Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Economy Related Abstracts

31 Radar Charts Analysis to Compare the Level of Innovation in Mexico with Most Innovative Countries in Triple Helix Schema Economic and Human Factor Dimension

Authors: Valencia Luis, Pastrana Alberto, Nava Estefany, M. Peña Aguilar Juan, A. Martinez, M. Vivanco, A. Castañeda

Abstract:

This paper seeks to compare the innovation of Mexico from an economic and human perspective, with the seven most innovative countries according to the Global Innovation Index 2013, done by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The above analysis suggests nine dimensions: Expenditure on R & D, intellectual property, appropriate environment to conduct business, economic stability, and triple helix for R & D, ICT Infrastructure, education, human resources and quality of life. Each dimension is represented by an indicator which is later used to construct a radial graph that compares the innovative capacity of the countries analysed. As a result, it is proposed a new indicator of innovation called The Area of Innovation. Observations are made from the results, and finally as a conclusion, those items or dimensions in which Mexico suffers lag in innovation are identify.

Keywords: Economy, dimension, measure, innovation level, radar chart

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30 SWOT Analysis of the Industrial Sector in Kuwait

Authors: Amr Nounou, Abdullah Al-Alaian, Ahmad Al-Enzi, Hasan Al-Herz, Ahmad Bakri, Shant Tatorian

Abstract:

Kuwait is a country that has an imbalanced economy since most of its national outcome comes from the oil trade. It is so risky for a country to be dependent on a single source for income, and this increases the need to diversify its economy. In addition, according to the Public Authority for Industry, the contribution of the industrial sector to the current Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Kuwait is low which is about 4.33%. Therefore, the development of the industrial sector can be one of the means to diversify the economy and increase the industry's contribution to the national outcome. This is in accordance with Kuwait’s vision of 2035 which aims at increasing the contribution of the industrial sector to the GDP to 12%. In order to do so, this study aims at proposing a strategic plan that will accomplish certain objectives when implemented. It is based on analyzing the industrial sectors in Kuwait taking into consideration studying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing them. At the same time, it tends to gain from the experience of leading models and neighboring countries regarding the development of the industrial sector. In this study, the SWOT analysis technique will be conducted on all industrial sectors based on evaluation criteria in which it is determined whether any of them has a potential for improvement or not. In other words, it is determined whether the sectors are able to compete locally, regionally, or globally. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis, certain sectors will be chosen, assessed based on an assessment scheme, and their potentials for improvement will be aligned with the overall objectives. To ensure the achievement of the study’s objectives, an action plan will be proposed regarding recommendations for the related authorities, and for entrepreneurs. In addition, monitoring tools are going to be provided for the purpose of periodically checking the progress made in the implementation of the plan.

Keywords: Productivity, Economy, Competitiveness, SWOT analysis, Kuwait, industrial sector, GDP

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29 Indo-Pak Relationship: Understanding the Past to Make Sense of the Future

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

The unpredictable and vacillating relationship between India and Pakistan since days of Independence struggle is known world over. And this instability has never lost its magnitude to decrease the tensions between the two countries. Since India aspires to run for the race of future superpower and Pakistan struggles to remove the tag of a highly fickle and under developed economy; ruined largely not by the outsiders, but its own people and systems; it becomes really important to gauge what steps would these neighbors take in years to come. The progress and stability of both countries heavily relies on the favorable equations between the two nations. Therefore the paper tries to trace some roots of their faltering relationship and attempts to predict their future in a multidimensional perspective.

Keywords: International Relations, Economy, faltering relationship, multidimensional perspective

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28 Entrepreneurship the Bed Rock and Mainstram of World Economy

Authors: Njeze Anthony

Abstract:

In the world economy, entrepreneurship is an outstanding venture. Failures in the businesses of over 70% of Entrepreneurs can be attributed to lack of proper planning. For an entrepreneur to succeed, there are some vital planning strategies that will come into play such as organizational, operational, financial and marketing plans. When an entrepreneur lacks the above mentioned, such an entrepreneur is bound to encounter a catastrophic failure. An entrepreneur with an adequate plan will examine his/her own goals, know why he is in business, look at the venture resource base, have a sound knowledge of his proposed venture and identify obstacles that will be surmounted to achieve the desired goals. This work is aimed at identifying the organizational, operational, financial and marketing impact of entrepreneurship in the world economy and as well the important issues in global entrepreneurship, possible obstacles, and solutions.

Keywords: Business, Entrepreneurship, Economy, operation

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27 The Major Challenge of the Health System Health Management Services in Kosovo and Impact on Satisfaction

Authors: Nevruz Zogu, Shpetim Rezniqi

Abstract:

In the framework of transformational economic development social pluralism and the free, market health systems operating in the countries of our region are naturally involved in a process of profound change and reform. Health systems actually represent complex ensembles centers and public and private institutions (domestic and foreign), who administer substantial amounts of human, technological, material, financial, information and scientific facts • The goal of health systems is much more than medical care. It includes the promotion, protection, treatment and rehabilitation of health of the population. • Meeting the needs of increasingly diverse broader health services efficient, secure the quality and affordability of their increasing cost of unstoppable, requires the necessary reform of health systems and implementing policies and new management methods, to ensure effectiveness and health benefits as higher population.

