Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Earthquake Related Abstracts

91 Torsional Design Method of Asymmetric and Irregular Building under Horizontal Earthquake Action

Authors: Radhwane Boudjelthia

Abstract:

Based upon elaborate analysis on torsional design methods of asymmetric and irregular structure under horizontal earthquake action, it points out that the main design principles of an asymmetric building subjected to horizontal earthquake are: the torsion of vertical members induced by the torsion angle of the floor (rigid diaphragm) cannot exceed the allowable value, the inter-story displacement at outermost frame or shear wall should be less than that required by design code, stresses in plane of the slab should be controlled within acceptable extent under different intensity earthquakes. That current seismic design code only utilizes the torsion displacement ratio to control the floor torsion, which seems not reasonable enough since its connotation is the multiple of the floor torsion angle and the distance of floor mass center to the edge frame or shear wall.

Keywords: Earthquake, Building, Displacement, Resonance, response, seismic forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
90 Viability of Slab Sliding System for Single Story Structure

Authors: C. Iihoshi, G. A. MacRae, G. W. Rodgers, J. G. Chase

Abstract:

Slab Sliding System (SSS) with Coulomb friction interface between slab and supporting frame is a passive structural vibration control technology. The system can significantly reduce the slab acceleration and accompanied lateral force of the frame. At the same time it is expected to cause the slab displacement magnification by sliding movement. To obtain the general comprehensive seismic response of a single story structure, inelastic response spectra were computed for a large ensemble of ground motions and a practical range of structural periods and friction coefficient values. It was shown that long period structures have no trade-off relation between force reduction and displacement magnification with respect to elastic response, unlike short period structures. For structures with the majority of mass in the slab, the displacement magnification value can be predicted according to simple inelastic displacement relation for in elastically responding SDOF structures because the system behaves elastically to a SDOF structure.

Keywords: Earthquake, Isolation, slab, sliding

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
89 Analysis Rescuers' Viewpoint about Victims Tracking in Earthquake by Using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Authors: Sima Ajami, Batool Akbari

Abstract:

Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID) system has been successfully applied to the areas of manufacturing, supply chain, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and services. The RFID is already used to track and trace the victims in a disaster situation. Data can be collected in real time and be immediately available to emergency personnel and saves time by the RFID. Objectives: The aim of this study was, first, to identify stakeholders and customers for rescuing earthquake victims, second, to list key internal and external factors to use RFID to track earthquake victims, finally, to assess SWOT for rescuers' viewpoint. Materials and Methods: This study was an applied and analytical study. The study population included scholars, experts, planners, policy makers and rescuers in the "red crescent society of Isfahan province", "disaster management Isfahan province", "maintenance and operation department of Isfahan", "fire and safety services organization of Isfahan municipality", and "medical emergencies and disaster management center of Isfahan". After that, researchers held a workshop to teach participants about RFID and its usages in tracking earthquake victims. In the meanwhile of the workshop, participants identified, listed, and weighed key internal factors (strengths and weaknesses; SW) and external factors (opportunities and threats; OT) to use RFID in tracking earthquake victims. Therefore, participants put weigh strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) and their weighted scales were calculated. Then, participants' opinions about this issue were assessed. Finally, according to the SWOT matrix, strategies to solve the weaknesses, problems, challenges, and threats through opportunities and strengths were proposed by participants. Results: The SWOT analysis showed that the total weighted score for internal and external factors were 3.91 (Internal Factor Evaluation) and 3.31 (External Factor Evaluation) respectively. Therefore, it was in a quadrant SO strategies cell in the SWOT analysis matrix and aggressive strategies were resulted. Organizations, scholars, experts, planners, policy makers and rescue workers should plan to use RFID technology in order to save more victims and manage their life. Conclusions: Researchers suppose to apply SO strategies and use a firm’s internal strength to take advantage of external opportunities. It is suggested, policy maker should plan to use the most developed technologies to save earthquake victims and deliver the easiest service to them. To do this, education, informing, and encouraging rescuers to use these technologies is essential. Originality/ Value: This study was a research paper that showed how RFID can be useful to track victims in earthquake.

