Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Ecology Related Abstracts

29 Eco-Friendly Cleansers Initiation for Eco-Campsite Development in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

Authors: Tatsanawalai Utarasakul

Abstract:

Environmental impact has occurred at Khao Yai National Park, especially the water pollution by tourist activities as a result of 800,000 tourists visiting annually. To develop an eco-campsite, eco-friendly cleansers were implemented in Lam Ta Khlong and Pha Kluay Mai Campsites for tourists and restaurants. The results indicated the positive effects of environmentally friendly cleansers on water quality in Lam Ta Khlong River and can be implemented in other protected areas to decrease chemical contamination in ecosystems.

Keywords: Ecology, sustainable tourism management, eco-campsite, Khao Yai National Park

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28 Analysis of Saudi Breast Cancer Patients’ Primary Tumors using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Authors: A. Chaudhary, L. M. Al-Harbi, A. M. Shokry, J. S. M. Sabir, J. Manikandan, K. S. Saini

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is the most common malignancy among Saudi females. During breast carcinogenesis, a wide-array of cytogenetic changes involving deletions, or amplification, or translocations, of part or whole of chromosome regions have been observed. Because of the limitations of various earlier technologies, newer tools are developed to scan for changes at the genomic level. Recently, Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) technique has been applied for detecting segmental genomic alterations at molecular level. In this study, aCGH was performed on twenty breast cancer tumors and their matching non-tumor (normal) counterparts using the Agilent 2x400K. Several regions were identified to be either amplified or deleted in a tumor-specific manner. Most frequent alterations were amplification of chromosome 1q, chromosome 8q, 20q, and deletions at 16q were also detected. The amplification of genetic events at 1q and 8q were further validated using FISH analysis using probes targeting 1q25 and 8q (MYC gene). The copy number changes at these loci can potentially cause a significant change in the tumor behavior, as deletions in the E-Cadherin (CDH1)-tumor suppressor gene as well as amplification of the oncogenes-Aurora Kinase A. (AURKA) and MYC could make these tumors highly metastatic. This study validates the use of aCGH in Saudi breast cancer patients and sets the foundations necessary for performing larger cohort studies searching for ethnicity-specific biomarkers and gene copy number variations.

Keywords: Ecology, Molecular Biology, Environment, Breast Cancer

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27 Ecological Evaluation and Conservation Strategies of Economically Important Plants in Indian Arid Zone

Authors: Sher Mohammed, Purushottam Lal, Pawan K. Kasera

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The Thar Desert of Rajasthan covers a wide geographical area spreading between 23.3° to 30.12°, North latitude and 69.3◦ to 76◦ Eastern latitudes; having a unique spectrum of arid zone vegetation. This desert is spreading over 12 districts having a rich source of economically important/threatened plant diversity interacting and growing with adverse climatic conditions of the area. Due to variable geological, physiographic, climatic, edaphic and biotic factors, the arid zone medicinal flora exhibit a wide collection of angiosperm families. The herbal diversity of this arid region is medicinally important in household remedies among tribal communities as well as in traditional systems. The on-going increasing disturbances in natural ecosystems are due to climatic and biological, including anthropogenic factors. The unique flora and subsequently dependent faunal diversity of the desert ecosystem is losing its biotic potential. A large number of plants have no future unless immediate steps are taken to arrest the causes, leading to their biological improvement. At present the potential loss in ecological amplitude of various genera and species is making several plant species as red listed plants of arid zone vegetation such as Commmiphora wightii, Tribulus rajasthanensis, Calligonum polygonoides, Ephedra foliata, Leptadenia reticulata, Tecomella undulata, Blepharis sindica, Peganum harmala, Sarcostoma vinimale, etc. Mostly arid zone species are under serious pressure against prevailing ecosystem factors to continuation their life cycles. Genetic, molecular, cytological, biochemical, metabolic, reproductive, germination etc. are the several points where the floral diversity of the arid zone area is facing severe ecological influences. So, there is an urgent need to conserve them. There are several opportunities in the field to carry out remarkable work at particular levels to protect the native plants in their natural habitat instead of only their in vitro multiplication.

Keywords: Ecology, Conservation, Evaluation, xerophytes, economically, threatened plants

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26 A Predator-Prey Model with Competitive Interaction amongst the Preys

Authors: Titus G. Kassem, Izang A. Nyam

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A mathematical model is constructed to study the effect of predation on two competing species in which one of the competing species is a prey to the predator whilst the other species are not under predation. Conditions for the existence and stability of equilibrium solutions were determined. Numerical simulation results indicate the possibility of a stable coexistence of the three interacting species in form of stable oscillations under certain parameter values. We also noticed that under some certain parameter values, species under predation go into extinction.