Keywords: Finance, Management, Health, Economy

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26 Economic Growth through Quality in Higher Education

Authors: Mohammad Mushir Khan, C. Satyanarayana

Abstract:

Education is considered as one of the prime bottlenecks in the economic growth of India. The Ministry of Human Resource & Development, Government of India has, therefore, given special attention to this issue and the Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in Higher Education has increased marginally during last five years, with the efforts and various policy decisions like Right to Education (RTE) and other fee reimbursement schemes, initiated by the State Governments. But still this is one of the lowest, if assessed at the global level. It is true that the GER has improved but the survey reveals that the quality has been badly affected. This paper tries to assess the impact of lack of quality education in various sectors that affects Indian Economy and thereby signifies the need of immediate policy decision at the government level. It is to be noted that in higher education, science, management, engineering and technology plays vital role as far as shaping country’s economy is concerned and as such the quality needs to be addressed, particularly, in these streams. The paper, after carefully studying lots of survey reports and other government/ non-government documents recommends measures to be initiated by the Central Government, on priority, for improving quality of education. The quality up-gradation in higher education single handedly provides real fuel to the India’s growth Engine, as it has potential to touch each and every sector that strengthens country’s economy.

Keywords: Higher Education, Economy, Industry, Technology, Accreditation

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25 Biodiversity Conservation: A Path to a Healthy Afghanistan

Authors: Nadir Sidiqi

Abstract:

Biodiversity conservation is humanity’s building block to sustain lives - ultimately allowing all living and nonliving creatures to interact in a balanced proportion. Humanity’s challenge in the 21st century is to maintain biodiversity without harming the natural habitat of plants, animals and beneficial microorganisms. There are many good reasons to consider why biodiversity is important to every nation around the world, especially for a nation like Afghanistan. One of the major values of biodiversity is its economic value: biodiversity provides goods and services to the Afghan nation directly through links and components such as the maintenance of traditional crops, medicine, fruits, animals, grazing, fuel, timber, harvesting, fishing, hunting and related supplies. Biodiversity is the variety of the living components, such as humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms, and nonliving components interaction, including air, water, sunlight, soil, humidity and environmental factors in an area. There are many ways of gauging the value of biodiversity. As an ecosystem, biodiversity includes such benefits as soil fertility, erosion control, crop pollination, crop rotation, and pest control. The conservation of biodiversity is crucial for these benefits, which would be impossible to replace. Biodiversity conservation also has heritage values; this wealth of genetic diversity provides backup to rural people living close together.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Environment, Conservation, Economy, Afghanistan

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24 Souk Waqif in Old Doha, Qatar: Cultural Heritage, Urban Regeneration, and Sustainability

Authors: Djamel Boussaa

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Cultural heritage and tourism have become during the last two decades dynamic areas of development in the world. The idea of heritage is crucial to the critical decision-making process as to how irreplaceable resources are to be utilized by people of the present or conserved for future generations in a fast changing world. In view of the importance of ‘heritage’ to the development of a tourist destination the emphasis on developing appropriate adaptive reuse strategies cannot be overemphasized. In October 1999, the 12th general assembly of the ICOMOS in Mexico stated, that in the context of sustainable development, two interrelated issues need urgent attention, cultural tourism and historic towns and cities. These two issues underscore the fact that historic resources are non-renewable, belonging to all of humanity. Without adequate adaptive reuse actions to ensure a sustainable future for these historic resources, may lead to their complete vanishing. The growth of tourism and its role in dispersing cultural heritage to everyone is developing rapidly. According to the World Tourism Organization, natural and cultural heritage resources are and will remain motivating factors for travel in the foreseeable future. According to the experts, people choose travel destinations where they can learn about traditional and distinct cultures in their historic context. The Qatar rich urban heritage is now being recognized as a valuable resource for future development. This paper discusses the role of cultural heritage and tourism in regenerating Souk Waqif, and consequently the city of Doha. Therefore, in order to use cultural heritage wisely, it will be necessary to position heritage as an essential element of sustainable development, giving particular attention to cultural heritage and tourism. The research methodology is based on an empirical survey of the situation, based on several visits, meetings and interviews with the local heritage players. The rehabilitation project initiated since 2004 will be examined and assessed. Therefore, there is potential to assess the situation and propose directions for a sustainable future to this historic landmark. Conservation for the sake of conservation appears to be an outdated concept. Many irreplaceable natural and cultural sites are being compromised because local authorities are not giving economic consideration to the value of rehabilitating such sites. The question to be raised here is 'How can cultural heritage be used wisely for tourism without compromising its social sustainability within the emerging global world?'

