Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Ecotourism Related Abstracts

29 The Design of English Materials to Communicate the Identity of Mueang Distict, Samut Songkram for Ecotourism

Authors: Kitda Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Mueang district, Samut Songkram province for ecotourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: 1. The identity of Amphur (District) Mueang, Samut Songkram province. This establishment was near the Mouth of Maekong River for normal people and tourists, consisting of rest accommodations. There are restaurants where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) and mangrove trees. Don Hoy Lod, is characterized by muddy beaches, is a coastal wetland for Ramsar Site. It is at 1099th ranging where the greatest number of Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) can be seen from March to May each year. 2. The communication of the identity of Amphur Mueang, Samut Songkram province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 4 items: 1) The history of Amphur Mueang, Samut Songkram province 2) Wat Phet Samut Worrawihan 3) The Learning source of Ecotourism: Don Hoy Lod and Mangrove forest 4) How to keep Amphur Mueang, Samut Songkram province for ecotourism.

Keywords: Semiotics, Ecotourism, foreigner tourists, signified

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28 People Participation as Social Capital Form for Realizing Sustainable Ecotourism

Authors: I. Putu Eka N. Kencana, I. Wayan Mertha

Abstract:

A variety of research’s evidence suggests that community involvement is one of the vital elements in the development of sustainable tourism. As an entity of the tourism system, local communities are considered have better understanding of their region as well as influenced positively or negatively by the tourism activities in the region. This study elaborates role of community involvement in the development of ecotourism in Kintamani Bali from two perspectives of view, namely participation in the process of initiatives development and participation in the economic benefits of tourism. As one element of social capital form, community participation on the development and management of ecotourism in Kintamani, could be expected maintain its sustainability.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Social Capital, Participation, Community Involvement

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27 The Studies of Client Requirements in Home Stay: A Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Kanamon Suwantada

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to understand customer’s expectations towards homestays and to establish the precise strategies to increase numbers of tourists for homestay business in Amphawa district, Samutsongkram, Thailand. The researcher aims to ensure that each host provides experiences to travelers who are looking for and determining new targets for homestay business in Amphawa as well as creating sustainable homestay using marketing strategies to increase customers. The methods allow interview and questionnaire to gain both overview data from the tourists and qualitative data from the homestay owner’s perspective to create a GAP analysis. The data was collected from 200 tourists, during 15th May - 30th July, 2011 from homestay in Amphawa Community. The questionnaires were divided into three sections: the demographic profile, customer information and influencing on purchasing position, and customer expectation towards homestay. The analysis, in fact, will be divided into two methods which are percentage and correlation analyses. The result of this research revealed that homestay had already provided customers with reasonable prices in good locations. Antithetically, activities that they offered still could not have met the customer’s requirements. Homestay providers should prepare additional activities such as village tour, local attraction tour, village daily life experiences, local ceremony participation, and interactive conversation with local people. Moreover, the results indicated that a price was the most important factor for choosing homestay.

Keywords: Marketing, Ecotourism, sufficiency economic philosophy, homestay

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26 The Innovation of English Materials to Communicate the Identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan Province, for Ecotourism

Authors: Kitda Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Mueang district, SamutSongkram province for ecotourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: (1) The identity of Amphur (District) Mueang, SamutSongkram province. This establishment was near the Mouth of Maekong River for normal people and tourists, consisting of rest accommodations. There are restaurants where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) and mangrove trees. Don Hoy Lod, is characterized by muddy beaches, is a coastal wetland for Ramsar Site. It is at 1099th ranging where the greatest number of Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) can be seen from March to May each year. (2) The communication of the identity of AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 4 items: 1) The history of AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province 2) WatPhetSamutWorrawihan 3) The Learning source of Ecotourism: Don Hoy Lod and Mangrove forest 4) How to keep AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province for ecotourism.

Keywords: Semiotics, Ecotourism, foreigner tourists, signified

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25 Cultural Traditions Petik Laut and Onjem in Gili Island, Indonesia That Potential as Ecotourism to Bring Indonesia's Culture to the World

Authors: Dwi Yulian Fahruddin Shah, Mochammad Luthfy Rizaldy Dwi Putra, Tommy Adi Rachmawan, Mona Annisa Matondang, Nadya Sylvia, Hilmy Ramzy Rinaldy

Abstract:

Gili island is one of the island in Indonesia which is located in Probolinggo city, East Java. Gili Island has some potential culture as local wisdom that can be used as tourism commodity because it can be used as attractive ecotourism. With the ecotourism that utilize local wisdom of Indonesian’s culture that located in Gili can introduce the richness of Indonesian culture in the world that will increase foreign exchange. One of the cultural potential as local wisdom in Gili island are Petik Laut and Onjem. It are a culture in Gili island that can’t be found in other island in Indonesia. Not just that but also it are a cultural identity that is owned by Gili island which has fill the criteria to be used as local wisdom that can be used as ecotourism that can bring Indonesian culture to the world so that the tourists of the world will visit to Indonesia, especially to Gili island to see Petik Laut and Onjem culture directly.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Gili island, petik laut and onjem culture, indonesia’s culture

