Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

earthquake response Related Abstracts

4 Energy Efficient Construction and the Seismic Resistance of Passive Houses

Authors: Vojko Kilar, Boris Azinović, David Koren

Abstract:

Recently, an increasing trend of passive and low-energy buildings transferring form non earthquake-prone to earthquake-prone regions has thrown out the question about the seismic safety of such buildings. The paper describes the most commonly used thermal insulating materials and the special details, which could be critical from the point of view of earthquake resistance. The most critical appeared to be the cases of buildings founded on the RC foundation slab lying on a thermal insulation (TI) layer made of extruded polystyrene (XPS). It was pointed out that in such cases the seismic response of such buildings might differ to response of their fixed based counterparts. The main parameters that need special designers’ attention are: the building’s lateral top displacement, the ductility demand of the superstructure, the foundation friction coefficient demand, the maximum compressive stress in the TI layer and the percentage of the uplifted foundation. The analyses have shown that the potentially negative influences of inserting the TI under the foundation slab could be expected only for slender high-rise buildings subjected to severe earthquakes. Oppositely it was demonstrated for the foundation friction coefficient demand which could exceed the capacity value yet in the case of low-rise buildings subjected to moderate earthquakes. Some suggestions to prevent the horizontal shifts are also given.

Keywords: extruded polystyrene (XPS), earthquake response, low-energy buildings, foundations on thermal insulation layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
3 Structural Health Monitoring of the 9-Story Torre Central Building Using Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

The Torre Central building is a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile, and has been instrumented since 2009. Events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded, and thus the building can serve as a full-scale benchmark to evaluate the structural health monitoring method developed. The first part of this article presents an analysis of inter-story drifts, and of changes in the first system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) as baseline indicators of the occurrence of damage. During 2010 Chile earthquake the system frequencies were detected decreasing approximately 24% in the EW and 27% in NS motions. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% in the EW motion was detected. The structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling time (wave method) within a layered shear beam model of structure is presented in the second part of this article. If structural damage occurs the velocity of wave propagated through the structure changes. The wave method measures the velocities of shear wave propagation from the impulse responses generated by recorded data at various locations inside the building. Our analysis and results show that the detected changes in wave velocities are consistent with the observed damages. On this basis, the wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, Chile earthquake, impulse response, layered shear beam, Torre Central building, wave method, wave travel time

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
2 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings–Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

This article presents the structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling times (wave method) within a layered 1-D shear beam model of structure. The wave method measures the velocity of shear wave propagating in a building from the impulse response functions (IRF) obtained from recorded data at different locations inside the building. If structural damage occurs in a structure, the velocity of wave propagation through it changes. The wave method analysis is performed on the responses of Torre Central building, a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile. Because events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded at this building, therefore it can serve as a full-scale benchmark to validate the structural health monitoring method utilized. The analysis of inter-story drifts and the Fourier spectra for the EW and NS motions during 2010 Chile earthquake are presented. The results for the NS motions suggest the coupling of translation and torsion responses. The system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) were detected initially decreasing approximately 24% in the EW motion. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% was detected. These analysis and results serve as baseline indicators of the occurrence of structural damage. The detected changes in wave velocities of the shear beam model are consistent with the observed damage. However, the 1-D shear beam model is not sufficient to simulate the coupling of translation and torsion responses in the NS motion. The wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems based on carefully assessing the resolution and accuracy of the model for its effectiveness on post-earthquake damage detection in buildings.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, shear wave velocity, Chile earthquake, Torre Central building, wave method, impulse response function, shear beam model

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1 Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Semiactive Friction Damper

Authors: Juan S. Mantilla, Peter Thomson

Abstract:

Seismic events may result in discomfort on occupants of the buildings, structural damage or even buildings collapse. Traditional design aims to reduce dynamic response of structures by increasing stiffness, thus increasing the construction costs and the design forces. Structural control systems arise as an alternative to reduce these dynamic responses. A commonly used control systems in buildings are the passive friction dampers, which adds energy dissipation through damping mechanisms induced by sliding friction between their surfaces. Passive friction dampers are usually implemented on the diagonal of braced buildings, but such devices have the disadvantage that are optimal for a range of sliding force and out of that range its efficiency decreases. The above implies that each passive friction damper is designed, built and commercialized for a specific sliding/clamping force, in which the damper shift from a locked state to a slip state, where dissipates energy through friction. The risk of having a variation in the efficiency of the device according to the sliding force is that the dynamic properties of the building can change as result of many factor, even damage caused by a seismic event. In this case the expected forces in the building can change and thus considerably reduce the efficiency of the damper (that is designed for a specific sliding force). It is also evident than when a seismic event occurs the forces in each floor varies in the time what means that the damper's efficiency is not the best at all times. Semi-Active Friction devices adapt its sliding force trying to maintain its motion in the slipping phase as much as possible, because of this, the effectiveness of the device depends on the control strategy used. This paper deals with the development and performance evaluation of a low cost Semiactive Variable Friction Damper (SAVFD) in reduced scale to reduce vibrations of structures subject to earthquakes. The SAVFD consist in a (1) hydraulic brake adapted to (2) a servomotor which is controlled with an (3) Arduino board and acquires accelerations or displacement from (4) sensors in the immediately upper and lower floors and a (5) power supply that can be a pair of common batteries. A test structure, based on a Benchmark structure for structural control, was design and constructed. The SAVFD and the structure are experimentally characterized. A numerical model of the structure and the SAVFD is developed based on the dynamic characterization. Decentralized control algorithms were modeled and later tested experimentally using shaking table test using earthquake and frequency chirp signals. The controlled structure with the SAVFD achieved reductions greater than 80% in relative displacements and accelerations in comparison to the uncontrolled structure.

Keywords: earthquake response, shaking table, friction damper, semiactive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 253