Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Economic Related Abstracts

30 Environmental and Economic Impact of Mangrove Deforestation: Case Study of Vadamaradchy East, Sri Lanka

Authors: Kumaraamy Sasikumar

Abstract:

The study was conducted in Vadamarachchi-East in Sri Lanka. Data collection was done for a period of two months from June to July 2011. The main focus of this study was to examine factors contributing to mangrove deforestation within the study area, and resultant impacts from deforestation. The study found that, the main factors that have contributed to deforestation include: Long civil wars in the region, poverty which pushed people to clear the forest to earn income through the sale of firewood and timber among others, industrial development, increasing demand for farm and settlement land, limited knowledge within the local community, weak government polices and implementation strategies, and natural disasters especially the 2004 Tsunami destruction. The impacts presented are those that impact both on the environment and the economy including; loss of income sources, loss of biodiversity, climate change, desertification, conflicts in the use of forest products and loss of land productivity due to reduced fertility caused by soil erosion. However, a few strategies have been put in place by the government to ensure the sustainable use of mangrove forest products, though these have not proved successful in reducing deforestation. The recommendations make suggestions to the government and other stakeholders to work together in ensuring sustainable use of natural resources, for example implementing laws and regulations aimed at controlling deforestation among others.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Economic, Environment, Impacts, Deforestation, actors

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29 The name of Thai Muslim students: The Reflection of value and Identity of Thai Muslim

Authors: Apichaya Kaewuthai

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To study the meaning of Muslim name in order to analyse the underlining value and identity from first year to forth year Muslim students at Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai Campus. The questionnaires are employed as a main analytical tool to acquire the names from 80 Muslim students in four study years. The meanings of obtained names are subsequently analysed and summarized base upon related documents to uncover the beneath value. The study reveals that name of male is derived from the name of prophet; Nabi Muhammad, merit, dignity, origins, leadership and the faith in Islam. For female, on the other hand, their names are related to virtue and beauty, cleanliness and peace, hope and flowers which comply with their characteristics. One of the reasons contribute to the principle of naming is the regulation of Ministry of Culture which states that the name should represent one’s nature and characters. The given name reflects value and identity of Muslim which can be classified into three categories including 1) Value related to belief in Islam 2) value related to relationship among families and relatives 3) value about relationship with nature and environment. All the above mentioned reflect Muslim value and identity vividly. The name of Muslim students allows the researcher to perceive the perspective, belief and value in giving the name of Thai Muslim. Besides, it reveals social condition and their culture. It can also be the fundamental of studying the meaning of name in other races.

Keywords: Culture, Economic, the naming, Thai Muslim

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28 Development of a Process to Manufacture High Quality Refined Salt from Crude Solar Salt

Authors: Rathnayaka D. D. T., Vidanage P. W., Wasalathilake K. C., Wickramasingha H. W., Perera S. A. S., Wijayarathne U. P. L.

Abstract:

This paper describes the research carried out to develop a process to increase the NaCl percentage of crude salt which is obtained from the conventional solar evaporation process. In this study refined salt was produced from crude solar salt by a chemico-physical method which consists of coagulation, precipitation and filtration. Initially crude salt crystals were crushed and dissolved in water. Optimum amounts of calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) were added to the solution respectively. Refined NaCl solution was separated out by a filtration process. The solution was tested for Total Suspended Solids, SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+. With optimum dosage of reagents, the results showed that a level of 99.60% NaCl could be achieved. Further this paper discusses the economic viability of the proposed process. A 83% profit margin can be achieved by this process and it is an increase of 112.3% compared to the traditional process.

Keywords: Economic, chemico-physical, optimum, refined, solar salt

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27 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein-Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords: Production, Economic, Efficiency, Dairy, calving season

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26 Fuzzy Logic in Detecting Children with Behavioral Disorders

Authors: David G. Maxínez, Andrés Ferreyra Ramírez, Liliana Castillo Sánchez, Nancy Adán Mendoza, Carlos Aviles Cruz

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This research describes the use of fuzzy logic in detection, assessment, analysis and evaluation of children with behavioral disorders. It shows how to acquire and analyze ambiguous, vague and full of uncertainty data coming from the input variables to get an accurate assessment result for each of the typologies presented by children with behavior problems. Behavior disorders analyzed in this paper are: hyperactivity (H), attention deficit with hyperactivity (DAH), conduct disorder (TD) and attention deficit (AD).