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24 Revisiting Ecotourism Development Strategy of Cuc Phuong National Park in Vietnam: Considering Residents’ Perception and Attitudes

Authors: Bui Duc Sinh

Abstract:

Ecotourism in national parks seemed to be one of the options in the conservation of the natural resources and to improve the living condition of local communities. However, ecotourism development will be useless if it lacks the perception and support of local communities and appropriate ecotourism strategies. The aims of this study were to measure residents’ perception and satisfaction towards ecotourism impacts and their attitudes for ecotourism development in Cuc Phuong National Park; to assess the current ecotourism strategies based on ecotourism criteria and then to provide recommendations on ecotourism development strategies. The primary data were collected through personal observations, in-depth interviews with residents and national park staffs, and from surveys on households in all of the five communes in the Cuc Phuong National Park. The results depicted that local communities were aware of ecotourism impacts and had positive attitudes toward ecotourism development, and were satisfied of ecotourism development. However, higher perception rate was found on specific groups such as the young, the high income and educated, and those with jobs related to ecotourism. The study revealed the issues of concerns about the current ecotourism development strategies in Cuc Phuong National Park. The major hindrances for ecotourism development were lack of local participation and unattractive ecotourism services. It was also suggested that Cuc Phuong National Park should use ecotourism criteria to implement ecotourism activities sustainably and to harmonize the sharing of benefits amongst the stakeholders. The approaches proposed were to: create local employment through reengineering, improve the ecotourism quality, appropriate tourism benefits to the stakeholders, and carry out education and training programs. Furthermore, the results of the study helped tour operators and tourism promoters aware the real concerns, issues on current ecotourism activities in Cuc Phuong National Park.

Keywords: Ecotourism, local community, national park, ecotourism impact

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23 The Green Propaganda: Paradoxes of Costa Rica as the Poster Child for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Maria Jose Ramos Villagra

Abstract:

Since the boom of tourism in the late 80s and 90s, Costa Rica is considered as one of the leading countries for tourism. The size and geography of its territory, its low population density, and its image of being one of the most stable Latin American democracies make Costa Rica an attractive and safe target for foreign investors. Land ownership by foreign investors has increased as the natural resources in rural communities have been exhausted. When nature becomes an instrument to increase profit, it loses its communal value contributing to local communities losing their sovereignty and access to basic resources. The rural regions in proximity to the most tourist areas are often the most marginalized. The purpose of this research is to use the case of the rural community Sardinal and its struggle to protect its aquifer to investigate the economic and cultural consequences of the tourism boom in Costa Rican rural communities. The process of reclaiming the access to and the preservation of the aquifer enabled individuals to redefine their political views and their political power. The case of Sardinal broke the stereotypes about rural individuals and their ability to politically educate themselves and organize. Sardinal´s conflict brought to light the necessity of questioning the role of modern tourism as part of Costa Rica’s national identity, and as a tool for development

Keywords: Water, Environment, Tourism, Economy, Ecotourism, Rural development, Costa Rica, Sardinal

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22 The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity: Valuing Ecotourism-Local Perspectives to Global Discourses-Stakeholders’ Analysis

Authors: Diptimayee Nayak

Abstract:

Ecotourism has been recognised as a popular component of alternative tourism, which claims to guard host local environment and economy. This concept of ecological tourism (eco-tourism) has become more meaningful in evaluating the recreational function and services of any pristine ecosystem in context of ‘The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (TEEB)’. This ecotourism is said to be a local solution to the global problem of conserving ecosystems and optimising the utilisations of their services. This paper takes a case of recreational services of an Indian protected area ecosystems ‘Bhitarakanika mangrove protected area’ discussing how ecotourism is functioning taking the perspectives of different stakeholders. Specific stakeholders are taken for analysis, viz., tourists and local people, as they are believed to be the major beneficiaries of ecotourism. The stakeholders’ analysis is evaluated on the basis of travel cost techniques (by using truncated Poisson distribution model) for tourists and descriptive and analytical tools for local people. The evaluation of stakeholders’ analysis of ecotourism has gained its impetus after the formulation of Ecotourism guidelines by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India. The paper concludes that ecotourism issues and challenges are site-specific and region-specific; without critically focussing challenges of ecotourism faced at local level the discourses of ecotourism at global level cannot be tackled. Mere integration and replication of policies at global level to be followed at local level will not be successful (top down policies). Rather mainstreaming the decision making process at local level with the global policy stature helps to solve global issues to a bigger extent (bottom up).