Keywords: Ecology, Competition, Species, predator-prey

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25 Eco-Infrastructures: A Multidimensional System Approach for Urban Ecology

Authors: T. A. Mona M. Salem, Ali F. Bakr

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Given the potential devastation associated with future climate change related disasters, it is vital to change the way we build and manage our cities, through new strategies to reconfigure them and their infrastructures in ways that help secure their reproduction. This leads to a kaleidoscopic view of the city that recognizes the interrelationships of energy, water, transportation, and solid waste. These interrelationships apply across sectors and with respect to the built form of the city. The paper aims at a long-term climate resilience of cities and their critical infrastructures, and sets out an argument for including an eco-infrastructure-based approach in strategies to address climate change. As these ecosystems have a critical role to play in building resilience and reducing vulnerabilities in cities, communities and economies at risk, the enhanced protection and management of ecosystems, biological resources and habitats can mitigate impacts and contribute to solutions as nations and cities strive to adapt to climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Ecosystem, Ecology, Infrastructure, Urban

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24 On a Negative Relation between Bacterial Taxis and Turing Pattern Formation

Authors: A. Elragig, S. Townley, H. Dreiwi

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In this paper we introduce a bacteria-leukocyte model with bacteria chemotaxsis. We assume that bacteria develop a tactic defense mechanism as a response to Leukocyte phagocytosis. We explore the effect of this tactic motion on Turing space in two parameter spaces. A fine tuning of bacterial chemotaxis shows a significant effect on developing a non-uniform steady state.

Keywords: Ecology, Mathematical Biology, chemotaxis-diffusion driven instability, bacterial chemotaxis

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23 Ecological Effect on Aphid Population in Safflower Crop

Authors: Jan M. Mari

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Safflower is a renowned drought tolerant oil seed crop. Previously its flowers were used for cooking and herbal medicines in China and it was cultivated by small growers for his personal needs of oil. A field study was conducted at experimental field, faculty of crop protection, Sindh Agricultural University Tandojam, during winter, 2012-13, to observe ecological effect on aphid population in safflower crop. Aphid population gradually increased with the growth of safflower. It developed with maximum aphid per leaf on 3rd week of February and it decreased in March as crop matured. A non-significant interaction was found with temperature of aphid, zigzag and hoverfly, respectively and a highly significant interaction with temperature was found with 7-spotted, lacewing, 9-spotted, and Brumus, respectively. The data revealed the overall mean population of zigzag was highest, followed by 9-spotted, 7-spotted, lace wing, hover fly and Brumus, respectively. In initial time the predator and prey ratio indicated that there was not a big difference between predator and prey ratio. After January 1st, the population of aphid increased suddenly until 18th February and it established a significant difference between predator prey ratios. After that aphid population started decreasing and it affected ratio between pest and predators. It is concluded that biotic factors, 7-spotted, zigzag, 9-spotted Brumus and lacewing exhibited a strong and positive correlation with aphid population. It is suggested that aphid pest should be monitored regularly and before reaching economic threshold level augmentation of natural enemies may be managed.

Keywords: Ecology, Population, safflower, aphid

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22 Biomimetic to Architectural Design for Increased Sustainability

Authors: Hamid Yazdani, Fatemeh Abbasi

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Biomimicry, where flora, fauna or entire ecosystems are emulated as a basis for design, is a growing area of research in the fields of architecture and engineering. This is due to both the fact that it is an inspirational source of possible new innovation and because of the potential it offers as a way to create a more sustainable and even regenerative built environment. The widespread and practical application of biomimicry as a design method remains however largely unrealised. A growing body of international research identifies various obstacles to the employment of biomimicry as an architectural design method. One barrier of particular note is the lack of a clear definition of the various approaches to biomimicry that designers can initially employ. Through a comparative literature review, and an examination of existing biomimetic technologies, this paper elaborates on distinct approaches to biomimetic design that have evolved. A framework for understanding the various forms of biomimicry has been developed, and is used to discuss the distinct advantages and disadvantages inherent in each as a design methodology. It is shown that these varied approaches may lead to different outcomes in terms of overall sustainability or regenerative potential. It is posited that a biomimetic approach to architectural design that incorporates an understanding of ecosystems could become a vehicle for creating a built environment that goes beyond simply sustaining current conditions to a restorative practice where the built environment becomes a vital component in the integration with and regeneration of natural ecosystems.

Keywords: Ecology, Industrial Ecology, Bio-Inspired Design, Biomimicry, ecomimicry

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21 Effect of Non-Legume Primary Ecological Successor on Nitrogen Content of Soil

Authors: Vikas Baliram Kalyankar

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Study of ecology is important as it plays role in development of environment engineering. With the advent of technologies the study of ecosystem structure and changes in it are remaining unnoticed. The ecological succession is the sequential replacement of plant species following changes in the environment. The present study depicts the primary ecological succession in an area leveled up to the height of five feet with no signs of plant life on it. The five quadrates of 1 meter square size were observed during the study period of six months. Rain water being the only source of water in the area increased its ecological importance. The primary successor was non- leguminous plant Balonites roxburgii during the peak drought periods in the region of the summer 2013-14. The increased nitrogen content of soil after the plant implied its role in atmospheric nitrogen fixation.