Keywords: Earthquake, Strength, frequency identification system, weakness, victim

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
88 A Review of Masonry Buildings Restrengthening Methods

Authors: Negar Sartipzadeh

Abstract:

The historic buildings are generally the ones which have been built by materials like brick, mud, stone, and wood. Some phenomena such as severe earthquakes can be tremendously detrimental to the structures, imposing serious effects and losses on such structures. Hence, it matters a lot to ascertain safety and reliability of the structures under such circumstances. It has been asserted that the major reason for the collapse of Unreinforced Masonry (URM) in various earthquakes is the incapability of resisting the forces and vice versa because such URMs are meant for the gravity load and they fail to withstand the shear forces inside the plate and the bending forces outside the plate. For this reason, restrengthening such structures is a key factor in lowering the seismic loss in developing countries. Seismic reinforcement of the historic buildings with regard to their cultural value on one hand, and exhaustion and damage of many of the structural elements on the other hand, have brought in restricting factors which necessitate the seismic reinforcement methods meant for such buildings to be maximally safe, non-destructive, effective, and non-obvious. Henceforth, it is pinpointed that making use of diverse technologies such as active controlling, Energy dampers, and seismic separators besides the current popular methods would be justifiable for such buildings, notwithstanding their high imposed costs.

Keywords: Earthquake, Masonry Buildings, seismic reinforcement, Unreinforced Masonry (URM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
87 Parameters Affecting the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Outrigger Braced Walls to Earthquakes

Authors: T. A. Sakr, Hanaa E. Abd-El-Mottaleb

Abstract:

Outrigger-braced wall systems are commonly used to provide high rise buildings with the required lateral stiffness for wind and earthquake resistance. The existence of outriggers adds to the stiffness and strength of walls as reported by several studies. The effects of different parameters on the elasto-plastic dynamic behavior of outrigger-braced wall systems to earthquakes are investigated in this study. Parameters investigated include outrigger stiffness, concrete strength, and reinforcement arrangement as the main design parameters in wall design. In addition to being significant to the wall behavior, such parameters may lead to the change of failure mode and the delay of crack propagation and consequently failure as the wall is excited by earthquakes. Bi-linear stress-strain relation for concrete with limited tensile strength and truss members with bi-linear stress-strain relation for reinforcement were used in the finite element analysis of the problem. The famous earthquake record, El-Centro, 1940 is used in the study. Emphasis was given to the lateral drift, normal stresses and crack pattern as behavior controlling determinants. Results indicated significant effect of the studied parameters such that stiffer outrigger, higher grade concrete and concentrating the reinforcement at wall edges enhance the behavior of the system. Concrete stresses and cracking behavior are sigbificantly enhanced while lesser drift improvements are observed.

Keywords: Earthquake, Nonlinear, outrigger, shear wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
86 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Sara Zatir, Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa

Abstract:

It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: Construction, Earthquake, Architecture, Resistance, traditional

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
85 Behavior of Common Philippine-Made Concrete Hollow Block Structures Subjected to Seismic Load Using Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Arwin Malabanan, Carl Chester Ragudo, Jerome Tadiosa, John Dee Mangoba, Eric Augustus Tingatinga, Romeo Eliezer Longalong

Abstract:

Concrete hollow blocks (CHB) are the most commonly used masonry block for walls in residential houses, school buildings and public buildings in the Philippines. During the recent 2013 Bohol earthquake (Mw 7.2), it has been proven that CHB walls are very vulnerable to severe external action like strong ground motion. In this paper, a numerical model of CHB structures is proposed, and seismic behavior of CHB houses is presented. In modeling, the Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element method (RBS-DEM)) is used wherein masonry blocks are discretized into rigid elements and connected by nonlinear springs at preselected contact points. The shear and normal stiffness of springs are derived from the material properties of CHB unit incorporating the grout and mortar fillings through the volumetric transformation of the dimension using material ratio. Numerical models of reinforced and unreinforced walls are first subjected to linearly-increasing in plane loading to observe the different failure mechanisms. These wall models are then assembled to form typical model masonry houses and then subjected to the El Centro and Pacoima earthquake records. Numerical simulations show that the elastic, failure and collapse behavior of the model houses agree well with shaking table tests results. The effectiveness of the method in replicating failure patterns will serve as a basis for the improvement of the design and provides a good basis of strengthening the structure.