Keywords: Ecotourism, ecosystem services, Economic valuation, Stakeholders, TEEB, travel cost techniques

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21 Ecolodging as an Answer for Sustainable Development and Successful Resource Management: The Case of North West Coast in Alexandria

Authors: I. Elrouby

Abstract:

The continued growth of tourism in the future relies on maintaining a clean environment by achieving sustainable development. The erosion and degradation of beaches, the deterioration of coastal water quality, visual pollution of coastlines by massive developments, all this has contributed heavily to the loss of the natural attractiveness for tourism. In light of this, promoting the concept of sustainable coastal development is becoming a central goal for governments and private sector. An ecolodge is a small hotel or guesthouse that incorporates local architectural, cultural and natural characteristics, promotes environmental conservation through minimizing the use of waste and energy and produces social and economic benefits for local communities. Egypt has some scattered attempts in some areas like Sinai in the field of ecolodging. This research tends to investigate the potentials of the North West Coast (NWC) in Alexandria as a new candidate for ecolodging investments. The area is full of primitive natural and man-made resources. These, if used in an environmental-friendly way could achieve cost reductions as a result of successful resource management for investors on the one hand, and coastal preservation on the other hand. In-depth interviews will be conducted with stakeholders in the tourism sector to examine their opinion about the potentials of the research area for ecolodging developments. The candidates will be also asked to rate the importance of the availability of certain environmental aspects in such establishments such as the uses of resources that originate from local communities, uses of natural power sources, uses of an environmental-friendly sewage disposal, forbidding the use of materials of endangered species and enhancing cultural heritage conservation. The results show that the area is full of potentials that could be effectively used for ecolodging investments. This if efficiently used could attract ecotourism as a supplementary type of tourism that could be promoted in Alexandria aside cultural, recreational and religious tourism.

Keywords: Sustainability, Ecotourism, Alexandria, ecolodging

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20 Observational Learning in Ecotourism: An Investigation into Ecotourists' Environmentally Responsible Behavioral Intentions in South Korea

Authors: Benjamin Morse, Michaela Zint, Jennifer Carman

Abstract:

This study proposes a behavioral model in which ecotourists’ level of observational learning shapes their subsequent environmentally responsible behavioral intentions through ecotourism participation. Unlike past studies that have focused on individual attributes such as attitudes, locus of control, personal responsibility, knowledge, skills or effect, this present study explores select social attributes as potential antecedents to environmentally responsible behaviors. A total of 207 completed questionnaires were obtained from ecotourists in Korea and path analyses were conducted to explore the degree in which the hypothesized model directly and indirectly explained ecotourists’ environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. Results suggest that observational learning and its associated predictors (i.e., engagement, observation, reproduction and reinforcement) are key determinants of ecotourists environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The application of observational learning proved to be informative, and has a number of implications for improving ecotourism programs. Our model also lays out a theoretical framework for future research.

Keywords: Ecotourism, social learning theory, observational learning, environmentally responsible behavior

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19 Geographic Information System and Ecotourism Sites Identification of Jamui District, Bihar, India

Authors: Anshu Anshu

Abstract:

In the red corridor famed for the Left Wing Extremism, lies small district of Jamui in Bihar, India. The district lies at 24º20´ N latitude and 86º13´ E longitude, covering an area of 3,122.8 km2 The undulating topography, with widespread forests provides pristine environment for invigorating experience of tourists. Natural landscape in form of forests, wildlife, rivers, and cultural landscape dotted with historical and religious places is highly purposive for tourism. The study is primarily related to the identification of potential ecotourism sites, using Geographic Information System. Data preparation, analysis and finally identification of ecotourism sites is done. Secondary data used is Survey of India Topographical Sheets with R.F.1:50,000 covering the area of Jamui district. District Census Handbook, Census of India, 2011; ERDAS Imagine and Arc View is used for digitization and the creation of DEM’s (Digital Elevation Model) of the district, depicting the relief and topography and generate thematic maps. The thematic maps have been refined using the geo-processing tools. Buffer technique has been used for the accessibility analysis. Finally, all the maps, including the Buffer maps were overlaid to find out the areas which have potential for the development of ecotourism sites in the Jamui district. Spatial data - relief, slopes, settlements, transport network and forests of Jamui District were marked and identified, followed by Buffer Analysis that was used to find out the accessibility of features like roads, railway stations to the sites available for the development of ecotourism destinations. Buffer analysis is also carried out to get the spatial proximity of major river banks, lakes, and dam sites to be selected for promoting sustainable ecotourism. Overlay Analysis is conducted using the geo-processing tools. Digital Terrain Model (DEM) generated and relevant themes like roads, forest areas and settlements were draped on the DEM to make an assessment of the topography and other land uses of district to delineate potential zones of ecotourism development. Development of ecotourism in Jamui faces several challenges. The district lies in the portion of Bihar that is part of ‘red corridor’ of India. The hills and dense forests are the prominent hideouts and training ground for the extremists. It is well known that any kind of political instability, war, acts of violence directly influence the travel propensity and hinders all kind of non-essential travels to these areas. The development of ecotourism in the district can bring change and overall growth in this area with communities getting more involved in economically sustainable activities. It is a known fact that poverty and social exclusion are the main force that pushes people, resorting towards violence. All over the world tourism has been used as a tool to eradicate poverty and generate good will among people. Tourism, in sustainable form should be promoted in the district to integrate local communities in the development process and to distribute fruits of development with equity.