Keywords: Ecology, succession, Balonites roxburgii, non-leguminous plant

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20 Ecological and Economical Indicators of Successful Community Based Forest Management: A Case of Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal

Authors: Bikram Jung Kunwar, Pralhad Kunwor

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The Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) approach is often glorified as the best forest management alternatives in the developing countries. However, how the approach has been understood by the local user households, who implement it is remained unanswered for many planners, policy makers, and sometimes researcher as well. The study attempts to assess the understanding of ecology and economics of CBFM in Nepal, where community forest program has been implemented since the 1970s. In order to understand the impacts of the program, eight criteria and sixteen indicators for ecological conservation and similarly same number of criteria and indicators for socio-economic impacts of the program were designed and compared between before and after the program implementation. The community forestry program has positive effects in forest ecology conservation and at the same time rural livelihood improvement of local people. The study revealed that collective understanding of forest ecology and economics leads the CBFM approach towards the sustainability of the program in a win-win situation. The recommendations of the study are expected to be useful to natural resource managers, planners, and policy makers.

Keywords: Economics, Ecology, Community, Forest Management, Nepal

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19 Seasonal Profile of the Feeding Ecology of Auchenoglanis Occidentalis from Tagwai Lake, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: V. I. Chukwuemeka, S. M. Tsadu, R. O. Ojutiku, R. J. Kolo

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The food and feeding habits of Auchenoglanis occidentalis, which is commonly called the “BuBu” cat fish or the giraffe cat fish from Tagwai Lake Minna, was analysed from January to June, 2013. A total of 216 fish specimen were used for the study which were obtained from the local fishermen operating in Tagwai Lake Minna. Fishing gears used include cast nets and gills nets of various sizes. They also use hook and lines. The frequency of occurrence and dominance method were used to analyse the food in the gut. Auchenoglanis occidentalis from Tagwai Lake, Minna had a broad spectrum of food items in the gut, ranging from insects, fish, plant materials to protozoan. The percentage of insects was (31.75%), fish (12.70%), Chyme (20.63%), plant materials (20.63%), protozoa (1.59%) and soil (12.70%). The presence of different food items in the gut of the Auchenoglanis occidentalis which ranged from animal to plant and soil made it to be considered as an omnivore bottom feeder. The food habits of this fish showed no remarkable difference between the dry season months and the rainy season months. The broad food spectrum of the fish makes them a good aquaculture candidate. It also suggests that the specie feed both in surface water and near the substratum (sand).

Keywords: Ecology, Nigeria, Auchenoglanis occidentalis, Tagwai Lake

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18 Ecobiological Study of Olivier in the Northern Slopes of the Mountains of Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: Hachemi Nouria

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The olive tree is a Mediterranean tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae. The Olea genus contains various species and subspecies, and the only species bearing edible fruit is Olea europaea. The desired issue in this study is to provide the current status of plant cover and especially the training in Olea europaea currently existing in the major centers of the region of Tlemcen. While based on the flora and biometric aspect of this plant germplasm. In order to make an assessment of the phytomass, we made measurements of the four parameters of the aerial part of the taxon: height, diameter, and canopy density to ten feet of the olive tree per station. The floristic analysis shows a certain floristic difference between the different stations. The vegetal formations reflect the biotic and abiotic conditions including climate affecting the ecosystem. Biometric study on the feet of Olea in the six study sites, has led us to conclude that the four measured parameters provides insight on the development or degradation of Olea feet depending on the layout of the stations and the factors environmental. We find that the terrains are havens for these assets. Also the local microclimate (Oued Thalweg) promotes the healthy development of this species.

Keywords: Biometrics, Ecology, Algeria, Tlemcen, olivier

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17 The Emotional Experience of Urban Ruins and the Exploration of Urban Memory

Authors: Yan Jia China

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The ruins is a kind of historical intention, which is also the current real existence of developing city. Zen culture of ancient China has a profound esthetic emotion, similarly, the west establish the concept of aesthetics of relic along with the Romanism’s (such as Rousseau etc.) sentiment to historical ruins at the end of 18th century. Nowadays, with the decline of traditional industrial society as well as the rise of post-industrial age, contemporary society must face the ruins and garbage problem which is left by industrial society. Commencing from the perspective of emotion and memory, this paper analyzes the importance for emotional needs as well as their existing status of several projects, such as the Capital Steelworks in Beijing (industrial devastation), the Shibati old section in Chongqing (urban slums) and the Old Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem (ruins of war). It emphasizes urban design which is started from emotion and the sustainable development of city memory through managing the urban ruins which is criticized by people with the perspective of ecology and art.

Keywords: Ecology, Cultural Heritage, emotion, urban ruins, sustainable urban memory

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16 The Analysis of New Town Hillside Development Pattern Guided by Low-Intensity Damage

Authors: Shan Zhou, Wenju Li, Kehui Chai

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Along with economic globalization, marketization and regional development, strengthen planning and construction of the New Town, which is always the main way to optimize the structure and function of metropolitan spatial configuration. But, the new town is often of high-intensity development, bringing a series of natural, ecological and environmental issues, so it is difficult to achieve sustainable development. In this paper, taking the administrative center of Jiangping in Dongxing as an example. It is analyzed from the following three aspects:Vertical design of road traffic,Space layout of mountain buildings,and the design of landscape. The purpose is to elaborate the hillside design methods guided by low-intensity damage, and explore the guiding significance of sustainable development of the hillside construction in the future.