Keywords: Earthquake, discrete element method, concrete hollow blocks, rigid body spring model

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
84 Urban Analysis of the Old City of Oran and Its Building after an Earthquake

Authors: A. Zatir, A. Mokhtari, A. Foufa, S. Zatir

Abstract:

The city of Oran, like any other region of northern Algeria, is subject to frequent seismic activity, the study presented in this work will be based on an analysis of urban and architectural context of the city of Oran before the date of the earthquake of 1790, and then try to deduce the differences between the old city before and after the earthquake. The analysis developed as a specific objective to tap into the seismic history of the city of Oran parallel to its urban history. The example of the citadel of Oran indicates that constructions presenting the site of the old citadel, may present elements of resistance for face to seismic effects. Removed in city observations of these structures, showed the ingenuity of the techniques used by the ancient builders, including the good performance of domes and arches in resistance to seismic forces.

Keywords: Constructions, Earthquake, Performance, citadel, traditional techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
83 Damages of Highway Bridges in Thailand during the 2014-Chiang Rai Earthquake

Authors: Rajwanlop Kumpoopong, Sukit Yindeesuk, Pornchai Silarom

Abstract:

On May 5, 2014, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 Richter hit the Northern part of Thailand. The epicenter was in Phan District, Chiang Rai Province. This earthquake or the so-called 2014-Chiang Rai Earthquake is the strongest ground shaking that Thailand has ever been experienced in her modern history. The 2014-Chiang Rai Earthquake confirms the geological evidence, which has previously been ignored by most engineers, that earthquakes of considerable magnitudes 6 to 7 Richter can occurr within the country. This promptly stimulates authorized agencies to pay more attention at the safety of their assets and promotes the comprehensive review of seismic resistance design of their building structures. The focus of this paper is to summarize the damages of highway bridges as a result of the 2014-Chiang Rai ground shaking, the remedy actions, and the research needs. The 2014-Chiang Rai Earthquake caused considerable damages to nearby structures such as houses, schools, and temples. The ground shaking, however, caused damage to only one highway bridge, Mae Laos Bridge, located several kilometers away from the epicenter. The damage of Mae Laos Bridge was in the form of concrete spalling caused by pounding of cap beam on the deck structure. The damage occurred only at the end or abutment span. The damage caused by pounding is not a surprise, but the pounding by only one bridge requires further investigation and discussion. Mae Laos Bridge is a river crossing bridge with relatively large approach structure. In as much, the approach structure is confined by strong retaining walls. This results in a rigid-like approach structure which vibrates at the acceleration approximately equal to the ground acceleration during the earthquake and exerts a huge force to the abutment causing the pounding of cap beam on the deck structure. Other bridges nearby have relatively small approach structures, and therefore have no capability to generate pounding. The effect of mass of the approach structure on pounding of cap beam on the deck structure is also evident by the damage of one pedestrian bridge in front of Thanthong Wittaya School located 50 meters from Mae Laos Bridge. The width of the approach stair of this bridge is wider than the typical one to accommodate the stream of students during pre- and post-school times. This results in a relatively large mass of the approach stair which in turn exerts a huge force to the pier causing pounding of cap beam on the deck structure during ground shaking. No sign of pounding was observed for a typical pedestrian bridge located at another end of Mae Laos Bridge. Although pounding of cap beam on the deck structure of the above mentioned bridges does not cause serious damage to bridge structure, this incident promotes the comprehensive review of seismic resistance design of highway bridges in Thailand. Given a proper mass and confinement of the approach structure, the pounding of cap beam on the deck structure can be easily excited even at the low to moderate ground shaking. In as much, if the ground shaking becomes stronger, the pounding is certainly more powerful. This may cause the deck structure to be unseated and fall off in the case of unrestrained bridge. For the bridge with restrainer between cap beam and the deck structure, the restrainer may prevent the deck structure from falling off. However, preventing free movement of the pier by the restrainer may damage the pier itself. Most highway bridges in Thailand have dowel bars embedded connecting cap beam and the deck structure. The purpose of the existence of dowel bars is, however, not intended for any seismic resistance. Their ability to prevent the deck structure from unseating and their effect on the potential damage of the pier should be evaluated. In response to this expected situation, Thailand Department of Highways (DOH) has set up a team to revise the standard practices for the seismic resistance design of highway bridges in Thailand. In addition, DOH has also funded the research project 'Seismic Resistance Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Design Modifications of DOH’s Bridges' with the scope of full-scale tests of single span bridges under reversed cyclic static loadings for both longitudinal and transverse directions and computer simulations to evaluate the seismic performance of the existing bridges and the design modification bridges. The research is expected to start in October, 2015.