Keywords: Ecotourism, digital elevation model, buffer analysis, red corridor

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18 A Preliminary Study on the Tagal Eco-Tourism and Empowerment for Local Community

Authors: Christiana Jonut

Abstract:

The study addresses tagal as an ecotourism product that is uniquely for Sabah. It is a community based tourism venture that is influenced by the Dusun ethic’s traditional law. The traditional principle of tagal is focused primarily on individual exploitation of riverine resources and it was transformed into a community participation in the riverine conservation to foster the growth or survival of ecotourism. It manages a river into a sustainable manner. A smart partnership system between the community and the authority particularly the Department of Fisheries Sabah, tagal has successfully become an instrument to protect, revive and manage the river fish resources. In 2015, Sabah Fisheries Department added 536 tagal sites. Most tagal sites were turned into a community based tourism venture. They generate income through jobs creation for the purpose of uplifting the local’s economic level. Tagal ecotourism sites also increase environmental awareness of the local people to love their culture, tradition and environment. This venture also promotes the sustainability of the eco-tourism. The objective of this study is to explore the issues and contexts of empowerment of the local people in managing a successful tagal ecotourism. This study further explains how community capacity building is the major influence of empowerment of the local community. The methodology approach used is qualitative where interview is chosen as the data collection method. This is a literature review of exploring empowerment of the local community through various community capacity building initiatives that would motivate the local people to be actively involved in the tagal.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Capacity building, Empowerment, Tagal, Sabah

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17 The Success of Local Community Participation in Ecotourism Site: A Case Study of Sukau

Authors: Awangku Hassanal Bahar Pengiran Bagul

Abstract:

Ecotourism has been the signature tourism activity for Sabah since the 90s, and it has become a model of sustainable tourism development for Malaysia due to its ability to enhance conservation activities and local community development. This paper outlines the experience in developing indicators for the success of the local community participation of an ecotourism site, Sukau, in Sabah. The research was qualitative in nature and employed case study as its methodology. The outcome of this research suggested that Sukau has a mixed success with local community participation for the ecotourism activity. The community is in need of coaching and capacity building to intensify the ecotourism activity However, the ecotourism has successfully promoted conservation at its surrounding area.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, Community, Ecotourism, Rural development, success

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16 A Literature Review on the Success Indicators for Sabah's Ecotourism Sites

Authors: Lip Vui Tshin

Abstract:

Sabah, one of the thirteen Malaysian states, is located in the northern part of Malaysian Borneo. It is a melting pot of many different cultures and traditions, being home to about 2.9 million people with more than 30 ethic groups. It is also known as one of the twelve mega-diversity sites in the world with its rich living heritage; ethnic makes it ideal for the ecotourism industry. Sabah enjoys a steady flow of eco tourists from domestic and international markets with a gradual increase in the number of visitor arrival each year. Sabah’s ecotourism is categorized by its natural attraction, wildlife and wilderness habitats. This paper sets out to interpret and develop the indicators for success ecotourism sites in Sabah and measures its development stage. The long-term viability of tourism can be assured only when the limitations and favorable opportunities of the overall environment for tourism development are understood and ways to measure changes induced by tourism are identified and applied. This is a literature review of ecotourism site success indicators, and the outcome of this review is the identification of existing clusters and categorization of indicators and charting the way forward to develop a better understanding in ecotourism site success.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Sabah, ecotourism indicators, ecotourism success

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15 Ecotourism Sites in Central Visayas, Philippines: A Green Business Profile

Authors: Ivy Jumao-As, Randy Lupango, Clifford Villaflores, Marites Khanser

Abstract:

Alongside inadequate implementation of ecotourism standards and other pressing issues on sustainable development is the lack of business plans and formal business structures of various ecotourism sites in the Central Visayas, Philippines, and other parts of the country. Addressing these issues plays a key role to boost ecotourism which is a sustainability tool to the country’s economic development. A three-phase research is designed to investigate the green business practices of selected ecotourism sites in the region in order to propose a business model for ecotourism destinations in the region and outside. This paper reports the initial phase of the study which described the sites’ profile as well as operators of the following selected destinations: Cebu City Protected Landscape and Olango Island Wildlife Bird Sanctuary in Cebu, Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape in Bohol. Interview, Self-Administered Questionnaire with key informants and Data Mining were employed in the data collection. Findings highlighted similarities and differences in terms of eco-tourism products, type and number of visitors, manpower composition, cultural and natural resources, complementary services and products, awards and accreditation, peak and off peak seasons, among others. Recommendations based from common issues initially identified in this study are also highlighted.

Keywords: Sustainability, Ecotourism, Green Business, ecotourism sites

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14 Sustainability of Ecotourism Related Activities in the Town of Yercaud: A Modeling Study

Authors: Manoj Gupta Charan Pushparaj

Abstract:

Tourism related activities are getting popular day by day and tourism has become an integral part of everyone’s life. Ecotourism initiatives have grown enormously in the past decade, and the concept of ecotourism has shown to bring great benefits in terms of environment conservation and to improve the livelihood of local people. However, the potential of ecotourism to sustain improving the livelihood of the local population in the remote future is a topic of active debate. A primary challenge that exists in this regard is the enormous costs of limiting the impacts of tourism related activities on the environment. Here we employed systems modeling approach using computer simulations to determine if ecotourism activities in the small hill town of Yercaud (Tamil Nadu, India) can be sustained over years in improving the livelihood of the local population. Increasing damage to the natural environment as a result of tourism-related activities have plagued the pristine hill station of Yercaud. Though ecotourism efforts can help conserve the environment and enrich local population, questions remain if this can be sustained in the distant future. The vital state variables in the model are the existing tourism foundation (labor, services available to tourists, etc.,) in the town of Yercaud and its natural environment (water, flora and fauna). Another state variable is the textile industry that drives the local economy. Our results would help to understand if environment conservation efforts are sustainable in Yercaud and would also offer suggestions to make it sustainable over the course of several years.