Keywords: Economic, Behavior, Social, Disorders, Fuzzy Logic, Detection, hyperactivity, alteration, centroid, impulsivity

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25 Zeros Elimination from the National Currency

Authors: Zahra Karimi

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of accounting for the implementation of the VAT system in the country. For this purpose, after the evaluation of specifications and important advantages of the VAT and the experience of other countries, important role of accounting in the precise determination of taxes, strategies to prevent escape of tax and realization of tax revenues of government, necessary control to increase the efficiency and accuracy of the calculations discussed. High-dependence of government to borrowing from the banking system and inflation tax and a low general ratio of tax revenues to GDP, indicating the inadequacy of the country's tax system. It can be said that being of a proper accounting system consider as a prerequisite for successful implementation of VAT in the country. So it's crucial for accountants with responsibility announce its full fitness to meet the requirements. For successful implementation of VAT as such a multi-stage sales tax and the tax on the price.

Keywords: Accounting, Economic, tax reform in Iran, Value Added Tax (VAT)

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24 Textile Cottage Industry: A Facilitator for Capacity Building and Youth Empowerment

Authors: Salihu Maiwada

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The large scale textile industry in Nigeria was at one time the second largest employer of labor after government. With recent developments and changing situations, there is a serious decline in this sector which consequently forced the local textile industries to close down and the workers retrenched. the category of people worst hit was the youths and the middle age. This paper examines the potentials of the textile cottage industry as a facilitator for capacity building and economic empowerment among the Nigerian youths. The paper focuses on economic viability, persistence, and above-all, its potentials for poverty reduction as well as self employment. The methodology used in the study is the survey method and the instrument used to collect the necessary information is field interview. The results obtained showed that the textile cottage industries are flourishing and the Nigerian youths are engaged in the practice. In addition, the paper suggests areas that require government's financial intervention which will facilitate the establishment and ensure the sustainability of the textile cottage industry. The paper concludes with some recommendations for the youths and for the government.

Keywords: Economic, Sustainability, Capacity building, Empowerment, youths, persistence

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23 The Assessment of the Comparative Efficiency of Reforms through the Integral Index of Transformation

Authors: Samson Davoyan, Ashot Davoyan, Ani Khachatryan

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The indexes (Global Competitiveness Index, Economic Freedom Index, Human Development Index, etc.) developed by different international and non-government organizations in time and space express the quantitative and qualitative features of different fields of various reforms implemented in different countries. The main objective of our research is to develop new methodology that we will use to create integral index based on many indexes and that will include many areas of reforms. To achieve our aim we have used econometric methods (regression model for panel data method). The basis of our methodology is the development of the new integral index based on quantitative assessment of the change of two main parameters: the score of the countries by different indexes and the change of the ranks of countries for following two periods of time. As a result of the usage of methods for analyzes we have defined the indexes that are used to create the new integral index and the scales for each of them. Analyzing quantitatively and qualitatively analysis through the integral index for more than 100 countries for 2009-2014, we have defined comparative efficiency that helps to conclude in which directions countries have implemented reforms more effectively compared to others and in which direction reforms have implemented less efficiently.

Keywords: Development, Economic, Social, Corruption, Program, comparative, index, reforms, rank

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22 Analysis of Socio-Economics of Tuna Fisheries Management (Thunnus Albacares Marcellus Decapterus) in Makassar Waters Strait and Its Effect on Human Health and Policy Implications in Central Sulawesi-Indonesia

Authors: Siti Rahmawati

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Indonesia has had long period of monetary economic crisis and it is followed by an upward trend in the price of fuel oil. This situation impacts all aspects of tuna fishermen community. For instance, the basic needs of fishing communities increase and the lower purchasing power then lead to economic and social instability as well as the health of fishermen household. To understand this AHP method is applied to acknowledge the model of tuna fisheries management priorities and cold chain marketing channel and the utilization levels that impact on human health. The study is designed as a development research with the number of 180 respondents. The data were analyzed by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The development of tuna fishery business can improve productivity of production with economic empowerment activities for coastal communities, improving the competitiveness of products, developing fish processing centers and provide internal capital for the development of optimal fishery business. From economic aspects, fishery business is more attracting because the benefit cost ratio of 2.86. This means that for 10 years, the economic life of this project can work well as B/C> 1 and therefore the rate of investment is economically viable. From the health aspects, tuna can reduce the risk of dying from heart disease by 50%, because tuna contain selenium in the human body. The consumption of 100 g of tuna meet 52.9% of the selenium in the body and activating the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidaxe which can protect the body from free radicals and stimulate various cancers. The results of the analytic hierarchy process that the quality of tuna products is the top priority for export quality as well as quality control in order to compete in the global market. The implementation of the policy can increase the income of fishermen and reduce the poverty of fishermen households and have impact on the human health whose has high risk of disease.