Keywords: Ecology, natural, low-intensity damage, new town construction,hillside,sustainable development

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15 Ecological Art in the Nuclear Anthropocene

Authors: Eve-Andree Laramee

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The aesthetics and ethics of the Nuclear Anthropocene are explored through artists responses to the impact of radioactive materials on ecological systems, global issues, energy policies and ourselves. This presentation tracks and reveals the invisible traces of the nuclear weapons complex and the nuclear energy industry, in relation to environmental justice. Radioactive pollution transgresses international borders, boundaries between land and water, contaminating ecological systems. Radioactive waste is never disposed of; it is dispositioned, placed out of sight and out of mind. These materials leave behind an invisible toxic legacy lasting millions of years. As we are learning post-Fukushima, when climate change occurs and vulnerability spectrums shift, nuclear sites and the life forms surrounding them are at increased risk. By visualizing this contamination through art installations, videos, and social-sculpture interventions, information is shared with the public, raising awareness, and activating community participation in remediation and nonproliferation efforts. The emerging Ecological Art genre proposes paradigms sustainable with the life forms and resources of our planet. It is comprised of artists, scientists, philosophers and activists devoted to these. EcoArt is distinguished by a focus on systems and interrelationships within our environment: the ecological, geographic, political, biological and cultural. This presentation will cover artworks addressing the recent Fukushima meltdowns, weapons proliferation, climate change, radioactive waste disposal and environmental justice. Possibilities for art-and-science collaborations will be discussed as projects that sharpen our ethics and politics in our behaviors and social interactions. The presentation will consist of a PowerPoint talk (paper presentation) accompanied by images and video clips.

Keywords: Ecology, Nuclear, Environment, Art, anthropocene

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14 Taxonomy of Araceous Plants on Limestone Mountains in Lop Buri and Saraburi Provinces, Thailand

Authors: Sutida Maneeanakekul, Duangchai Sookchaloem

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Araceous plant or Araceae is a monocotyledon family having numerous potential useful plants. Two hundred and ten species of Araceae were reported in Thailand, of which 43 species were reported as threatened plants. Fifty percent of endemic status and rare status plants were recorded in limestone areas. Currently, these areas are seriously threatened by land-use changes. The study on taxonomy of Araceous plants was carried out in Lop Buri and Saraburi limestone mountains from February 2011 to May 2015. The purposes of this study were to study species diversity, taxonomic character and ecological habitat. 55 specimens collected from various limestone areas including Pra Phut Tabat National forest (Pra Phut Tabat Mountain, Khao Pra Phut Tabat Noi Mountains, Wat Thum Krabog Mountain), Tab Khwang and Muak Lek Natinal forest (Pha Lad mountain, and Muak Lek waterfall) in Saraburi province ,and Wang Plaeng Ta Muang and Lumnarai National forest (Wat Thum chang phuk mountain), Panead National forest (Wat Khao Samo Khon Mountain), Lan Ta Ridge National forest (Khao Wong Prachan mountain, Wat Pa Chumchon) in Lop Buri province. Twenty species of Araceous plants were identified using characteristics of underground stem, phyllotaxis and leaf blade, spathe and spadix. Species list are Aglaonema cochinchinense, A. simplex, Alocasia acuminata, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, A. albispathus, A. saraburiensis, A. pseudoharmandii, Pycnospatha arietina, Hapaline kerri, Lasia spinosa, Pothos scandens, Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, T. saraburiense, T. trilobatum, T. sp.1, T. sp. 2, Cryptocoryne crispatula var. balansae, Scindapsus sp., and Rhaphidophora peepla. Five species are new locality records. One species (Typhonium sp.1) is considered as a new species. Seven species were reported as threatened plants in Thailand Red Data Book. Taxonomic features were used for key to species constructions. Araceous specimens were found in mixed deciduous forests, dry evergreen forests with 50-470 m. elevation. New ecological habitat of Typhonium laoticum, T. orbifolium, and T. saraburiense were reported in this study.

Keywords: Ecology, Species Diversity, limestone mountains, Lopburi and Saraburi provinces, taxonomic character

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13 The Mapping of Pastoral Area as a Basis of Ecological for Beef Cattle in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf, Jasmal A. Syamsu, Hikmah M. Ali, Mawardi A. Asja, Zulkharnaim