Keywords: Modeling, Ecotourism, Simulations, Yercaud

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13 Designing for Experience-Based Tourism: A Virtual Tour in Tehran

Authors: Maryam Khalili, Fateme Ghanei

Abstract:

As one of the most significant phenomena of industrialized societies, tourism plays a key role in encouraging regional developments and enhancing higher standards of living for local communities in particular. Traveling is a formative experience endowed with lessons on various aspects of life. It allows us learning how to enhance the social position as well as the social relationships. However, people forget the need to travel and gain first-hand experiences as they have to cope with the ever-increasing rate of stress created by the disorders and routines of the urban dwelling style. In this paper, various spaces of such experiences were explored through a virtual tour with two underlying aims: 1) encouraging, informing, and educating the community in terms of tourism development, and 2) introducing a temporary release from the routines. This study enjoyed a practical-qualitative research methodology, and the required data were collected through observation and using a multiple-response questionnaire. The participants (19-48 years old) included 41 citizens of both genders (63.4% male and 36.6% female) from two regions in Tehran, selected by cluster-probability sampling. The results led to development of a spatial design for a virtual tour experience in Tehran where different areas are explored to both raise people’s awareness and educate them on their cultural heritage.

Keywords: Education, urban Design, Ecotourism, Gamification, Virtual Tour, Social Interaction

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12 Ecotourism Adaptation Practices to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Management in Dana Biosphere Reserve, Jordan

Authors: Malek Jamaliah, Robert Powell

Abstract:

In spite of the influence of climate change on tourism destinations, particularly those rely heavily on natural resources, little attention paid to study the appropriate adaptation efforts to cope with, moderate and benefit from the impacts of climate change. The existing literature indicated that the research of climate change adaptation in the tourism and outdoor recreation field is at least 5-7 years behind other sectors such as water resources and agriculture. In Jordan, there are many observed changes in climate patterns such as higher temperatures, decreased precipitation and increased severity and frequency of drought. Dana Biosphere Reserve (DBR), the largest protected area and the major eco-tourism destination in Jordan, is facing climate change, which gradually degrading environment, shifting tourism seasons and changing livelihood and lifestyle of local communities. This study aims to assess climate change adaptation practices and policies used in DBR to cope with climate change related-risks. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants in DBR to assess climate change adaptation practices. Direct content analysis (or a priori content analysis) was used to determine the components and indicators of climate change adaptation. The results found that DBR has implemented a wide range of adaptation practices, including infrastructure development, diversification of tourism products, environmentally-friendly practices, visitor management, land use management, rainwater collection, environmental monitoring and research, environmental education and collaboration with stakeholders. These diverse practices implicitly and explicitly play an important role in coping with the social, economic and environmental impacts caused by climate change. Finally, this study demonstrated that climate change adaptation is closely related to sustainable management of eco-tourism.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Sustainable management, Climate Change Adaptation, dana biosphere reserve

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11 Ecotourism and Orangutan Conservation in City Landscape: The Case of Semenggoh Wildlife Centre

Authors: N. E. F. Jaddil, S. Silang, J. H. Chong

Abstract:

Semenggoh Wildlife Centre (SWC) begins its journey as an important orangutan rehabilitation centre in Sarawak. Strategically located about 25 km from Kuching, the capital city of Malaysian Sarawak in Borneo Island. This paper sought to access the progression of Semenggoh Wildlife Centre from a rehabilitation into one of the top ecotourism destination in Kuching. The existing semi-wild orangutans (attraction)-ecotourism interaction in city landscape setting is evaluated. With the ever-increasing demand of ecotourism activity in SWC, this study is intended to explore and understand the current status of ecotourism activity in SWC by analysing visitors, and economic statistic, issues and challenges and strategically propose way-forward to enhance the sustainability of ecotourism in SWC.