Keywords: Health, Economic, Social, management of tuna

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21 The Impact of FDI on Economic Growth in Algeria

Authors: Mohammed Yagoub

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The new orientation to the market economy sponsored by the Algeria government in the early Nineties of the last century, and its desire to develop investment mechanisms and the promotion of development recently, the access into a partnership with the European Union, and the forthcoming accession to the World Trade Organization, foreign direct investment makes one of the most important means of opening up to foreign markets and bring technology and interact with globalization, this article we will discuss the impact of FDI on economic growth in the Algerian.

Keywords: Development, Economic, Markets, Globalization, Displacement, FDI

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20 The Economic Benefits of the Graduates of Higher Education in Philippines

Authors: Christia C. Baltar

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Everybody goes to primary education but not all proceed to secondary education because of poverty and it is evident in the Philippines. Moreover, the number goes down when they reach higher education. The researcher believes that higher education may improve the standard of living of the family looking at the economic benefits of it. Once one graduated from a particular degree, one may employ with higher wage than those who are non-degree holder. Every year the Philippines produce more than five hundred thousand graduates of higher education and it keeps on increasing every year. Thus, the competition in the employment is really high. It is then important to pursue higher education than settling to a high school graduate because a degree is what most of the employer is looking for. The Philippine government through the Department of Labor and Employment is offering job fairs to all cities as much as possible just to cater employment for those graduates away from urban areas like in Manila and even the privates sectors also proposing for job fairs. Researcher conducted a survey in her institution and she further used secondary information to strengthen the findings of her survey. Researcher used descriptive measures, chi-square test for independence, and the correlation coefficient to analyze the data in her survey. In the survey conducted results show that there was an increase on the income of the family of the graduates of higher education. The graduates believed that their standard of living improved because they were able to work in a better job. The data were analyzed and the results show that there was no significant relationship on sex, age and marital status of the graduates to their economic status but the degree program they enrolled in the tertiary education affects their economic status. The impact of earning higher education can be seen indirectly to the economic growth of the Philippines. Finally, researcher concludes that there is direct and indirect impact of the higher education to the economic status of the graduates.

Keywords: Higher Education, Economic, economic benefits, standard of living

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19 Entrepreneurial Leadership and Thriving Innovation Activity

Authors: Olakunle Felix Adekunle

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Innovation has become the key to firm success, and entrepreneurial leadership displayed by the top management team fundamentally drives innovation in firms. This paper discusses findings from an empirical study of factors influencing the success of firms operating in developing economies in an industry where science drives the pace of change. We find that success of firms in such industries depends on thriving innovation activity that in turn is primarily driven by effective entrepreneurial leadership of the top management team. The paper presents the dimensions of entrepreneurial leadership and its linkage to innovation and firm success in the form of testable propositions. Finally, a preliminary theory of firm success in industries where science drives the pace of change is also inducted from this empirical study and presented.

Keywords: Leadership, Innovation, Economic, Industry, Efficiency, resources, Firms

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18 Recessionary Tales: An Investigation into How Children with Intellectual Disability, and Their Families Experience the Current Economic Downturn

Authors: S. Flynn

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This paper offers a focused commentary on the impact of the current economic downturn on children with ID (intellectual disability), and their families, in the Republic of Ireland. It will examine the practical challenges, serious concerns, and trends in the field of disability with specific regard to the impact of the economic downturn in the Irish context. This includes the impact of cutbacks to services and supports, and the erosion of possibilities for life progression for children with ID as evident within the existing body of research. This focused commentary on core and seminal literature, policy and research will then be used to provide a discussion on what are the core points of learning for policy makers, researchers, practitioners and society as whole.