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This study was conducted and aimed in identifying and mapping the pasture as an ecological base of beef cattle. A survey was carried out during a period of April to June 2016, in Suppa, Mattirobulu, the district of Pinrang, South Sulawesi province. The mapping process of grazing area was conducted in several stages; inputting and tracking of data points into Google Earth Pro (version 7.1.4.1529), affirmation and confirmation of tracking line visualized by satellite with a variety of records at the point, a certain point and tracking input data into ArcMap Application (ArcGIS version 10.1), data processing DEM/SRTM (S04E119) with respect to the location of the grazing areas, creation of a contour map (a distance of 5 m) and mapping tilt (slope) of land and land cover map-making. Analysis of land cover, particularly the state of the vegetation was done through the identification procedure NDVI (Normalized Differences Vegetation Index). This procedure was performed by making use of the Landsat-8. The results showed that the topography of the grazing areas of hills and some sloping surfaces and flat with elevation vary from 74 to 145 above sea level (asl), while the requirements for growing superior grass and legume is an altitude of up to 143-159 asl. Slope varied between 0 - > 40% and was dominated by a slope of 0-15%, according to the slope/topography pasture maximum of 15%. The range of NDVI values for pasture image analysis results was between 0.1 and 0.27. Characteristics of vegetation cover of pasture land in the category of vegetation density were low, 70% of the land was the land for cattle grazing, while the remaining approximately 30% was a grove and forest included plant water where the place for shelter of the cattle during the heat and drinking water supply. There are seven types of graminae and 5 types of legume that was dominant in the region. Proportionally, graminae class dominated up 75.6% and legume crops up to 22.1% and the remaining 2.3% was another plant trees that grow in the region. The dominant weed species in the region were Cromolaenaodorata and Lantana camara, besides that there were 6 types of floor plant that did not include as forage fodder.

Keywords: Ecology, Mapping, beef cattle, pastoral

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12 Adaptive Architecture: Reformulation of Socio-Ecological Systems

Authors: Pegah Zamani

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This multidisciplinary study interrogates the reformulation of socio-ecological systems by bringing different disciplines together and incorporating ecological, social, and technological components to the sustainable design. The study seeks for a holistic sustainable system to understand the multidimensional impact of the evolving innovative technologies on responding to the variable socio-environmental conditions. Through a range of cases, from the vernacular built spaces to the sophisticated optimized systems, the research unfolds how far the environmental elements would impact the performance of a sustainable building, its micro-climatic ecological requirements, and its human inhabitation. As a product of the advancing technologies, an optimized and environmentally responsive building offers new identification, and realization of the built space through reformulating the connection to its internal and external environments (such as solar, thermal, and airflow), as well as its dwellers. The study inquires properties of optimized buildings, by bringing into the equation not only the environmental but also the socio-cultural, morphological, and phenomenal factors. Thus, the research underlines optimized built space as a product and practice which would not be meaningful without addressing and dynamically adjusting to the diversity and complexity of socio-ecological systems.

Keywords: Ecology, Morphology, Sustainability, socio-ecological systems

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11 Eco-Biological Study of Artemia salina (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) in Sahline Salt Lake, Tunisia

Authors: Khalil Trigui, Rafik Ben Said, Fourat Akrout, Neji Aloui

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In this study, we examined in the first part the eco-biology of Artemia (A.salina) collected from Sahline Salt Lake (governorate of Monastir: Tunisia) during an annual cycle. The correlations between environmental factors and some biological parameters of Artemia were determined. The results obtained showed that the environmental factors affected the biology of Artemia. The highest abundance was recorded in May (550 ± 2,16 ind/l) and all life history stages existed with different seasonal proportions. The Artemia population is bisexual with ovoviviparous reproduction at the beginning and oviparous at the end of the life cycle. We also recorded the dominance of males at the start and the females at the end of the cycle. During all the study period, the size of mature females is bigger than that of males. The fertility obtained resulted in a significant production of cysts compared to the nauplii. A negative correlation with highly significant effect was deduced between environmental factors (temperature and salinity) and the production of nauplii (ovoviviparity) in contrast with dissolved oxygen. In the second part of our work is consecrated to the mastery of breeding Artemia. For this, we tested the effect of five external factors (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, light intensity and food) on the survival of this crustacean. Thereby, the survival rates of Artemia were affected by the different values of studied factors. The recorded results showed that Artemia salina has an optimum temperature ranged from 25 to 27°C with a survival rate ranging from 84 to 88%. The optimal salinity to breed Artemia salina was 37 psu (62 ± 0,23%). Nevertheless, this crustacean was able to survive and withstand the salinity of 0 psu (freshwater). The optimum concentration of dissolved oxygen was 7mg/l with a survival rate of 87,11 ± 0,04%. An optimum light intensity of 10 lux revealed a survival rate equal to 85,33 ± 0,01%. The results also showed that the preferred micro-algae by Artemia is Dunaliella salina with a maximum survival rate of the order of 80 ± 0,15%. There is a significant effect for all experienced parameters on the survival of Artemia reared except the nature of food.

Keywords: Biology, Ecology, Breeding, Artemia salina, Sahline salt lake

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10 Analyzing the Changing Pattern of Nigerian Vegetation Zones and Its Ecological and Socio-Economic Implications Using Spot-Vegetation Sensor