Keywords: Ecotourism, orangutan, Semenggoh, urban wildlife park

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10 Harmonising Ecology, Emotions and Economy: Case Study of Govardhan Ecovillage

Authors: Gauranga Das

Abstract:

People in cities have prosperity but there is immense pollution, chaos in the mind, anxiety and turbulence. People in the villages experience pristine pure environment but they also experience poverty. There is a need to find out ways by which the cities and the villages can complement each other through their strengths and take care of each other’s weaknesses. In order to do this, the case study of Govardhan Ecovillage has been explored in this paper. All its environment, social and economic initiatives along with eco-tourism and wellness features are being analyzed. The analysis shows that Govardhan Ecovillage is successfully able to harmonize its different initiatives and provide a package which has created a win-win solution for the city people and also the villagers. Such kind of Eco-tourism initiatives should be supported and replicated in other places in the world to benefit everyone.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecology, Wellness, Sustainability, Ecotourism, Rural development

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9 The Political Economy of Conservation at Bhitarkanika Wild Life Sanctuary, India: Conflicts, Sustainability, and Development

Authors: Diptimayee Nayak, V. Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper posits the attempt of conservation and the idea of protected areas from the Marxian primitive accumulation to the politics of sustainability. Using field survey data and secondary literature, this paper analyses an Indian wildlife sanctuary, the Bhitarkanika, Odisha and finds how the hegemony of power among different management regimes attempted for conservation and the present protected area management regime attempted to imbibe the policy of ecotourism for achieving sustainability. The paper contends that the current policy of ecotourism in protected areas acts as a veil for the local deprived people, to avoid many legal conflicts like property rights, livelihood, and man-wildlife issues. Moreover, opening the scope to accumulate on the part of tour operators, the policy of ecotourism establishes a nexus between the profit holders/tour operators (the capitalists) and the power hegemony on the part of management authorities. The sustainability attempt of ecotourism may lead to private benefits maximising the profit accumulation and can expand and continue, showing the bulk of employment generation of local people at petty odd jobs, grabbing a lion share! Positing ecotourism as a capitalist project as against the general assumption of one of the drivers of sustainable development, the paper shows that ecotourism in practice may end up ruining the very social-environmental set up, leading to unsustainability related to waste management, equality, culture, relationship and above all polarised private accumulators in absence of sound mechanism. The paper ends with the caveat that while shopping for neoliberal conservation, the conservators found ecotourism as a product without finalising the hallmark of mechanism/ institutions with appropriate modus operandii to check/guard the quality assurance/standard of ecotourism for sustainability. The paper proposes sound structural and institutional mechanism of ecotourism to be developed to harness sustainability in the local economy as well as in conservation.

Keywords: Sustainability, Conservation, Ecotourism, Protected Areas, Marxian capitalism

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8 Tourism and Sport: The Acknowledgment of a Strong Relationship for the Environment Framed in a Literature Review

Authors: Rute Martins, Margarida Mascarenhas, Elsa Pereira

Abstract:

The importance between sport and the natural environment was researched through a systematic literature in order to analyse the available scientific articles on the association of sport -angling also the physical activity, active leisure and recreation- and environmental behaviour. The collected data were gathered within the last five years (from 2013 to April 2018) in the Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Sage, Green Leaf Online Library, GreenFile (EBSCO) and Wiley online Library databases. The content analysis based on the qualitative methods employed in this study was made with Nvivo software. Regarding only the inclusion of scientific articles, more than half of the collected papers highlighted tourism as the main area where sports is being researched with regard to the environmental theme. Thus, it is possible to extract a perspective of the orientations of the ecological concerns in the sports tourism industry. As such, in the winter sports, the climate change is already an identified issue, wondering about the impact of the environment on the sports practice. In this context, there is a focus on the possible adaptative strategies, researching the characteristics of the sports tourist and the winter sports industry. Regarding the natural parks and protected areas (such as reefs), most of the research is on the environmental impact of the sports tourism, choosing the conservation and the protection of nature as the core topics. The research of the sports tourist profile is addressed by many articles, where the motives for practice and the environmental values are being scanned, and relations to the recreation specialization, environmental responsibility, environmental education, and place-attachment concepts are being made. Regarding the sustainable management, the sports tourism study area is approaching the research in a more holistic way; exploring the stakeholder’s interconnection, focusing on landscape planning and environmentally sustainable practices of sport tourism organizations. The natural parks, protected areas, coral reefs, and snow areas serve as the preferred case-studies for investigating the environmental impact and the ecotourism, in particular, studied through hiking and diving in the great majority. The results of the study are a valuable resource to understand the importance of the sports tourism in the environmental and sustainable action along with the need of embracing all stakeholders within the relationship between the sport and the natural environment.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Sport Tourism, Environmental Behaviour, Outdoor Recreation

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7 Economic Important of Manta Ray Watching Tourism in Dampier Strait, Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia

Authors: Jamaluddin Jompa, Maulita Sari Hani, Abraham B. Sianipar, Natsir Nessa, Alan T. White

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Manta ray is an icon for tourism in Raja Ampat. The tourist volume has been increased for the past ten years which up to approximately 23,000 tourists in 2017. Since 2013, Conservation International Indonesia deployed satellite and acoustic tags on manta ray in Dampier strait to track the species and identify the aggregation areas. These findings encourage the government and the local community to boost conservation through the management of marine protected areas for tourism purposes. Community in Dampier strait including the village of Arborek, Kurkapa, Kapisawar, and Sawingray involved in variety of small scale tourism business including homestay, dive shop, tour operator, and crafts. Working groups of related local businesses were established to support the local community and to ensure the sustainability of the economic viability and environmental sustainability. In order to analyze the economic benefits of manta ray tourism, this study was conducted to identify the number of local business in Dampier Strait and the economic impacts in terms of local finance security, social, humanity, individual, and physical assets. The results of this study identify 30 homestays, 2 dive shops, 10 tour operators, 30 women involved in crafts, and about 50 villagers worked for dive resorts. In addition to community assets, we confirmed the welfare of community has been improved in terms of food security, households, education for children, savings, and health insurance.