Keywords: Earthquake, Thailand, Damage, highway bridge, pounding, seismic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
82 Intelligent Earthquake Prediction System Based On Neural Network

Authors: Emad Amar, Tawfik Khattab, Fatma Zada

Abstract:

Predicting earthquakes is an important issue in the study of geography. Accurate prediction of earthquakes can help people to take effective measures to minimize the loss of personal and economic damage, such as large casualties, destruction of buildings and broken of traffic, occurred within a few seconds. United States Geological Survey (USGS) science organization provides reliable scientific information of Earthquake Existed throughout history & Preliminary database from the National Center Earthquake Information (NEIC) show some useful factors to predict an earthquake in a seismic area like Aleutian Arc in the U.S. state of Alaska. The main advantage of this prediction method that it does not require any assumption, it makes prediction according to the future evolution of object's time series. The article compares between simulation data result from trained BP and RBF neural network versus actual output result from the system calculations. Therefore, this article focuses on analysis of data relating to real earthquakes. Evaluation results show better accuracy and higher speed by using radial basis functions (RBF) neural network.

Keywords: Earthquake, prediction, BP neural network, RBF neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
81 Analysis of Ionosphere Anomaly Before Great Earthquake in Java on 2009 Using GPS Tec Data

Authors: Aldilla Damayanti Purnama Ratri, Hendri Subakti, Buldan Muslim

Abstract:

Ionosphere’s anomalies as an effect of earthquake activity is a phenomenon that is now being studied in seismo-ionospheric coupling. Generally, variation in the ionosphere caused by earthquake activity is weaker than the interference generated by different source, such as geomagnetic storms. However, disturbances of geomagnetic storms show a more global behavior, while the seismo-ionospheric anomalies occur only locally in the area which is largely determined by magnitude of the earthquake. It show that the earthquake activity is unique and because of its uniqueness it has been much research done thus expected to give clues as early warning before earthquake. One of the research that has been developed at this time is the approach of seismo-ionospheric-coupling. This study related the state in the lithosphere-atmosphere and ionosphere before and when earthquake occur. This paper choose the total electron content in a vertical (VTEC) in the ionosphere as a parameter. Total Electron Content (TEC) is defined as the amount of electron in vertical column (cylinder) with cross-section of 1m2 along GPS signal trajectory in ionosphere at around 350 km of height. Based on the analysis of data obtained from the LAPAN agency to identify abnormal signals by statistical methods, obtained that there are an anomaly in the ionosphere is characterized by decreasing of electron content of the ionosphere at 1 TECU before the earthquake occurred. Decreasing of VTEC is not associated with magnetic storm that is indicated as an earthquake precursor. This is supported by the Dst index showed no magnetic interference.

Keywords: Earthquake, Ionosphere, DST Index, seismoionospheric coupling, VTEC

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
80 Comparison of Steel and Composite Analysis of a Multi-Storey Building

Authors: Çiğdem Avcı Karataş

Abstract:

Mitigation of structural damage caused by earthquake and reduction of fatality is one of the main concerns of engineers in seismic prone zones of the world. To achieve this aim many technologies have been developed in the last decades and applied in construction and retrofit of structures. On the one hand Turkey is well-known a country of high level of seismicity; on the other hand steel-composite structures appear competitive today in this country by comparison with other types of structures, for example only-steel or concrete structures. Composite construction is the dominant form of construction for the multi-storey building sector. The reason why composite construction is often so good can be expressed in one simple way - concrete is good in compression and steel is good in tension. By joining the two materials together structurally these strengths can be exploited to result in a highly efficient design. The reduced self-weight of composite elements has a knock-on effect by reducing the forces in those elements supporting them, including the foundations. The floor depth reductions that can be achieved using composite construction can also provide significant benefits in terms of the costs of services and the building envelope. The scope of this paper covers analysis, materials take-off, cost analysis and economic comparisons of a multi-storey building with composite and steel frames. The aim of this work is to show that designing load carrying systems as composite is more economical than designing as steel. Design of the nine stories building which is under consideration is done according to the regulation of the 2007, Turkish Earthquake Code and by using static and dynamic analysis methods. For the analyses of the steel and composite systems, plastic analysis methods have been used and whereas steel system analyses have been checked in compliance with EC3 and composite system analyses have been checked in compliance with EC4. At the end of the comparisons, it is revealed that composite load carrying systems analysis is more economical than the steel load carrying systems analysis considering the materials to be used in the load carrying system and the workmanship to be spent for this job.