Authors: B. L. Gadiga

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This study assesses the major ecological zones in Nigeria with the view to understanding the spatial pattern of vegetation zones and the implications on conservation within the period of sixteen (16) years. Satellite images used for this study were acquired from the SPOT-VEGETATION between 1998 and 2013. The annual NDVI images selected for this study were derived from SPOT-4 sensor and were acquired within the same season (November) in order to reduce differences in spectral reflectance due to seasonal variations. The images were sliced into five classes based on literatures and knowledge of the area (i.e. <0.16 Non-Vegetated areas; 0.16-0.22 Sahel Savannah; 0.22-0.40 Sudan Savannah, 0.40-0.47 Guinea Savannah and >0.47 Forest Zone). Classification of the 1998 and 2013 images into forested and non forested areas showed that forested area decrease from 511,691 km2 in 1998 to 478,360 km2 in 2013. Differencing change detection method was performed on 1998 and 2013 NDVI images to identify areas of ecological concern. The result shows that areas undergoing vegetation degradation covers an area of 73,062 km2 while areas witnessing some form restoration cover an area of 86,315 km2. The result also shows that there is a weak correlation between rainfall and the vegetation zones. The non-vegetated areas have a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.0088, Sahel Savannah belt 0.1988, Sudan Savannah belt -0.3343, Guinea Savannah belt 0.0328 and Forest belt 0.2635. The low correlation can be associated with the encroachment of the Sudan Savannah belt into the forest belt of South-eastern part of the country as revealed by the image analysis. The degradation of the forest vegetation is therefore responsible for the serious erosion problems witnessed in the South-east. The study recommends constant monitoring of vegetation and strict enforcement of environmental laws in the country.

Keywords: Ecology, Vegetation, degradation, NDVI, SPOT-vegetation

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9 A System Dynamic Based DSS for Ecological Urban Management in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Mona M. Salem, Khaled S. Al-Hagla, Hany M. Ayad

Abstract:

The concept of urban metabolism has increasingly been employed in a diverse range of disciplines as a mean to analyze and theorize the city. Urban ecology has a particular focus on the implications of applying the metabolism concept to the urban realm. This approach has been developed by a few researchers, though it has rarely if ever been used in policy development for city planning. The aim of this research is to use ecologically informed urban planning interventions to increase the sustainability of urban metabolism; with special focus on land stock as a most important city resource by developing a system dynamic based DSS. This model identifies two critical management strategy variables for the Strategic Urban Plan Alexandria SUP 2032. As a result, this comprehensive and precise quantitative approach is needed to monitor, measure, evaluate and observe dynamic urban changes working as a decision support system (DSS) for policy making.

Keywords: Management, Ecology, Metabolism, Urban development, System Dynamics, Scenarios, model, land resource, LULCC

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8 Harmonising Ecology, Emotions and Economy: Case Study of Govardhan Ecovillage

Authors: Gauranga Das

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People in cities have prosperity but there is immense pollution, chaos in the mind, anxiety and turbulence. People in the villages experience pristine pure environment but they also experience poverty. There is a need to find out ways by which the cities and the villages can complement each other through their strengths and take care of each other’s weaknesses. In order to do this, the case study of Govardhan Ecovillage has been explored in this paper. All its environment, social and economic initiatives along with eco-tourism and wellness features are being analyzed. The analysis shows that Govardhan Ecovillage is successfully able to harmonize its different initiatives and provide a package which has created a win-win solution for the city people and also the villagers. Such kind of Eco-tourism initiatives should be supported and replicated in other places in the world to benefit everyone.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecology, Wellness, Sustainability, Ecotourism, Rural development

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7 The Ecological Urbanism as an Oppurtunity to Solve City Problem

Authors: Fairuz A. Ulinnuha, Bimo K. Fuadi

Abstract:

The world’s population continues to grow resulting in steady migration from rural to urban areas. Increased numbers of people and cities hand in hand with greater exploitation of world’s resource. Every year, more cities are feeling the devastating of this impact of this situation. During the 1970’s, some of eco-concept were applied to urban settings, one of them is Ecological Cities. A non-profit organization, Urban Ecology, was founded in California in 1975 to 'rebuild cities in balance with nature'. Efforts to synthesize ecological and urban planning approaches were slowed somewhat in the 1980s, but useful refinements were made. Consideration of social impact acknowledges that the ecological design is not just about ecology itself. It is also about questioning and redefining our understanding of the ecology. When ecologist did recognize the existence of cities, they were usually concerned with resource flows. One popular approach was to study the flow and transformation of energy through urban ecosystem. This research method is descriptive method, following LEED Certification which is the international standard of the sustainable building, is more widely applied. But there remains problem that the moral imperative of sustainability and by implication of sustainable design, tends to supplant the disciplinary contribution. Sustainable design is not always seen as design excellence or design innovation. This can provoke the skepticism and cause the tension those who promote disciplinary knowledge and those who push for sustainability. The challenges of rapid urbanization and limited of global resources has become more pressing. So, there is a need to find an alternative design approaches. The urban, as the site of complex relation (economy, political, social, cultural), need a complex problem solving that can solve current and future condition. The aim of this study is to discussed about conjoining of ecology such as public park and sustainable design.