Keywords: Conservation, Ecotourism, Environmental Sustainability, co-management, economic viability, marine wildlife tourism, elasmobranch

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6 Investigating the Effective Physical Factors in the Development of Coastal Ecotourism in Southern Islands of Iran: A Case Study of Hendurabi Island, Iran

Authors: Zahra Khodaee

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Background and Objective: The attractive potential for tourism in the southern islands of Iran, Kish, and Qeshm and recently Hendurabi, are becoming more and more popular and object of increased attention from the investors. The Iranian coral reef islands, with the exception of Kish and Qeshm, have not undergone sufficient development. The southern islands of Iran have faced two problems with climate change and the desire for the presence of tourists. The lack of proper planning, inefficient management, and lack of adequate knowledge of ecosystems of offshore regions have severely damaged the world natural heritage. This study was conducted to consider the correlation of tourism, development, and ecosystem because there is a need for further addressing the ecotourism in coral islands. Method: Through qualitative research, this paper was used of library studies and field studies and surveying to study the physical (objective-subjective) physical factors of ecotourism development in Honduran Island. Using SPSS software and descriptive-analytical method was shown the results. The survey was conducted with the participation of 150 tourists on Kish islands, who were chosen at random and who expressed their desire to travel to Hendurabi Island. Information was gathered using SPSS software and unique statistical T-test. The questionnaire was put together using AMOS software to ensure that the questions asked were sufficiently relevant. Findings: The results of this study presented that physical factors affecting the development of ecotourism in two categories are objective and subjective factors because IFI factor = 0.911 and CFI Factor = 0.907 into the target community. Discussion and conclusion: The results were satisfactory in that they showed that eco-tourists attached importance to see views, quiet, secluded areas, tranquility security, quality of the area being visited, easy access to services these were the top criteria for those visiting the area while they adhere to environmental compliance. Developing Management of these regions should maintain appropriate utilization along with sustainable and ecological responsibility.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Development Management, coral reef island, Hendurabi Island

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5 Thriving Private-Community Partnerships in Ecotourism: Perspectives from Fiji’s Upper Navua Conservation Area

Authors: Jeremy Schultz, Kelly Bricker

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Ecotourism has proven itself to be a forerunner in the advancement of environmental conservation all the while supporting cultural tradition, uniqueness, and pride among indigenous communities. Successful private-community partnerships associated with ecotourism operations are vital to the overall prosperity of both the businesses and the local communities. Such accomplishments can be seen through numerous livelihood goals including income, food security, health, reduced vulnerability, governance, and empowerment. Private-community partnerships also support global initiatives such as the sustainable development goals and sustainable development frameworks including those proposed by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (WTO). Understanding such partnerships assists not only large organizations such as the WTO, but it also benefits smaller ecotourism operators and entrepreneurs who are trying to achieve their sustainable tourism development goals. This study examined the partnership between an ecotourism company (Rivers Fiji) and two rural villages located in Fiji’s Upper Navua Conservation Area. Focus groups were conducted in each village. Observation journals were also used to record conversations outside of the focus groups. Data were thematically organized and analyzed to offer researcher interpretations and understandings. This research supported the notion that respectful and emboldening partnerships between communities and private enterprise are vital to the composition of successful ecotourism operations that support sustainable development protocol. Understanding these partnerships can assist in shaping future ecotourism development and re-molding existing businesses. This study has offered an example of a thriving partnership through community input and critical researcher analysis. Research has identified six contributing factors to successful ecotourism partnerships, and this study provides additional support to that framework.

Keywords: Sustainability, Ecotourism, Conservation Areas, community partnerships, Fiji

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4 Professional Management on Ecotourism and Conservation to Ensure the Future of Komodo National Park

Authors: Daningsih Sulaeman, Achmad Sjarmidi, Djoko T. Iskandar

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Komodo National Park can be associated with the implementation of ecotourism program. The result of Principal Components Analysis is synthesized, tested, and compared to the basic concept of ecotourism with some field adjustments. Principal aspects of professional management should involve ecotourism and wildlife welfare. The awareness should be focused on the future of the Natural Park as 7th Wonder Natural Heritage and its wildlife components, free from human wastes and beneficial to wildlife and local people. According to perceptions and expectations of visitors from various results of tourism programs, the visitor’s perceptions showed that the tourism management in Komodo National Park should pay more attention to visitor's satisfaction and expectation and gives positive impact directly to the ecosystem sustainability, local community and transparency to the conservation program.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Wildlife management, Komodo dragon, visitor’s perceptions

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3 Waste Analysis and Classification Study (Wacs) in Ecotourism Sites of Samal Island, Philippines towards a Circular Economy Perspective