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Tourism, Economy, Social Sustainability, Regeneration

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23 Study of the Economic Development of Border Areas Malinau District

Authors: Indri Nilam Sari, Aris Subagiyo, Nindya Sari

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Malinau Regency border area is an area which is based on the RTRWN and the development priority. But, in real border area Malinau Regency placed as backyard from Indonesian area and caused development lag that is fairly large compared by town area in Malinau Regency. This research aimed to know the condition of the gap in the Malinau Regency border and its influence on the development of the border region as well as knowing the problems related to the economy development of society in the area of the border district of Malinau. Methods of analysis are used in namely descriptive analysis that represent analysis of land use and analysis of movement activities of the population, level analysis facility and infrastructure, economy analysis that represent top commodity determination analysis (LQ and Growth Share) and accessibility. The results of the study showed that the condition of the Malinau Regency border come within the gap as seen from the contributions of infrastructure repair facilities and accessibility advocates, communities, scattered seed commodities come within the borders and human resources with the condition of the most Upstream Bahau town in the backwaters of the town more. There are a few problems that cause the condition area of the border experiencing inequality, lack of human resources, poor infrastructure, lack of accessibility and low levels of security so that it brings development recommendations was the development of the flagship commodities and infrastructure as well as supporting community economic infrastructure, as well as human resources.

Keywords: Development, Economy, border, Malinau

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22 Potency of Minapolitan Area Development to Enhance Gross Domestic Product and Prosperty in Indonesia

Authors: Shobrina Silmi Qori Tarlita, Fariz Kukuh Harwinda

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Indonesia has 81.000 kilometers coastal line and 70% water surface which is known as the country who has a huge potential in fisheries sector and also which is able to support more than 50 % of Gross Domestic Product. But according to Department of Marine and Fisheries data, fisheries sector supported only 20% of Total GDP in 1998. Not only that, the highest decline in fisheries sector income occured in 2009. Those conditions occur, because of some factors contributed to the lack of integrated working platform for the fisheries and marine management in some areas which have a high productivity to increase the economical profit every year for the country, especially Indonesia, besides the labor requirement for every company, whether a big company or smaller one, depends on the natural condition that makes a lot of people become unemployed if the weather condition or any other conditions dealing with the natural condition is bad for creating fisheries and marine management, especially in aquaculture and fish – captured operation. Not only those, a lot of fishermen, especially in Indonesia, mostly make their job profession as an additional job or side job to fulfill their own needs, although they are averagely poor. Another major problem are the lack of the sustainable developmental program to stabilize the productivity of fisheries and marine natural source, like protecting the environment for fish nursery ground and migration channel, that makes the low productivity of fisheries and marine natural resource, even though the growth of the society in Indonesia has increased for years and needs more food resource to comply the high demand nutrition for living. The development of Minapolitan Area is one of the alternative solution to build a better place for aqua-culturist as well as the fishermen which focusing on systemic and business effort for fisheries and marine management. Minapolitan is kind of integration area which gathers and integrates the ones who is focusing their effort and business in fisheries sector, so that Minapolitan is capable of triggering the fishery activity on the area which using Minapolitan management intensively. From those things, finally, Minapolitan is expected to reinforce the sustainable development through increasing the productivity of fish – capturing operation as well as aquaculture, and it is also expected that Minapolitan will be able to increase GDP, the earning for a lot of people and also will be able to bring prosperity around the world. From those backgrounds, this paper will explain more about the Minapolitan Area and the design of reinforcing the Minapolitan Area by zonation in the Fishery and Marine exploitation area with high productivity as well as low productivity. Hopefully, this solution will be able to answer the economical and social issue for declining food resource, especially fishery and marine resource.

Keywords: Fisheries, Economy, Indonesia, Minapolitan

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21 System of Innovation: Comparing Savings of Brazil and South Africa

Authors: Iracema Machado de Aragão Gomes, Glessiane de O. Almeida, Sérgio Murilo C. Messias

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This article discusses issues related to the System of Innovation: Comparing economies of Brazil and South Africa. Having as this study aimed at comparing the Innovation System of the countries mentioned. Then briefly describe the process of Venture Capital/Risk Capital and present the industry innovation in Brazil and South Africa. The methodological approach described in this article is descriptive and the approach is qualitative, taking as a basis secondary data relating to research articles. The main results are related to the different forms of financing of Venture Capital used by countries compared, in addition to the training and economic policy. And finally, it was highlighted the importance of implementation of policy reforms for the Brazil and Africa in the innovation process.

Keywords: Innovation, Economy, Venture Capital, National Innovation System (NIS), BRICS

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20 Concept of Tourist Village on Kampung Karaton of Karaton Kasunanan Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Naniek Widayati Priyomarsono

Abstract:

Introduction: In beginning of Karaton formation, namely, era of Javanese kingdom town had the power region outside castle town (called as Mancanegara), settlement of karaton can function as “the space-between” and “space-defense”, besides it was one of components from governmental structure and karaton power at that time (internal servant/abdi dalem and sentana dalem). Upon the Independence of Indonesia in 1945 “Kingdom-City” converted its political status into part of democratic town managed by statutes based on the classification. The latter affects local culture hierarchy alteration due to the physical development and events. Dynamics of social economy activities in Kampung Karaton surrounded by buildings of Complex of Karaton Kasunanan ini, have impact on the urban system disturbed into the región. Also cultural region image fades away with the weak visual access from existant cultural artefacts. That development lacks of giving appreciation to the established region image providing identity of Karaton Kasunanan particularly and identity of Surakarta city in general. Method used is strategy of grounded theory research (research providing strong base of a theory). Research is focused on actors active and passive relevantly getting involved in change process of Karaton settlement. Data accumulated is “Investigation Focus” oriented on actors affecting that change either internal or external. Investigation results are coupled with field observation data, documentation, literature study, thus it takes accurate findings. Findings: Karaton village has potential products as attraction, possessing human resource support, strong motivation from society still living in that settlement, possessing facilities and means supports, tourism event-supporting facilities, cultural art institution, available fields or development area. Data analyzed: To get the expected result it takes restoration in social cultural development direction, and economy, with ways of: Doing social cultural development strategy, economy, and politics. To-do steps are program socialization of Karaton village as Tourism Village, economical development of local society, regeneration pattern, filtering, and selection of tourism development, integrated planning system development, development with persuasive approach, regulation, market mechanism, social cultural event sector development, political development for region activity sector. Summary: In case the restoration is done by getting society involved as subject of that settlement (active participation in the field), managed and packed interestingly and naturally with tourism-supporting facilities development, village of Karaton Kasunanan Surakarta is ready to receive visit of domestic and foreign tourists.

Keywords: Economy, Restoration, Indonesia, karaton village, finding

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19 Economic Impact of Rana Plaza Collapse

Authors: Md. Omar Bin Harun Khan

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The collapse of the infamous Rana Plaza, a multi-storeyed commercial building in Savar, near Dhaka, Bangladesh has brought with it a plethora of positive and negative consequences. Bangladesh being a key player in the export of clothing, found itself amidst a wave of economic upheaval following this tragic incident that resulted in numerous Bangladeshis, most of whom were factory workers. This paper compares the consequences that the country’s Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector is facing now, two years into the incident. The paper presents a comparison of statistical data from study reports and brings forward perspectives from all dimensions of Labour, Employment and Industrial Relations in Bangladesh following the event. The paper brings across the viewpoint of donor organizations and donor countries, the impacts of several initiatives taken by foreign organizations like the International Labour Organization, and local entities like the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) in order to reinforce compliance and stabilize the shaky foundation that the RMG sector had found itself following the collapse. Focus of the paper remains on the stance taken by the suppliers in Bangladesh, with inputs from buying houses and factories, and also on the reaction of foreign brands. The paper also focuses on the horrific physical, mental and financial implications sustained by the victims and their families, and the consequent uproar from workers in general regarding compliance with work safety and workers’ welfare conditions. The purpose is to get across both sides of the scenario: the economic impact that suppliers / factories/ sellers/ buying houses/exporters have faced in Bangladesh as a result of complete loss of reliability on them regarding working standards; and also to cover the aftershock felt on the other end of the spectrum by the importers/ buyers, particularly the foreign entities, in terms of the sudden accountability of being affiliated with non- compliant factories. The collapse of Rana Plaza has received vast international attention and strong criticism. Nevertheless, the almost immediate strengthening of labourrights and the wholesale reform undertaken on all sides of the supply chain, evidence a move of all local and foreign stakeholders towards greater compliance and taking of precautionary steps for prevention of further disasters. The tragedy that Rana Plaza embodies served as a much-needed epiphany for the soaring RMG Sector of Bangladesh. Prompt co-operation on the part of all stakeholders and regulatory bodies now show a move towards sustainable development, which further ensures safeguarding against any future irregularities and pave the way for steady economic growth.

Keywords: Economy, employment standards, Rana Plaza, RMG

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18 The Green Propaganda: Paradoxes of Costa Rica as the Poster Child for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Maria Jose Ramos Villagra

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Since the boom of tourism in the late 80s and 90s, Costa Rica is considered as one of the leading countries for tourism. The size and geography of its territory, its low population density, and its image of being one of the most stable Latin American democracies make Costa Rica an attractive and safe target for foreign investors. Land ownership by foreign investors has increased as the natural resources in rural communities have been exhausted. When nature becomes an instrument to increase profit, it loses its communal value contributing to local communities losing their sovereignty and access to basic resources. The rural regions in proximity to the most tourist areas are often the most marginalized. The purpose of this research is to use the case of the rural community Sardinal and its struggle to protect its aquifer to investigate the economic and cultural consequences of the tourism boom in Costa Rican rural communities. The process of reclaiming the access to and the preservation of the aquifer enabled individuals to redefine their political views and their political power. The case of Sardinal broke the stereotypes about rural individuals and their ability to politically educate themselves and organize. Sardinal´s conflict brought to light the necessity of questioning the role of modern tourism as part of Costa Rica’s national identity, and as a tool for development

Keywords: Water, Environment, Tourism, Economy, Ecotourism, Rural development, Costa Rica, Sardinal

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17 The Kanuri Factor in the 20th Century Economy of Sokoto City

Authors: Murtala Marafa

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This research is on socio-economic contributions of the Kanuri migrant community in Sokoto City during the 20th century. Kanuri migrants have been one of the major migrant groups who played and still playing positive role in the development of Sokoto city. The research will make an attempt to examine both the push and pulls factors responsible for Kanuri migration to Sokoto City. It is in the light of this that the research will examine and capture profiles of select prominent Kanuri migrants within the Sokoto city, in order to identify their major economic contributions to the development of Sokoto City. It is hoped that the study will show in the final analysis that the migration of Kanuri to Sokoto city have impacted positively to the socio-economic development of Sokoto city.