Keywords: Ecology, Sustainability, Urban, cities

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6 Diversity and Ecology of the Aquatic Avifauna of the Wetland of Sebkhet Bazer Sakhra, South of Setif, Algeria

Authors: Gouga Hadjer, Djerdali Sofia, Benssaci Ettayeb

Abstract:

In order to estimate the evolution of the numbers of the aquatic avifauna and their seasonal variations in Sebkhet of Bazer-Sakhra (Site of the eco-complex wetlands of Setif) a monitoring realized during the period from September 2012 to August 2013 allowed to inventory 54 species are spread over 08 orders, 15 families, 34 genres. To follow the global dynamics and the seasonal distribution of species inventoried at Sebkhet Bazer, an analysis of the variation of the total workforce has been established by ecological indices. The autumn season includes the largest number of birds, it totals 3639 individuals. Accidental species are well represented at the autumn and spring seasons denote the interest of the site with respect to migration passages of aquatic birds. During the fall and spring, the Flamingo and the Belon Shelduck are the most abundant with respectively (500, 883) and (560, 1296) individuals. The ecological analysis of this stand showed us that the highest species richness is recorded in spring, (45 species) and the lowest value is obtained in summer it is 20 species.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecology, wetland, Sebkhet of BazerSakra, aquatic avifauna, seasonal evolution

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5 Defining the Tipping Point of Tolerance to CO₂-Induced Ocean Acidification in Larval Dusky Kob Argyrosomus japonicus (Pisces: Sciaenidae)

Authors: Pule P. Mpopetsi, Warren M. Potts, Nicola James, Amber Childs

Abstract:

Increased CO₂ production and the consequent ocean acidification (OA) have been identified as one of the greatest threats to both calcifying and non-calcifying marine organisms. Traditionally, marine fishes, as non-calcifying organisms, were considered to have a higher tolerance to near-future OA conditions owing to their well-developed ion regulatory mechanisms. However, recent studies provide evidence to suggest that they may not be as resilient to near-future OA conditions as previously thought. In addition, earlier life stages of marine fishes are thought to be less tolerant than juveniles and adults of the same species as they lack well-developed ion regulatory mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis. This study focused on the effects of near-future OA on larval Argyrosomus japonicus, an estuarine-dependent marine fish species, in order to identify the tipping point of tolerance for the larvae of this species. Larval A. japonicus in the present study were reared from the egg up to 22 days after hatching (DAH) under three treatments. The three treatments, (pCO₂ 353 µatm; pH 8.03), (pCO₂ 451 µatm; pH 7.93) and (pCO₂ 602 µatm; pH 7.83) corresponded to levels predicted to occur in year 2050, 2068 and 2090 respectively under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (IPCC RCP) 8.5 model. Size-at-hatch, growth, development, and metabolic responses (standard and active metabolic rates and metabolic scope) were assessed and compared between the three treatments throughout the rearing period. Five earlier larval life stages (hatchling – flexion/post-flexion) were identified by the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences in size-at-hatch (p > 0.05), development or the active metabolic (p > 0.05) or metabolic scope (p > 0.05) of fish in the three treatments throughout the study. However, the standard metabolic rate was significantly higher in the year 2068 treatment but only at the flexion/post-flexion stage which could be attributed to differences in developmental rates (including the development of the gills) between the 2068 and the other two treatments. Overall, the metabolic scope was narrowest in the 2090 treatment but varied according to life stage. Although not significantly different, metabolic scope in the 2090 treatment was noticeably lower at the flexion stage compared to the other two treatments, and the development appeared slower, suggesting that this could be the stage most prone to OA. The study concluded that, in isolation, OA levels predicted to occur between 2050 and 2090 will not negatively affect size-at-hatch, growth, development, and metabolic responses of larval A. japonicus up to 22 DAH (flexion/post-flexion stage). The present study also identified the tipping point of tolerance (where negative impacts will begin) in larvae of the species to be between the years 2090 and 2100.

Keywords: Climate Change, Marine, Ecology, Ocean acidification

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4 Population Ecology of the House Rat (Rattus rattus) in Rural Human Dwelling of Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan

Authors: Surrya Khanam

Abstract:

Understanding the population characteristics of pest species is crucial to develop suitable management plans. The present study was aimed to determine the population ecology of House rat (Rattus rattus) in rural human dwellings of Pothwar, Pakistan. Seasonal rodent trapping was conducted in four villages of Pothwar area from March 2012 to February 2014. A total of 217 individuals of R.rattus were captured from houses, shops, and farm houses. There was no significant difference in the abundance of species across different trapping seasons. The species sex ratio was unbiased and did not differ significantly from 1:1 at all the sites and across all the trapping seasons. The population of R. Rattus had individuals of different age groups, viz., juvenile, sub adults and adults. Overall, more adult individuals were captured in spring and summer season. Breeding activity was continuous throughout the year and reproductively active individuals relatively outnumbered inactive individuals. The results showed that village indoor habitats provided a suitable habitat for rat populations all the year round. The information obtained from this study will be helpful in the development of control strategies for R. rattus populations in commensal habitats.