Keywords: Disability, Economic, Children, recession

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17 An Investigation on Interactions between Social Security with Police Operation and Economics in the Field of Tourism

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Namdari, Hosein Torki

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Security as an abstract concept, has involved human being from the beginning of creation to the present, and certainly to the future. Accordingly, battles, conflicts, challenges, legal proceedings, crimes and all issues related to human kind are associated with this concept. Today by interviewing people about their life, the security of societies and Social crimes are interviewed too. Along with the security as an infrastructure and vital concept, the economy and related issues e.g. welfare, per capita income, total government revenue, export, import and etc. is considered another infrastructure and vital concept. These two vital concepts (Security and Economic) have linked together complexly and significantly. The present study employs analytical-descriptive research method using documents and Statistics of official sources. Discovery and explanation of this mutual connection are comprising a profound and extensive research; so management, development and reform in system and relationships of the scope of this two concepts are complex and difficult. Tourism and its position in today's economy is one of the main pillars of the economy of the 21st century that maybe associate with the security and social crimes more than other pillars. Like all human activities, economy of societies and partially tourism dependent on security especially in the public and social security. On the other hand, the true economic development (generally) and the growth of the tourism industry (dedicated) are a security generating and supporting for it, because a dynamic economic infrastructure prevents the formation of centers of crime and illegal activities by providing a context for socio-economic development for all segments of society in a fair and humane. This relationship is a formula of the complexity between the two concept of economy and security. Police as a revealed or people-oriented organization in the field of security directly has linked with the economy of a community and is very effective In the face of the tourism industry. The relationship between security and national crime index, and economic indicators especially ones related to tourism is confirming above discussion that is notable. According to understanding processes about security and economic as two key and vital concepts are necessary and significant for sovereignty of governments.

Keywords: Economic, Tourism, Police, Social Security

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16 Impact of Tourism on Sustainability on Essaouira Destination in Morocco

Authors: Hadach Mohamed

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Tourism becomes more and more a source of added value for developing countries. In Morocco, the sector contributes at 20% of national GDP, or the effects of this activity become increasingly harmful. The methodology we followed is qualitative, we analyzed the data according to a process-based approach in two longitudinal period from 2001 to 2009 and a period of real time from 2010 to 2014.Through a process-based longitudinal study we analyzed the effects of tourism on the three components of sustainability: economic, environmental and socio-cultural in Essaouira destination in the south west of Morocco. The objective of this paper is to identify among others, harmful effects of mass tourism on fragile destination in terms of load capacity, promotion of youth employment and respect for indigenous traditions. This study also aims to analyze the impact of tourism on the fragile destination, which depends heavily on this activity; it also seeks to test a series of indicators for sustainable development of sensitive areas. Within results, we found that tourism as an activity is very linked to the international situation, tested sustainable development indicators showed us that tourism is environmentally destructive, job creator and changer modes and lives of indigenous. Between the two periods analyzed, the situation becomes more and more vulnerable and the state intervention is becoming more indispensable. We also found that 70% of the population of the destination does not benefit from the income generated by the destination. This raises questions about the fate of the added value of this activity.

Keywords: Economic, Tourism Sustainability, environmental and socio-cultural, fragile destination

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15 Diversifying Nigeria's Economy Using Tourism as a Richer Alternative to Oil

Authors: Aly Audu Fada

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The mono-economic structure of Nigerian economy has made it depend on oil for so many years. Apart from the negative effect of its exploitation, relying solely on oil as the major source of revenue for peddling the ship of development is myopic. The crumbling oil price in the world market is one proof of the dangers of this over-dependence. This paper highlights the consequences of the oil-driven economy and explores the various opportunities that are accessible in tourism through a contextual analysis. It is recommended that those at the helm of affairs should initiate collaboration between the public and private sectors to explore and harness the rich tourism resources naturally dispersed across the country to achieve the objectives of economic transformation agenda of the Federal Government.