Keywords: Migration, Development, Economy, Kanuri

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16 Agritourism Development Mode Study in Rural Area of Boshan China

Authors: Lingfei Sun

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Based on the significant value of ecology, the strategic planning for ecological civilization construction was mentioned in the 17th and 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. How to generate economic value based on the environmental capacity is not only an economic decision but also a political decision to make. Boshan took the full use of “Ecology” and transformed it as an inexhaustible green resource to benefit people, reflecting the sustainable value of new agriculture development mode. The Strawberry Harvest Festival and Blueberry Harvest Festival hosted approximately 96,000 and 54,000 leisure tourists respectively in 2014. For the Kiwi Harvest Festival in August 2014, in average, it attracted about 4600 tourists per day, which generated daily kiwi sales of 50,000 lbs and 3 million RMB (About 476,000 USD) of daily revenue. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the modes of agritourism development, by analyzing the cases in rural area of Boshan, China. Interviews with the local government officers were applied to discover operation mode of agritourism operation. The financial data was used to demonstrate the strength of government policy and improvement of the income of rural people. The result indicated that there are mainly three types of modes: the Intensive Mode, the Model Mode and the Mixed Mode, supported by case study respectively. With the boom of tourism, the development of agritourism in Boshan relies on the agriculture encouraging policy of China and the effort of local government; meanwhile, large scale of cultivation and the product differentiation are the crucial elements for the success of rural agritourism projects.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Agritourism, rural area development

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15 International Tourism Development in Georgia: Problems and Challenges

Authors: Merabi Khokhobaia

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The aim of the investigation is definition of economic importance of tourism, evaluation of tourism’s influence on the economy of Georgia. Tourism in the world, as well, as in Georgia became one of the most significant activities. The outlook for the international arrivals in Georgia is highly optimistic. Increase of international travelers is an additional opportunity for Georgia in case of creating more jobs and generate incomes. The country has unique cultural heritage and traditions, there are many cultural monuments in Georgia which are significant precondition for the development of tourism. Despite the factors mentioned above, there are challenges and problems, development of infrastructure, quality of services, development of tourist products and etc. In the work has been used induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, quantitative-based research technique.

Keywords: Development, Culture, Tourism, Economy, Industry

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14 Imperialism, Sustainability and Role of United States of America

Authors: Subhashini Chaturvedi

Abstract:

The New World Order of the 21st century which is largely lead by Global Technological Leadership, and a workforce of United Nations coming together in the wake of our planet's future. The objective of this study is to understand the approach taken to implement sustainable use of resources and adequate architectural interventions. The framework of global policies in terms of sustainability has to be checked whether they commensurate and do justice to various nations with highly variable resource availability and development index. The method used to analyse the subject is a study of linkage between Age, Development, and exertion of the land, which attribute to the history of nations worldwide. The study also questions whether the use of term Sustainability is even ethical to be suggested in under developed or developing nations. Evolving through examples of American Imperialism to steady decline of Indian state of Punjab over last few decades, shows how sustainability has acted like scoop taken from a whole container in case of developed societies whereas it has acted like scratching the bottom of an empty container in case of embryonic societies where needs for sustenance are still far fed. The result comes out in favour of more innovative and rational implementation of architecture, sustainability and urban planning in context to indigenous space of a society and its statistics. The bridge to reduce the gap of fiscal deficit in resource premises can be consolidated by balancing on a global level majorly and this research paper is in the pursuance of the same idea.

Keywords: Innovation, Statistics, Economy, USA, logical approach, developing nations, holistic development

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13 Impact of Social Crisis on Property Market Performance and Evolving Strategy for Improved Property Transactions in Crisis Prone Environment: A Case Study of North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: A. Yakub AbdurRaheem

Abstract:

Urban violence in the form of ethnic and religious conflicts have been on the increase in many African cities in the recent years of which most of them are the result of intense and bitter competition for political power, the control of limited economic, social and environmental resources. In Nigeria, the emergence of the Boko Haram insurgency in most parts of the northeastern parts have ignited violence, bloodshed, refugee exodus and internal migration. Not only do the persistent attacks of the sect create widespread insecurity and fear, but it has also stifled normal processes of trade and investments most especially real property investment which is acclaimed to accelerate the economic cycle, thus the need to evolve strategies for an improved property market in such areas. This paper, therefore, examines the impact of this social crisis on effective and efficient utilization of real properties as a resource towards the development of the economy, using a descriptive analysis approach where particular emphasis was based on trends in residential housing values; volume of estimated property transactions and real estate investment decisions by affected individuals. Findings indicate that social crisis in the affected areas have been a clog on the wheels of property development and investment as properties worth hundreds of millions have been destroyed thereby having great impact on property values. Based on these findings, recommendations were made to include the need to strategically continue investing in property during such times, the need for Nigerian government to establish an active conflict monitoring and management unit for the prompt response, encourage community and neighborhood policing to ameliorate security challenges in Nigeria.