Authors: Reeden Bicomong

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Ecotourism activities, though geared towards conservation efforts, still put pressures against the natural state of the environment. Influx of visitors that goes beyond carrying capacity of the ecotourism site, the wastes generated, greenhouse gas emissions, are just few of the potential negative impacts of a not well-managed ecotourism activities. According to Girard and Nocca (2017) tourism produces many negative impacts because it is configured according to the model of linear economy, operating on a linear model of take, make and dispose (Ellen MacArthur Foundation 2015). With the influx of tourists in an ecotourism area, more wastes are generated, and if unregulated, natural state of the environment will be at risk. It is in this light that a study on waste analysis and classification study in five different ecotourism sites of Samal Island, Philippines was conducted. The major objective of the study was to analyze the amount and content of wastes generated from ecotourism sites in Samal Island, Philippines and make recommendations based on the circular economy perspective. Five ecotourism sites in Samal Island, Philippines was identified such as Hagimit Falls, Sanipaan Vanishing Shoal, Taklobo Giant Clams, Monfort Bat Cave, and Tagbaobo Community Based Ecotourism. Ocular inspection of each ecotourism site was conducted. Likewise, key informant interview of ecotourism operators and staff was done. Wastes generated from these ecotourism sites were analyzed and characterized to come up with recommendations that are based on the concept of circular economy. Wastes generated were classified into biodegradables, recyclables, residuals and special wastes. Regression analysis was conducted to determine if increase in number of visitors would equate to increase in the amount of wastes generated. Ocular inspection indicated that all of the five ecotourism sites have their own system of waste collection. All of the sites inspected were found to be conducting waste separation at source since there are different types of garbage bins for all of the four classification of wastes such as biodegradables, recyclables, residuals and special wastes. Furthermore, all five ecotourism sites practice composting of biodegradable wastes and recycling of recyclables. Therefore, only residuals are being collected by the municipal waste collectors. Key informant interview revealed that all five ecotourism sites offer mostly nature based activities such as swimming, diving, site seeing, bat watching, rice farming experiences and community living. Among the five ecotourism sites, Sanipaan Vanishing Shoal has the highest average number of visitors in a weekly basis. At the same time, in the wastes assessment study conducted, Sanipaan has the highest amount of wastes generated. Further results of wastes analysis revealed that biodegradables constitute majority of the wastes generated in all of the five selected ecotourism sites. Meanwhile, special wastes proved to be the least generated as there was no amount of this type was observed during the three consecutive weeks WACS was conducted.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Ecotourism, Circular economy, WACS

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2 Estimating Visitor’s Willingness to Pay for the Conservation Fund: Sustainable Financing Approach in Protected Areas in Ethiopia

Authors: Sintayehu Aynalem Aseres, Raminder Kaur Sira

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Increasingly, protected areas have been confronting with inadequate conservation funds that make it tough to antithesis the continuing of annihilation. The problem is even grave in developing countries, where Protected Areas (Pas) are mainly government-administered. Subsequently, it needs a strong effort to toughen the self-financing capability of PAs by ripening alternative sources of sustainable financing for realizing the conservation goals, in particular, to save the remaining natural planet. This study, therefore, designed to estimate visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the additional conservation fees using a contingent valuation method. The effect relationship between WTP and both socio-demographic and non-economic factors was scrutinized by binary logistic regression. The mean WTP of foreign visitors has estimated at US$ 7.4 and for that of domestic visitors at US$1, with annual aggregate revenue of US$29, 200. The WTP was strongly influenced by income, satisfaction, environmental concern and attitude. The study has policy implications for the conservationists and park authorities to estimate the non-use values of PAs for developing market-based conservation instruments.

Keywords: Conservation, Ecotourism, Protected Areas, willingness to pay, sustainable financing, bale mountains national park

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1 Study of the Facilities in the Cultural and Ecotourism Route in the Area of Om Nont Canal , Nonthaburi Provice, Thailand.

Authors: Supattra Suanlim

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Nonthaburi province is one of the provinces in the central region of Thailand. There is the Chao Phraya River, which is a large and important river of Thailand passing through the province. With the way of life and social changes since the past. There is a digging canal called Lat canal or Om canal, communities along the canal have dense settlements. Important in life and culture. This research has 3 objectives as follows. 1.To explore cultural and ecotourism attractions in the Om Nont canal area. 2.To explore the facilities in the Om Nont canal tourist attraction. To suggest facilities for tourist attractions in the Om Nont canal, Nonthaburi, Thailand. This research is a qualitative research, using research methods by collecting data and surveying tourist attractions by water traffic. The results of the research can be concluded that There are 21 tourist attractions that have the potential to welcome tourists who want to travel cultural. 16 temples or places of worship, 2 government offices, 1 market, 2 landmarks. Each should be improved to increase the potential of the paths. There should be improvements in the road landscape that is a connection to water traffic. Districts should have signage and signage installation within tourist sites and have guidelines for architectural improvements. And the Nodes should improve the public space of the community. Such as the Nonthaburi pier area to have the idea of designing a tourist center Provide information in both Thai and English.

Keywords: Cultural, Community, Ecotourism, facility

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