Keywords: Economic, Tourism, Oil, diversifying

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14 The Impact of Economic Transformation in Nigeria

Authors: Kemi Olalekan Oduntan

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Transformation is a strong word that portends a radical, structural and basic reappraisal of the basic assumptions that underline our economic reform and developmental efforts. The challenges before government are how to move the nation away from an oil-dominated economy, institute the basics for a private sector-driven economy, build the local economy on international best practices, transform a passive oil industry to a more pro-active one and reposition the country along the lines of a more decentralized federalism. But beyond this, Nigeria is faced with management and leadership challenges to contend with building an efficient and effective polity, inspiring a shared vision, remodeling a corrupt polity, redefining the essentials of transformational leadership and creating Nigerian dream that will inspire patriotism and commitment in the citizenry.

Keywords: Economic, Economic growth, polity, Patriotism, transformational

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13 Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar-Powered Triple-Effect Absorption Chiller for Air-Conditioning Applications

Authors: Ali Shirazi, Robert A. Taylor, Stephen D. White, Graham L. Morrison

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In this paper, a detailed simulation model of a solar-powered triple-effect LiBr–H2O absorption chiller is developed to supply both cooling and heating demand of a large-scale building, aiming to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in building sector. TRNSYS 17 is used to simulate the performance of the system over a typical year. A combined energetic-economic-environmental analysis is conducted to determine the system annual primary energy consumption and the total cost, which are considered as two conflicting objectives. A multi-objective optimization of the system is performed using a genetic algorithm to minimize these objectives simultaneously. The optimization results show that the final optimal design of the proposed plant has a solar fraction of 72% and leads to an annual primary energy saving of 0.69 GWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of ~166 tonnes, as compared to a conventional HVAC system. The economics of this design, however, is not appealing without public funding, which is often the case for many renewable energy systems. The results show that a good funding policy is required in order for these technologies to achieve satisfactory payback periods within the lifetime of the plant.

Keywords: Economic, Environmental, Multi-objective optimization, solar air-conditioning, triple-effect absorption chiller

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12 Contribution of Traditional Beliefs, Poverty and Bad Weather Conditions to Social Economic Status and Welfare of Rural Setting: A Case Study for Zingwangwa, Blantyre

Authors: Bright Msukwa

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Background: Malawi suffered economic instability, bad weather and massive flooding in the year 2015. A massive flood in the country, mainly in the southern region lead to damage of agriculture products. As a result, one of the heavily affected was Zingwangwa, Blantyre. Methods: We interviewed a selected number of houses residing in donor constructed temporal shelters and those still residing close to the floods prone areas in Zingwangwa, Blantyre. Results: About 67% of the population insisted that they resided on the land, which was prone to the floods as it belonged to their ancestors and their staying was part of preserving ancestral values. The remaining 23% of the population demonstrated economic challenges due to floods that contributed to the damage of their food crops, property and houses. Conclusion: Beliefs can negatively affect economic life improvement if mindsets are not changed among people in the rural area. Recommendation: Improving natural resource management, climate and disaster resilience.

Keywords: Economic, Poverty, belief, walfare

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11 Domestic Violence against Rural Women in Haryana State of India

Authors: Subhash Chander, Jatesh Kathpalia

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Violence against women has spread into a global epidemic. This has debilitating effect over the performance of women. Due to deep-rooted values, traditional Indian culture women fear the consequences of reporting violence and declare an unwillingness to subject themselves to the shame of being identified as battered women. Main interest was to study types of domestic violence which women face and to encourage them to report the matter. The study involved understanding the nature, extent and types of domestic violence. Two hundred rural women respondents were selected at random, interview schedule was prepared, and victims afflicted with domestic violence were identified. Data were collected and analyzed for different forms of domestic violence faced by women. 60% of the respondents faced domestic violence in different forms. Out of 120 women who were affected, 92.5% faced emotional, 90.8% faced verbal, 49.1% faced economic and 58.3% faced physical violence. 45.0% faced violence within three months of the marriage. Out of these, only 6.6% reported the violence to the police. Frequently faced forms of violence were slapping (27.1%), beating (24.3%) and starvation (25.7%). Number of women who were not allowed to spend money of their own stood at 30.5%. About 50% victims of emotional violence were facing constant criticism by their in-laws. Significant association was found between age, education and socio-economic status of the respondents and domestic violence. Rural women in Haryana face grave problem of domestic violence which need to be curbed for improving condition of women in society.