Keywords: Ecology, Population Characteristics, indoor pests, Rattus rattus

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3 Buddhism: Its Socio-Economic Relevance in the Present Changing World

Authors: Bandana Bhattacharya

Abstract:

‘Buddhism’, as such signifies the ‘ism’ that is based on Buddha’s life and teachings or that is concerned with the gospel of Buddha as recorded in the literature available in Pali, Sanskrit, Buddhist Sanskrit, Prakrit and even in the other non-Indian languages wherein it has been described a very abstruse, complex and lofty philosophy of life or ‘the way of life’ preached by Him (Buddha). It has another side too, i.e., the applicability of the tenets of Buddha according to the needs of the present society, where human life and outlook has been totally changed. Applied Buddhism signifies the applicability of the Buddha’s noble tenets. Along with the theological exposition and textual criticism of the Buddha’s discourses, it has now become almost obligatory for the Buddhist scholars to re-interpret Buddhism from modern perspectives. Basically Applied Buddhism defined a ‘way of life’ which may transform the higher quality of life or essence of life due to changed circumstances, places and time. Nowadays, if we observe the present situation of the world, we will find the current problems such as health, economic, politic, global warming, population explosion, pollution of all types including cultural scarcity essential commodities and indiscriminate use of human, natural and water resources are becoming more and more pronounced day by day, under such a backdrop of world situation. Applied Buddhism rather Buddhism may be the only instrument left now for mankind to address all such human achievements, lapses, and problems. Buddha’s doctrine is itself called ‘akālika, timeless’. On the eve of the Mahāparinibbāṇa at Kusinara, the Blessed One allows His disciples to change, modify and alter His minor teachings according to the needs of the future, although He has made some utterances, which would eternally remain fresh. Hence Buddhism has been able to occupy a prominent place in modern life, because of its timeless applicability, emanating from a set of eternal values. The logical and scientific outlook of Buddha may be traced in His very first sermon named the Dhammacakkapavattana-Sutta where He suggested to avoid the two extremes, namely, constantly attachment to sensual pleasures (Kāmasukhallikānuyoga) and devotion to self-mortification that is painful as well as unprofitable and asked to adopt Majjhimapaṭipadā, ‘Middle path’, which is very much applicable even today in every spheres of human life; and the absence of which is the root cause of all problems event at present. This paper will be a humble attempt to highlight the relevance of Buddhism in the present society.

Keywords: Ecology, Value, Self-Awareness, applied Buddhism

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2 Automatic Identification and Monitoring of Wildlife via Computer Vision and IoT

Authors: Bilal Arshad, Johan Barthelemy, Elliott Pilton, Pascal Perez

Abstract:

Getting reliable, informative, and up-to-date information about the location, mobility, and behavioural patterns of animals will enhance our ability to research and preserve biodiversity. The fusion of infra-red sensors and camera traps offers an inexpensive way to collect wildlife data in the form of images. However, extracting useful data from these images, such as the identification and counting of animals remains a manual, time-consuming, and costly process. In this paper, we demonstrate that such information can be automatically retrieved by using state-of-the-art deep learning methods. Another major challenge that ecologists are facing is the recounting of one single animal multiple times due to that animal reappearing in other images taken by the same or other camera traps. Nonetheless, such information can be extremely useful for tracking wildlife and understanding its behaviour. To tackle the multiple count problem, we have designed a meshed network of camera traps, so they can share the captured images along with timestamps, cumulative counts, and dimensions of the animal. The proposed method takes leverage of edge computing to support real-time tracking and monitoring of wildlife. This method has been validated in the field and can be easily extended to other applications focusing on wildlife monitoring and management, where the traditional way of monitoring is expensive and time-consuming.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Internet of Things, Ecology, Wildlife management, Invasive Species Management

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1 Advances in the Studies on Evaluation of Diversity and Habitat Preferences of Amphibians of Nigeria

Authors: Md Mizanur Rahman, Lotanna Micah Nneji, Adeola C. Adeniyi, Edem Archibong Eniang, Abiodun B. Onadeko, Felista Kasyoka Kilunda, Babatunde E. Adedeji, Ifeanyi C. Nneji, Adiaha A. A. Ugwumba, Jie-Qiong Jin, Min-Sheng Peng, Caroline Olory, Nsikan Eninekit, Jing Che

Abstract:

Nigeria contains a number of forest habitats that believed to host highly rich amphibian diversity. However, a dearth of herpetological studies has restricted information on the amphibian diversity in Nigeria. To cover the gap of knowledge, this study focused field surveys on relatively less studied forests–Afi Forest Reserve and Ikpan forest ecosystem. The goal of this study is to make a checklist and to investigate the habitat preferences of amphibians in these two forests. The study areas were surveyed between August 2018 and July 2019 following visual and acoustic methods. Individuals were identified using the morphological and molecular (16S ribosomal RNA) approach. Literature searches were conducted to document additional species that were not encountered during the current field surveys. Using the observational records and arrays of diversity indices, the patterns of species richness and abundance across habitat types were evaluated. Voucher specimens and tissue samples were deposited in the museums of the Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan Nigeria, and the remainder at the Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China. The result of this study revealed the presence of 30 and 31 amphibian species from the Afi Forest Reserve and the Ikpan Forest Ecosystem, respectively. There were two unidentified species from AFR and one from IFE. In total, 324 individuals of amphibian species were observed from the two study areas. Forest and swamps showed high species diversity and richness than the agricultural field and savannah. Savannah and agricultural fields had the highest similarity in the species composition. Given the increased human disturbances and consequent threats to these forests, this study offers recommendations for the initiation of conservation plans immediately.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecology, Conservation, cryptic species, integrated taxonomy, species inventory

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