Keywords: Economy, Social Crisis, resources, property market

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12 The Impact of Entrepreneur to Develop Economy in Indonesia

Authors: Alif Nur Irvan, M. Varaby Wahyu

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Indonesia is a country that have a lot of natural resources and as one of the most populous people in the world. In the last few years, the world economic is growing rapid, and then Indonesia must be able to develop his economy like the other country. The number of graduates in Indonesia always increase every year and the employment in Indonesia is getting decreased, this situation leads to rise unemployment in Indonesia. Limited employment makes people look for the ways to live decently. From this situation, entrepreneurs become an alternative in Indonesia to develop the economy. Being an entrepreneur means being able to find opportunities to utilize existing resources to take advantage of these opportunities. With the increasing number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia can increase employment, improve the quality of life, income distribution, utilize and mobilize resources to improve national productivity, and improve the welfare of government. The main sources for economic growth are the investments that improve the quality of capital or human resources, which in turn managed to increase the quantity of productive resources and can raise the productivity of all resources through new discoveries, innovations, creativity and technological progress. This paper is talking about the topic, discussions, and it offers the solutions to support entrepreneurs in Indonesia, and also talk about entrepreneurial problems that occurred in Indonesia, and the right solution to solve the problems of entrepreneurship in Indonesia and also discusses the role of government to support entrepreneurship to encourage the economy in Indonesia.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Government, Employment, Economy

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11 Toward a Characteristic Optimal Power Flow Model for Temporal Constraints

Authors: Zongjie Wang, Zhizhong Guo

Abstract:

While the regular optimal power flow model focuses on a single time scan, the optimization of power systems is typically intended for a time duration with respect to a desired objective function. In this paper, a temporal optimal power flow model for a time period is proposed. To reduce the computation burden needed for calculating temporal optimal power flow, a characteristic optimal power flow model is proposed, which employs different characteristic load patterns to represent the objective function and security constraints. A numerical method based on the interior point method is also proposed for solving the characteristic optimal power flow model. Both the temporal optimal power flow model and characteristic optimal power flow model can improve the systems’ desired objective function for the entire time period. Numerical studies are conducted on the IEEE 14 and 118-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characteristic optimal power flow model.

Keywords: Security, Economy, optimal power flow, time period

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10 Macroeconomic Policies Followed in Turkey after the Crisis 2001 and the Effect of These Policies on Foreign Trade: Sample of the Province Konya

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Burcu Guvenek, Bilge Afşar

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of macroeconomic policies on foreign trade. In the study, the effect of the macroeconomic policies applied in Turkey after 2001 on foreign trade was scrutinized carrying out a survey study in the sample of the province Konya. In the survey study, the survey was administered to a total of 209 exporter firms, which are the members of Konya Chamber of Commerce. While 51 of the firms, to which the survey was administered, exported below $ 100,000, 158 of them are the firms exporting above $ 100,000. Survey was realized in the way of face to face interview with the firms in the rate of 79%. 47% of the institutions forming the mass were reached. In forming survey questionnaire, in general, 5-point Likert scale was used. In order to assess the study results, SPSS 15 package program was utilized. In the survey, foreign trade activities of the firms in Konya were analyzed; and the problems they face, while performing foreign trade, and those needing to be carried out for increasing foreign trade volume of Konya were revealed by determining how and at what degree they were affected from the macroeconomic policies applied. Thus, foreign trade structure and state of the province Konya were attempted to be analyzed. In the survey study, it emerges that although the problems Konya faces in foreign trade overlap with the problems across Turkey, the province Konya seems to be affected relatively less from the last crisis with its equity capital in either trade or other areas. Until the year 2008, while Konya is in a position of the province continuously increasing its export, also with the effect of global crisis, in 2009, a fall was seen in the amount of export. The results emerging in the survey study also confirm this case. In parallel with demand inadequacy and recession all over the world, firms experience trouble. However, again according to our survey result, foreign market weight of firms shifted from EU countries to Russia, East Bloc, and Middle East countries. This prevented Konya from negative affecting from EU crisis at maximum level. That is, Russian and Middle East market express significance for Konya. That market is diversified, and being relatively rid of dependence to EU is extremely important in terms of Konya export.

Keywords: Economy, Foreign Trade, economic crise, macro economic politicies

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9 Impact of Social Crisis on Property Market Performance and Evolving Strategy for Improved Property Transactions in Crisis Prone Environment: A Case Study of North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Abdur Raheem, Ado Yakub

Abstract:

Urban violence in the form of ethnic and religious conflicts have been on the increase in many African cities in the recent years of which most of them are the result of intense and bitter competition for political power, the control of limited economic, social and environmental resources. In Nigeria, the emergence of the Boko Haram insurgency in most parts of the north eastern parts have ignited violence, bloodshed, refuge exodus and internal migration. Not only do the persistent attacks of the sect create widespread insecurity and fear, it has also stifled normal processes of trade and investments most especially real property investment which is acclaimed to accelerate the economic cycle, thus the need to evolve strategies for an improved property market in such areas. This paper, therefore, examines the impact of these social crisis on effective and efficient utilization of real properties as a resource towards the development of the economy, using a descriptive analysis approach where particular emphasis was based on trends in residential housing values; volume of estimated property transactions and real estate investment decisions by affected individuals. Findings indicate that social crisis in the affected areas have been a clog on the wheels of property development and investment as properties worth hundreds of millions have been destroyed thereby having great impact on property values. Based on these findings, recommendations were made to include the need to strategically continue investing in property during such times, the need for Nigerian government to establish an active conflict monitoring and management unit for prompt response, encourage community and neighbourhood policing to ameliorate security challenges in Nigeria.