Keywords: Economic, Emotional, marriage, rural women, domestic violence against women, physical and verbal violence

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10 Buddhism and Innovative Sustainable Development

Authors: Sraman Sree Mattananda

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This present article is an analytical research on ‘Buddhism and Innovative Sustainable Development.' The main purpose of researching is to the better understanding of many social science theories both in politics and in economics. And the understanding of both Buddhism and science is complementary in order to enable any individual to live a full and meaningful human life. How people can avoid conflict, socially, economically, politically and spiritually using Buddhist teachings for a sustainable development. The aim of studying is also to comprehend every human to be aware that peoples’ happiness and sorrow depends on the choices that they had taken to do what was perceptional right and wrong. Everything that happens does have a reason. This study will be supported by the supply of environmental knowledge, philosophy, and experience. Within the domestic and international cultures, this knowledge might provide a significant basis for the contemporary and the future world. Happiness and unsatisfactoriness of mind depend on the consequences of what we had already done. This is to give deep sense to adjust the nature of all that exists and desire not to attach to them and to liberate oneself leaving the reality as it is. An implicit of references will be drawn from the primary sources, secondary sources, internet sources, and other Scholar’s diamond writings, to prove the investigation of philosophical and theoretical analysis. After the investigation of philosophical and theoretical analysis, the article will demonstrate about, what Buddha advised the follows to stop over-exploitation and how to eradicate conflicts to gain a peaceful society. This will be a lively awareness in the approach to the understanding of the Buddhist view of reality and adopt with middle path. The last part of the article will concern with the Buddhist Challenge of sustaining the society and how Buddhist contemporary scholars interpret sustainable development issues. Mahatma Gandhi’s emphasize to use Buddhist Non-Violence will be demonstrating to gain peace, freedom, and security. Twelve things that concern us when we want to explore the issues of sustainability, demonstrated by A Little Book of Hope will be cleared. How individual hearts can implicate to the contemporary globe will be demonstrated to obtain healthy and practical environment. Finally, generating new awareness and care by minimizing the negative impact on earth resources will reduce the degradation of the planet which would pose a challenge to sustain Development.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Economic, Buddhism, Buddhist Ethics

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9 Application of Mathematical Sciences to Farm Management

Authors: Fahad Suleiman

Abstract:

Agriculture has been the mainstay of the nation’s economy in Nigeria. It provides food for the ever rapidly increasing population and raw materials for the industries. People especially the rural dwellers are gainfully employed on their crop farms and small-scale livestock farms for income earning. In farming, availability of funds and time management are one of the major factors that influence the system of farming in Nigeria in which mathematical science knowledge was highly required in order for farms to be managed effectively. Farmers often applied mathematics, almost every day for a variety of tasks, ranging from measuring and weighing, to land marking. This paper, therefore, explores some of the ways math is used in farming. For instance, farmers use arithmetic variety of farm activities such as seed planting, harvesting crop, cultivation and mulching. It is also important in helping farmers to know how much their livestock weighs, how much milk their cows produce and crop yield per acres, among others.

Keywords: Mathematics, Agriculture, Economic, Farming, Application

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8 Challenges and Prospects of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Somolu Local Government Area

Authors: A. A. Akharayi, B. E. Anjola

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The economic development of a country depends greatly on internally built revenue. Small and Medium-scale Enterprise (SMEs) contributes to the economic buoyancy as it provides employment for the teeming population, encourages job creation by youths who believes in themselves and also by others who have gathered finance enough to invest in growable investment. SMEs is faced with several challenges. The study investigates the role and challenges of SMEs Somolu Local Government Area. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select entrepreneurs (SMEs owners and managers). One hundred and fifty (150) registered SMEs were selected across the LGA data collection with the use of well-structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. The result of the analysis indicated that marketing, finance, social facilities and indiscriminate taxes among other high level of fund available significantly (p <0 .05) increase firm capacity while marketing showed a significant (p < 0.05) relationship with profit level.

