understanding of spoken or written language. The disorder can include the content or meaning of language, its form, or its use. Here we applied Z-score, power spectrum, and coherence methods to discriminate the language disorder data from healthy ones. Power spectrum of each channel in alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and theta frequency bands was measured. In addition, intra hemispheric Z-score obtained by scoring algorithm. Obtained results showed high Z-score and power spectrum in posterior regions. Therefore, we can conclude that peoples with language disorder have high brain activity in frontal region of brain in comparison with healthy peoples. Results showed that high coherence correlates with irregularities in the ERP and is often found during complex task, whereas low coherence is often found in pathological conditions. The results of the Z-score analysis of the brain dynamics showed higher Z-score peak frequency in delta, theta and beta sub bands of Language Disorder patients. In this analysis there were activity signs in both hemispheres and the left-dominant hemisphere was more active than the right.

Keywords: Electroencephalography, eeg, Z-score, power spectrum, coherence methods, language disorder

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24 Epileptic Seizure Prediction Focusing on Relative Change in Consecutive Segments of EEG Signal

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul


Epilepsy is a common neurological disorders characterized by sudden recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely used to diagnose possible epileptic seizure. Many research works have been devoted to predict epileptic seizure by analyzing EEG signal. Seizure prediction by analyzing EEG signals are challenging task due to variations of brain signals of different patients. In this paper, we propose a new approach for feature extraction based on phase correlation in EEG signals. In phase correlation, we calculate relative change between two consecutive segments of an EEG signal and then combine the changes with neighboring signals to extract features. These features are then used to classify preictal/ictal and interictal EEG signals for seizure prediction. Experiment results show that the proposed method carries good prediction rate with greater consistence for the benchmark data set in different brain locations compared to the existing state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: Epilepsy, eeg, phase correlation, seizure

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23 A Combination of Independent Component Analysis, Relative Wavelet Energy and Support Vector Machine for Mental State Classification

Authors: Nguyen The Hoang Anh, Tran Huy Hoang, Vu Tat Thang, T. T. Quyen Bui


Mental state classification is an important step for realizing a control system based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals which could benefit a lot of paralyzed people including the locked-in or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Considering that EEG signals are nonstationary and often contaminated by various types of artifacts, classifying thoughts into correct mental states is not a trivial problem. In this work, our contribution is that we present and realize a novel model which integrates different techniques: Independent component analysis (ICA), relative wavelet energy, and support vector machine (SVM) for the same task. We applied our model to classify thoughts in two types of experiment whether with two or three mental states. The experimental results show that the presented model outperforms other models using Artificial Neural Network, K-Nearest Neighbors, etc.

Keywords: eeg, Wavelet, SVM, ICA

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22 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Samhani Ismail, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir


Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: Cognition, Memory, Linguistic, eeg, auditory stimulation, Quranic recitation

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21 Replication of Meaningful Gesture Study for N400 Detection Using a Commercial Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout


In an effort to test the ability of a commercial grade EEG headset to effectively measure the N400 ERP, a replication study was conducted to see if similar results could be produced as that which used a medical grade EEG. Pictures of meaningful and meaningless hand postures were borrowed from the original author and subjects were required to perform a semantic discrimination task. The N400 was detected indicating semantic processing of the meaningfulness of the hand postures. The results corroborate those of the original author and support the use of some commercial grade EEG headsets for non-critical research applications.

Keywords: Semantics, ERP, eeg, gestures, EMOTIV, N400, congruency

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20 N400 Investigation of Semantic Priming Effect to Symbolic Pictures in Text

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout


The purpose of this study was to investigate if incorporating meaningful pictures of gestures and facial expressions in short sentences of text could supplement the text with enough semantic information to produce and N400 effect when probe words incongruent to the picture were subsequently presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a 14-channel commercial grade EEG headset while subjects performed congruent/incongruent reaction time discrimination tasks. Since pictures of meaningful gestures have been shown to be semantically processed in the brain in a similar manner as words are, it is believed that pictures will add supplementary information to text just as the inclusion of their equivalent synonymous word would. The hypothesis is that when subjects read the text/picture mixed sentences, they will process the images and words just like in face-to-face communication and therefore probe words incongruent to the image will produce an N400.

Keywords: Semantics, ERP, eeg, EMOTIV, N400, congruency, facilitation

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19 Epilepsy Seizure Prediction by Effective Connectivity Estimation Using Granger Causality and Directed Transfer Function Analysis of Multi-Channel Electroencephalogram

Authors: Mona Hejazi, Ali Motie Nasrabadi


Epilepsy is a persistent neurological disorder that affects more than 50 million people worldwide. Hence, there is a necessity to introduce an efficient prediction model for making a correct diagnosis of the epileptic seizure and accurate prediction of its type. In this study we consider how the Effective Connectivity (EC) patterns obtained from intracranial Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings reveal information about the dynamics of the epileptic brain and can be used to predict imminent seizures, as this will enable the patients (and caregivers) to take appropriate precautions. We use this definition because we believe that effective connectivity near seizures begin to change, so we can predict seizures according to this feature. Results are reported on the standard Freiburg EEG dataset which contains data from 21 patients suffering from medically intractable focal epilepsy. Six channels of EEG from each patients are considered and effective connectivity using Directed Transfer Function (DTF) and Granger Causality (GC) methods is estimated. We concentrate on effective connectivity standard deviation over time and feature changes in five brain frequency sub-bands (Alpha, Beta, Theta, Delta, and Gamma) are compared. The performance obtained for the proposed scheme in predicting seizures is: average prediction time is 50 minutes before seizure onset, the maximum sensitivity is approximate ~80% and the false positive rate is 0.33 FP/h. DTF method is more acceptable to predict epileptic seizures and generally we can observe that the greater results are in gamma and beta sub-bands. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices.

Keywords: eeg, granger causality, effective connectivity, directed transfer function, epilepsy seizure prediction

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18 Intrinsic Motivational Factor of Students in Learning Mathematics and Science Based on Electroencephalogram Signals

Authors: Mahyar hamedi, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Norzaliza Md. Nor, Hadrina Hussain, Wahab Abdul Rahman


Motivational factor is mainly the students’ desire to involve in learning process. However, it also depends on the goal towards their involvement or non-involvement in academic activity. Even though, the students’ motivation might be in the same level, but the basis of their motivation may differ. In this study, it focuses on the intrinsic motivational factor which student enjoy learning or feeling of accomplishment the activity or study for its own sake. The intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science has found as difficult to be achieved because it depends on students’ interest. In the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for mathematics and science, Malaysia is ranked as third lowest. The main problem in Malaysian educational system, students tend to have extrinsic motivation which they have to score in exam in order to achieve a good result and enrolled as university students. The use of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has found to be scarce especially to identify the students’ intrinsic motivational factor in learning science and mathematics. In this research study, we are identifying the correlation between precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion to verify the intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science. The 2-D Affective Space Model (ASM) was used in this research in order to identify the relationship of precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion based on the four basic emotions, happy, calm, fear and sad. These four basic emotions are required to be used as reference stimuli. Then, in order to capture the brain waves, EEG device was used, while Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) was adopted to be used for extracting the features before it will be feed to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) to classify the valence and arousal axes for the ASM. The results show that the precursor emotion had an influence the dynamic emotions and it identifies that most students have no interest in mathematics and science according to the negative emotion (sad and fear) appear in the EEG signals. We hope that these results can help us further relate the behavior and intrinsic motivational factor of students towards learning of mathematics and science.

Keywords: eeg, MFCC, MLP, intrinsic motivational factor

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