Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

EC50 Related Abstracts

3 Effects of Some Fungicides on Mycelial Growth of Fusarium spp.

Authors: M. Djekoun, H. Berrebah, M. R. Djebar

Abstract:

Fusarium wilt is destructive disease of cereal crops with small grains. It affects yields but also the quality of the crop and economic losses arising are often very heavy. Chemical control is currently one of the most effective ways to fight against these diseases. In this study, the efficacy of three fungicides (tebuconazole, thiram, and fludioxonil-difenoconazole mixture) was tested. In vitro, on the phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. isolated from seeds of wheat. The active ingredients were tested at different concentrations: 0.06, 1.39, 2.79, 5.58, and 11.16 mg/l for tebuconazole, 0.035, 0.052, 0.105, 0.21, and 0.42 mg/l for thiram and finally, for the mixture fludioxonil-difenoconazole 4 concentrations were tested: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l. Toxicity responses were expressed as effective concentration, which inhibits mycelial growth by 50%, (EC50). Of the three selected fungicides, thirame proved to be the most effective with EC50 value of the order of 0,15 mg/l followed by the mixture of fludioxonil-difenoconazole with 0,27mg/l and finally tebuconazole with a value of 3.79 mg/l.

Keywords: Fusarium spp, thiram, tebuconazole, fludioxonil, difenoconazole, percentage of inhibition, EC50

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2 Evaluation of Toxicity of Some Fungicides Against the Pathogen Fusarium sp.

Authors: M. Djekoun, H. Berrebah, M. R. Djebar

Abstract:

Fusarium wilt attacks the plants of major economic interest including wheat. This disease causes many problems for farmers and economic loss resulting are often very heavy. Chemical control is currently one of the most effective ways to fight against these diseases. In this study, the efficacy of three fungicides (tebuconazole, thiram and fludioxonil - difenoconazole mixture) was tested, in vitro, on the phytopathogenic Fusarium sp. isolated from seeds of wheat. The active ingredients were tested at different concentrations: 0.06, 1.39, 2.79, 5.58, and 11.16 mg/l for tebuconazole, 0.035, 0.052, 0.105, 0.21, and 0.42 mg/l for thiram and finally, for the mixture fludioxonil- difenoconazole 4 concentrations were tested : 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/l. Toxicity responses were expressed as the effective concentration, which inhibits mycelial growth by 50%, (EC50). Of the three selected fungicides, thirame proved to be the most effective with EC50 value of the order of 0,15 mg/l followed by the mixture of fludioxonil- difenoconazole with 0,27 mg/l and finally tebuconazole with a value of 3.79 mg/l.

Keywords: thiram, tebuconazole, fludioxonil, difenoconazole, EC50, Fusarium sp

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1 A Perspective on Allelopathic Potential of Corylus avellana L.

Authors: Yoshiharu Fujii, Tugba G. Isin Ozkan

Abstract:

One of the most important constrains that decrease the crop yields are weeds. Increased amount and number of chemical herbicides are being utilized every day to control weeds. Chemical herbicides which cause environmental effects, and limitations on implementation of them have led to the nonchemical alternatives in the management of weeds. It is needed increasingly the application of allelopathy as a nonherbicidal innovation to control weed populations in integrated weed management. It is not only because of public concern about herbicide use, but also increased agricultural costs and herbicide resistance weeds. Allelopathy is defined as a common biological phenomenon, direct or indirect interaction which one plant or organism produces biochemicals influence the physiological processes of another neighboring plant or organism. Biochemicals involved in allelopathy are called allelochemicals that influence beneficially or detrimentally the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other plant or organisms. All plant parts could have allelochemicals which are secondary plant metabolites. Allelochemicals are released to environment, influence the germination and seedling growth of neighbors' weeds; that is the way how allelopathy is applied for weed control. Crop cultivars have significantly different ability for inhibiting the growth of certain weeds. So, a high commercial value crop Corylus avellana L. and its byproducts were chosen to introduce for their allelopathic potential in this research. Edible nut of Corylus avellana L., commonly known as hazelnut is commercially valuable crop with byproducts; skin, hard shell, green leafy cover, and tree leaf. Research on allelopathic potential of a plant by using the sandwich bioassay method and investigation growth inhibitory activity is the first step to develop new and environmentally friendly alternatives for weed control. Thus, the objective of this research is to determine allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. and its byproducts by using sandwich method and to determine effective concentrations (EC) of their extracts for inducing half-maximum elongation inhibition on radicle of test plant, EC50. The sandwich method is reliable and fast bioassay, very useful for allelopathic screening under laboratory conditions. In experiments, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds will be test plant, because of its high sensitivity to inhibition by allelochemicals and reliability for germination. In sandwich method, the radicle lengths of dry material treated lettuce seeds and control lettuce seeds will be measured and inhibition of radicle elongation will be determined. Lettuce seeds will also be treated by the methanol extracts of dry hazelnut parts to calculate EC₅₀ values, which are required to induce half-maximal inhibition of growth, as mg dry weight equivalent mL-1. Inhibitory activity of extracts against lettuce seedling elongation will be evaluated, like in sandwich method, by comparing the radicle lengths of treated seeds with that of control seeds and EC₅₀ values will be determined. Research samples are dry parts of Turkish hazelnut, C. avellana L. The results would suggest the opportunity for allelopathic potential of C. avellana L. with its byproducts in plant-plant interaction, might be utilized for further researches, could be beneficial in finding bioactive chemicals from natural products and developing of natural herbicides.

Keywords: Allelopathy, EC50, sandwich method, Corylus avellana L, Lactuca sativa L, Turkish hazelnut

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