Keywords: Development, Economic, challenge, small and medium scale enterprise

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7 Quantitative Analysis of the Trade Potential of the United States with Members of the European Union: A Gravity Model Approach

Authors: Zahid Ahmad, Nauman Ali

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This study has estimated the trade between USA and individual members of European Union using Gravity Model of Trade as The USA has a complex trade relationship with the European countries consist of a large number of consumers, which make USA dependent on EU for major of its total world trade. However, among the member of EU, the trade potential of USA with individual members of EU is not known. Panel data techniques e.g. Random Effect, Fixed Effect and Pooled Panel have been applied to secondary quantitative data to analyze the Trade between USA and EU. Trade Potential of USA with individual members of EU has been obtained using the ratio of Actual trade of USA with EU members and the trade as predicted by Gravity Model. The Study concluded that the USA has greater trade potential with 16 members of EU, including Croatia, Portugal and United Kingdom on top. On the other hand, Finland, Ireland, and France are the top countries with which the USA has exhaustive trade potential.

Keywords: International Trade, Economic, Gravity, significant, analytical technique

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6 Impact of Economic Crisis on Secondary Education in Anambra State

Authors: Stella Nkechi Ezeaku, Ifunanya Nkechi Ohamobi

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This study investigated the impact of economic crisis on education in Anambra state. The population of the study comprised of all principals and teachers in Anambra state numbering 5,887 (253 principles and 5,634 teachers). To guide the study, three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated correlational design was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 200 principals and 300 teachers as respondents for the study. A researcher-developed instrument tagged Impact of Economic Crisis on Education questionnaire (IECEQ) was used to collect data needed for the study. The instrument was validated by experts in measurement and evaluation. The reliability of the instrument was established using randomly selected members of the population who did not take part in the study. The data obtained was analyzed using Cronbach alpha technique and reliability co-efficient of .801 and .803 was obtained. The data were analyzed using simple and Multiple Regression Analysis. The formulated hypothesis was tested at .05 level of significance. Findings revealed that: there is a significant relationship between economic crisis and realization of goals of secondary education. The result also shows that economic crisis affect students' academic performance, teachers' morale and productivity and principals' administrative capability. This study therefore concludes that certain strategies must be devised to minimize the impact of economic crisis on secondary education. It is recommended that all stakeholders to education should be more resourceful and self-sufficient in order to cushion the effects of economic crisis currently gripping most world economies Nigeria inclusive.

Keywords: Education, Economic, Impact, Crisis

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5 Assessing Sustainability Dimensions of Transportation as a Critical Infrastructure: Jordan as a Case Study

Authors: Malak M. Shatnawi

Abstract:

Infrastructure is the fundamental facility that plays an important part in socio-economic development for modern societies, if such sector is well planned, managed by decision makers in a way that is compatible with the population growth, safety, and national security needs; it will enrich progress, prosperity, awareness, social and economic welfare for any country. Infrastructure is the most important aspect of life because it can provide materials, products, and services that will improve and facilitate living conditions and maintain sustainability at the same time, and in order to study critical infrastructure, in general, we must think sustainability. Otherwise there will be a significant gap. The planning processes for sustainability include urban infrastructure and public transportation are considered the most important sectors for economic development for both developed and developing countries as they are linked to the civilizational and urban development, meanwhile, choosing the appropriate transportation mode that will provide a good level of service, and increase the satisfaction of the potential users is a difficult task. This research paper tries to assess where is Jordan located vs. each transportation sustainability dimensions in aspects related to social, economic and environmental dimensions based on (Zietsman et al. 2006) adopted model for sustainability transportation infrastructure. Measures of performance indicators for each dimensional goal were traced and supported with needed data, figures and statistical findings. The study uses analytical, descriptive style and methodology based on different references and previous studies from secondary data sources to support the case. Recommendations for enhancing sustainability were concluded, and future reform directions were proposed which can be applied to Jordan and generalized for other developing countries with similar circumstances.

Keywords: Economic, Social, Environmental, infrastructure transportation sustainability

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4 The Impact of Water Resources on Economic and Social Development in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi

Abstract:

The geographical location of the State of Kuwait contributed significantly to the suffering of Kuwait in the past, due to the scarcity of natural water resources and the inability of the State's financial resources to provide other water resources to meet the needs of the population. The problem of water scarcity in Kuwait remained until the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, as the country's economic conditions revived with the emergence and export of oil; which was clearly reflected in the steady growth of the population. To cope with this population, increase, it was necessary to expand the various development programs to include all sectors of the state. The process of development and urbanization could not start without finding solutions to the problem of water shortage in Kuwait. The only option for officials to meet the needs of the population and the different sectors of water development is the desalination of seawater. This process necessitated the establishment of six desalination plants along the coast of Kuwait and extended freshwater arteries to reach everywhere on the land. However, this does not mean that the problem of water shortage has been completely solved. The desalination plants are not meeting the country's future water needs, especially considering the increasing population growth. These stations are nearing completion and they need to be replaced, renovation and maintenance, require significant expenses. Therefore, it was necessary for scientific research to address the issue of water in Kuwait, whether in the field of development of existing resources or in the field of rationalization of consumption and protection of available resources. The study focused on how to address the increasing demand for water resulting from population increase, the impact of water on economic and social development, the prospects of water resources in Kuwait and its ability to meet the needs of the country by 2030.