Keywords: Economy, Social Crisis, resources, property market, north-eastern Nigeria

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8 Development Strategies for Building Smart Cities: The Case of Kalampaka, Greece

Authors: Christos Stamopoulos

Abstract:

Nowadays, the technological evolution has brought changes and new requirements not only on human’s life but also on the environment in which they live. Cities have begun to be organized in new ways which comply with contemporary living standards. The aim of this paper was to present the characteristics and to introduce good construction strategies of smart cities around the world. Also, a case study of the city of Kalampaka and its residents was surveyed. More specifically, residents’ knowledge about smart cities and their opinion for future progress was examined. Statistical analysis showed that residents’ knowledge about smart cities was fairly good (48% knew the phrase 'smart city'). However, respondents believe that the appearance of the city of Kalampaka needs improvement in many areas (the 75% are disappointed with the current appearance of the city). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the value of the environmental sustainability is greatly influenced by the energy saving, as well as, innovation has an impact on the level of quality of life, while older people seem satisfied with administration’s efforts for development.

Keywords: Development, Governance, Environment, Economy, Quality of Life, Smart City

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7 Exploring the Determinants of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigerian Security Systems and Economy

Authors: Abara Onu, Augustine Mina Ephraim, Emmanuel Teidi

Abstract:

Terrorism has been a major challenge and is so dare to the Nigerian government in recent times. The actions and activities of the Islamic sect known as Boko Haram had led to enormous loss of lives and properties in the country, mostly the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities entails bombings, suicide attacks, intimidations, sporadic gunfire of the unarmed, blameless and innocent Nigerians, burning of police stations and churches, kidnappings, raping of school girls and women. Nigeria has also been included amongst one of the terrorist countries of the world. This has serious implications for the development of Nigerian economy. Although, Nigeria had made several worried hard work to deal with these challenges masqueraded by terrorism and insecurity in the country but the rate of insurgency and insecurity is still worrisome. The study looks at exploring the determinants of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigerian security systems and economy. Data used for the study work was from questionnaire administered, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method to analyse the data. The result shows that Ideology and funding are significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram group in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria. The work x-rayed the following recommendations; government should declare war on terrorism and as well seek support and cooperation from international communities who in time or the other might have faced with this kind ugly experience and challenge and were able to tackle it. Nigerian Military needs to be more empowered with high dangerous weapons to combat the insurgency as well as beef up security across the Country to curb the threats.

Keywords: Economy, Terrorism, Nigeria, Boko Haram

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6 Statistical and Land Planning Study of Tourist Arrivals in Greece during 2005-2016

Authors: Dimitra Alexiou

Abstract:

During the last 10 years, in spite of the economic crisis, the number of tourists arriving in Greece has increased, particularly during the tourist season from April to October. In this paper, the number of annual tourist arrivals is studied to explore their preferences with regard to the month of travel, the selected destinations, as well the amount of money spent. The collected data are processed with statistical methods, yielding numerical and graphical results. From the computation of statistical parameters and the forecasting with exponential smoothing, useful conclusions are arrived at that can be used by the Greek tourism authorities, as well as by tourist organizations, for planning purposes for the coming years. The results of this paper and the computed forecast can also be used for decision making by private tourist enterprises that are investing in Greece. With regard to the statistical methods, the method of Simple Exponential Smoothing of time series of data is employed. The search for a best forecast for 2017 and 2018 provides the value of the smoothing coefficient. For all statistical computations and graphics Microsoft Excel is used.

Keywords: Tourism, Economy, Statistical Methods, exponential smoothing, land spatial planning

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5 Application of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy to Integrated Instructional Model of In-Service Teachers of Schools under the Project Initiated by H.R.H Princess in Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Nakhonnayok Educational Service Area Office

Authors: Kathaleeya Chanda

Abstract:

The schools under the Project Initiated by H.R.H Princess in Maha Chakri Sirindhorn in Nakhonnayok Educational Service Area Office are the small schools, situated in a remote and undeveloped area.Thus, the school-age youth didn’t have or have fewer opportunities to study at the higher education level which can lead to many social and economic problems. This study aims to solve these educational issues of the schools, under The Project Initiated by H.R.H Princess in Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Nakhonnayok Educational Service Area Office, by the development of teachers, so that teachers could develop teaching and learning system with the ultimate goal to increase students’ academic achievement, increase the educational opportunities for the youth in the area, and help them learn happily. 154 in-service teachers from 22 schools and 4 different districts in Nakhonnayok participated in this teacher training. Most teachers were satisfied with the training content and the trainer. Thereafter, the teachers were given the test to assess the skills and knowledge after training. Most of the teachers earned a score higher than 75%. Accordingly, it can be concluded that after attending the training, teachers have a clear understanding of the contents. After the training session, the teachers have to write a lesson plan that is integrated or adapted to the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy. The teachers can either adopt intradisciplinary or interdisciplinary integration according to their actual teaching conditions in the school. Two weeks after training session, the researchers went to the schools to discuss with the teachers and follow up the assigned integrated lesson plan. It was revealed that the progress of integrated lesson plan could be divided into 3 groups: 1) the teachers who have completed the integrated lesson plan, but are concerned about the accuracy and consistency, 2) teachers who almost complete the lesson plan or made a great progress but are still concerned, confused in some aspects and not fill in the details of the plan, and 3), the teachers who made few progress, are uncertain and confused in many aspects, and may had overloaded tasks from their school. However, a follow-up procedure led to the commitment of teachers to complete the lesson plan. Regarding student learning assessment, from an experiment teaching, most of the students earned a score higher than 50 %. The rate is higher than the one from actual teaching. In addition, the teacher have assessed that the student is happy, enjoys learning, and providing a good cooperates in teaching activities. The students’ interview about the new lesson plan shows that they are happy with it, willing to learn, and able to apply such knowledge in daily life. Integrated lesson plan can increases the educational opportunities for youth in the area.

Keywords: Economy, Philosophy, sufficiency, integrated education syllabus

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4 The Economic System (Islam) and Riba's Prohibition on Historical Perspective

Authors: Risanda Alirastra Budiantoro, Riesanda Najmi Sasmita, Sri Herianingrum

Abstract:

Allah has given the guidance in the form of Islam for Muslim to take and lead all the aspects of life including the economic activity. The Islamic economic system is believed to be the answer to the economic problems that exist at this time. The goal is to achieve falah in kaffah by not doing some economic activities that are in violation as prescribed by Islam. An example for this is riba. Discourse on riba can be said ‘classical’ both in the development of Islamic thought and in Islamic civilization because riba often occurs in all aspects of public life, especially economic transactions (in Islam called muamalah). Riba is an additional retrieval, either in a sale and purchase transaction or lending in a false or contrary to the principle of muamalah in Islam. Prohibition of riba is obtained from various sources by the Qur'an and Hadith Rasulullah SAW, so the scholars firmly and clearly defined the prohibition of riba because there are exploitative elements that can harm the others. So, this study is aimed to identify Islamic economic system and the prohibition of riba in historical perspective. From the results of this study, it is expected to be a good reference for the reader to understand the Islamic economic system and riba in the future.

Keywords: Economy, riba, economics system, historical perspective

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3 An Entrepreneurial Culture Led by Creativity and Innovation: Challenges and Competencies for Sri Lanka as a Middle Income Country

Authors: Tissa Ravinda Perera

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An open economic policy was introduced by Sri Lanka in 1977, before many other countries in Asia to align her economy to world economic trends and it was affected indigenous businesses since they had to compete with foreign products, processes, technology, innovations and businesses. The year 2010 was a milestone in Sri Lankan history to achieve the developmental goals when Foxbuisness rated Sri Lanka as the best performing global economy. However, Sri Lanka missed her chances of achieving development with the political and social chaos, consequent the regime change in 2015. This paper argues that to support the development of the country, Sri Lanka must develop an entrepreneurial culture. In this endeavor, creativity and innovation will play a pivotal role to achieve the desired level of development. In this study, it was used secondary data from various local and international sources to understand and explore the existing scenario of Sri Lankan economy, state of entrepreneurial culture and innovation, and challenges and competencies for the development of an entrepreneurial culture in Sri Lanka. The data was collected from secondary sources were depicted in tables in this paper in a meaningful manner. Based on the tables many findings were aroused and conclusions were made to support the argument in this paper. This paper revealed that the development of an entrepreneurial culture has to be associated with creativity and innovation to gain a competitive advantage over the development strategies of other countries. It is exposed that an entrepreneurial culture will help minorities, women and underprivileged societies to empower themselves. This product will help to confront and manage youth unrest which has created anarchy in the country from time to time. Throughout this paper, it was highlighted the past, present and future scenario of Sri Lankan economy along with modification to be done to it through the development of an entrepreneur culture in light of innovation and creativity to achieve the desired level of development.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Economy, Creativity, Industry, Entrepreneurial Culture

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2 The State Support to the Tourism Policy Formation Mechanism in Black Sea Basin Countries (Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia, Georgia) and Its Impact on Sustainable Tourism Development

Authors: A. Bahar Ganiyeva, M. Sabuhi Tanriverdiyev

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The article analyzes state support and policy mechanisms aimed at driving tourism as one of the vibrant and rapidly developing economies. State programs and long-range strategic roadmaps and previous programs execution, results and their impact on the particular countries economy have been raised during the research. This theme provides a useful framework for discussions with a wider range of stakeholders as the implications arising are of importance both for academics and practitioners engaged in hospitality and tourism development and research. The impact that tourism has on sustainable regional development in emerging markets is highly substantial. For Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, and Russia, with their rich natural resources and cultural heritage, tourism can be an important basis for economic expansion, and a way to form an acceptable image of the countries as safe, open, hospitable, and complex.

Keywords: Tourism, hospitality, Sustainable Tourism, Economy, Growth, Policy Formation, Mechanism, destination, strategic roadmap, state support, state program

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