Keywords: Earthquake, steel, composite analysis, multi-storey building

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
79 Study of Seismic Behavior of an Earth Dam with Sealing Walls: The Case of Kef Eddir’s Dam, Tipaza, Algeria

Authors: S. Mohamadi, M. Boumaiza, B. Moussai

Abstract:

In this article the study of the seismic response of an earth dam with sealing walls has been made by introducing the effect of the change of position and depth of the sealing wall and the effect of non-linear behavior of soil of the foundation by taking into account the variation of the viscous damping and shear modulus in each layer of soil on the seismic response of the dam. As a case study, we take the Algerian dam Kef-Eddir which lies in the far west of the territory of the Wilaya of Tipaza (wadi Eddamous), classified according to the RPA 2003 as a high seismicity zone (zone III). With a height of 71m above the foundation and a width of 478m. The seismic event applied to the rock, is the earthquake of Chenoua (29 October, 1989), with a magnitude Mw=6 that hit the region.

Keywords: Earthquake, earth dam, sealing walls, viscous damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
78 Evaluating of Turkish Earthquake Code (2007) for FRP Wrapped Circular Concrete Cylinders

Authors: Guler S., Guzel E., Gulen M.

Abstract:

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials are commonly used in construction sector to enhance the strength and ductility capacities of structural elements. The equations on confined compressive strength of FRP wrapped concrete cylinders is described in the 7th chapter of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-07) that enter into force in 2007. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of TEC-07 on confined compressive strengths of circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders. To this end, a large number of data on circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders are collected from the literature. It is clearly seen that the predictions of TEC-07 on circular FRP wrapped the FRP wrapped columns is not same accuracy for different ranges of concrete strengths.

Keywords: Earthquake, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), concrete cylinders, Turkish Earthquake Code

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
77 A Brief Overview of Seven Churches in Van Province

Authors: Soner Guler, Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gulen

Abstract:

Van province which has a very rich historical heritage is located in eastern part of Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. Many civilizations prevailing in Van until today have built up many historical structures such as castles, mosques, churches, bridges, baths, etc. In 2011, a devastating earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, epicenter in Tabanlı Village, occurred in Van, where a large part of the city locates in the first-degree earthquake zone. As a result of this earthquake, 644 people were killed; a lot of reinforced, unreinforced and historical structures were badly damaged. Many historical structures damaged due to this earthquake have been restored. In this study, the damages observed in Seven churches (Yedi Kilise) after 2011 Van earthquake is evaluated with regard to architecture and civil engineering perspective.

Keywords: Church, Earthquake, Historical Structures, Van province

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
76 Study the Effect of Liquefaction on Buried Pipelines during Earthquakes

Authors: Mohsen Hababalahi, Morteza Bastami

Abstract:

Buried pipeline damage correlations are critical part of loss estimation procedures applied to lifelines for future earthquakes. The vulnerability of buried pipelines against earthquake and liquefaction has been observed during some of previous earthquakes and there are a lot of comprehensive reports about this event. One of the main reasons for impairment of buried pipelines during earthquake is liquefaction. Necessary conditions for this phenomenon are loose sandy soil, saturation of soil layer and earthquake intensity. Because of this fact that pipelines structure are very different from other structures (being long and having light mass) by paying attention to the results of previous earthquakes and compare them with other structures, it is obvious that the danger of liquefaction for buried pipelines is not high risked, unless effective parameters like earthquake intensity and non-dense soil and other factors be high. Recent liquefaction researches for buried pipeline include experimental and theoretical ones as well as damage investigations during actual earthquakes. The damage investigations have revealed that a damage ratio of pipelines (Number/km ) has much larger values in liquefied grounds compared with one in shaking grounds without liquefaction according to damage statistics during past severe earthquakes, and that damages of joints and pipelines connected with manholes were remarkable. The purpose of this research is numerical study of buried pipelines under the effect of liquefaction by case study of the 2013 Dashti (Iran) earthquake. Water supply and electrical distribution systems of this township interrupted during earthquake and water transmission pipelines were damaged severely due to occurrence of liquefaction. The model consists of a polyethylene pipeline with 100 meters length and 0.8 meter diameter which is covered by light sandy soil and the depth of burial is 2.5 meters from surface. Since finite element method is used relatively successfully in order to solve geotechnical problems, we used this method for numerical analysis. For evaluating this case, some information like geotechnical information, classification of earthquakes levels, determining the effective parameters in probability of liquefaction, three dimensional numerical finite element modeling of interaction between soil and pipelines are necessary. The results of this study on buried pipelines indicate that the effect of liquefaction is function of pipe diameter, type of soil, and peak ground acceleration. There is a clear increase in percentage of damage with increasing the liquefaction severity. The results indicate that although in this form of the analysis, the damage is always associated to a certain pipe material, but the nominally defined “failures” include by failures of particular components (joints, connections, fire hydrant details, crossovers, laterals) rather than material failures. At the end, there are some retrofit suggestions in order to decrease the risk of liquefaction on buried pipelines.