Keywords: Development, Water Resources, Economic, Social, Kuwait

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3 Identification of Social Responsibility Factors within Mega Construction Projects

Authors: Francis Edum-Fotwe, Ali Alotaibi, Andrew Price /

Abstract:

Mega construction projects create buildings and major infrastructure to respond to work and life requirements while playing a vital role in promoting any nation’s economy. However, the industry is often criticised for not balancing economic, environmental and social dimensions of their projects, with emphasis typically on one aspect to the detriment of the others. This has resulted in many negative impacts including environmental pollution, waste throughout the project lifecycle, low productivity, and avoidable accidents. The identification of comprehensive Social Responsibility (SR) indicators, which combine social, environmental and economic aspects, is urgently needed. This is particularly the case in the context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which often has mega public construction projects. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of wide-ranging SR indicators which encompass social, economic and environmental aspects unique to the KSA. A qualitative approach was applied to explore relevant indicators through a review of the existing literature, international standards and reports. A list of appropriate indicators was developed, and its comprehensiveness was corroborated by interviews with experts on mega construction projects working with SR concepts in the KSA. The findings present 39 indicators and their metrics, covering 10 economic, 12 environmental and 17 social aspects of SR mapped against their references. These indicators are a valuable reference for decision-makers and academics in the KSA to understand factors related to SR in mega construction projects. The indicators are related to mega construction projects within the KSA and require validation in a real case scenario or within a different industry to demonstrate their generalisability.

Keywords: Economic, Social Responsibility, Social, Environmental, indicators, Construction Projects

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2 Co-Integration Model for Predicting Inflation Movement in Nigeria

Authors: Salako Rotimi, Oshungade Stephen, Ojewoye Opeyemi

Abstract:

The maintenance of price stability is one of the macroeconomic challenges facing Nigeria as a nation. This paper attempts to build a co-integration multivariate time series model for inflation movement in Nigeria using data extracted from the abstract of statistics of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 2008 to 2017. The Johansen cointegration test suggests at least one co-integration vector describing the long run relationship between Consumer Price Index (CPI), Food Price Index (FPI) and Non-Food Price Index (NFPI). All three series show increasing pattern, which indicates a sign of non-stationary in each of the series. Furthermore, model predictability was established with root-mean-square-error, mean absolute error, mean average percentage error, and Theil’s unbiased statistics for n-step forecasting. The result depicts that the long run coefficient of a consumer price index (CPI) has a positive long-run relationship with the food price index (FPI) and non-food price index (NFPI).

Keywords: Economic, Inflation, model, series

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1 Microfinance and Women Empowerment in Bangladesh: Impact in Economic Dimension

Authors: Abm Mostafa, Rumbidzai Mukono, Peijie Wang

Abstract:

Using 285 respondents from two microfinance institutions, this research aims to assess the impact of microfinance on women’s economic empowerment in Bangladesh. Empirical measures of economic empowerment used in this paper are underpinned by a bargaining theory of household. Questionnaire is used for data collection following purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, binary, and ordinal logistic regressions are deployed for data analysis. The findings of this study show that around three quarters of respondents have increased household income. They have increased their savings overwhelmingly; nonetheless, many of them are found to have a very small amount of savings. Still, more than half of the respondents are reported to have increased their savings when it is checked against at least 500 BDT per month. On the contrary, the percentage of women is moderate in terms of increasing control over finances. Empirical findings demonstrate the evidence of a relationship between the amount of loan and women’s household income, their savings, and control over finances. Nonetheless, no relationship is found in women’s areas. This study infers that women’s access to financial resources is fundamental to empower them in economic dimension.

Keywords: Microfinance, Economic, Women, Empowerment, Bangladesh

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