Keywords: Earthquake, Liquefaction, Finite Element Method, buried pipelines, lifelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
75 Effect of Wind Braces to Earthquake Resistance of Steel Structures

Authors: H. Gokdemir

Abstract:

All structures are subject to vertical and lateral loads. Under these loads, structures make deformations and deformation values of structural elements mustn't exceed their capacity for structural stability. Especially, lateral loads cause critical deformations because of their random directions and magnitudes. Wind load is one of the lateral loads which can act in any direction and any magnitude. Although wind has nearly no effect on reinforced concrete structures, it must be considered for steel structures, roof systems and slender structures like minarets. Therefore, every structure must be able to resist wind loads acting parallel and perpendicular to any side. One of the effective methods for resisting lateral loads is assembling cross steel elements between columns which are called as wind bracing. These cross elements increases lateral rigidity of a structure and prevent exceeding of deformation capacity of the structural system. So, this means cross elements are also effective in resisting earthquake loads too. In this paper; Effects of wind bracing to earthquake resistance of structures are studied. Structure models (with and without wind bracing) are generated and these models are solved under both earthquake and wind loads with different seismic zone parameters. It is concluded by the calculations that; in low-seismic risk zones, wind bracing can easily resist earthquake loads and no additional reinforcement for earthquake loads is necessary. Similarly; in high-seismic risk zones, earthquake cross elements resist wind loads too.

Keywords: Earthquake, Steel structures, wind bracings, vertical and lateral loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
74 Locating the Best Place for Earthquake Refugee Camps by OpenSource Software: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi

Abstract:

Iran is one of the regions which are most prone for earthquakes annually having a large number of financial and mortality and financial losses. Every year around the world, a large number of people lose their home and life due to natural disasters such as earthquakes. It is necessary to provide and specify some suitable places for settling the homeless people before the occurrence of the earthquake, one of the most important factors in crisis planning and management. Some of the natural disasters can be Modeling and shown by Geospatial Information System (GIS). By using GIS, it would be possible to manage the spatial data and reach several goals by making use of the analyses existing in it. GIS has a determining role in disaster management because it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this research QuantumGIS software is used that It is an OpenSource software so that easy to access codes and It is also free. In this system, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling, is done based on the related organizations criteria with their weights and buffers. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Eventually, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QuantumGIS platform.

Keywords: Earthquake, Disaster Management, temporary resettlement, QuantumGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
73 Finding out the Best Criteria for Locating the Best Place Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi

Abstract:

Iran is a capable zone for the earthquake that follows the loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System(GIS) has a determining role in disaster management, it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper, the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also, in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in ArcGIS software.

Keywords: Earthquake, Disaster Management, criteria, temporary resettlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
72 A Lifeline Vulnerability Study of Constantine, Algeria

Authors: Mounir Ait Belkacem, Mehdi Boukri, Omar Amellal, Nacim Yousfi, Abderrahmane Kibboua, Med Naboussi Farsi, Mounir Naili

Abstract:

The North of Algeria is located in a seismic zone, then earthquakes are probably the most likely natural disaster that would lead to major lifeline disruption. The adequate operation of lifelines is vital for the economic development of regions under moderate to high seismic activity. After an earthquake, the proper operation of all vital systems is necessary, for instance hospitals for medical attention of the wounded and highways for communication and assistance for victims.In this work we apply the knowledge of pipeline vulnerability to the water supply system, sanitary sewer pipelines (waste water), and telephone in Constantine (Algeria).

Keywords: Earthquake, Vulnerability, Pipelines, lifeline

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
71 Finding Out the Best Place for Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi, Nima Ghasemloo

Abstract:

Iran is a capable zone for earthquake that follows loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System (GIS) has a determining role in disaster management; it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QGIS software.

Keywords: Earthquake, Disaster Management, criteria, temporary resettlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
70 Specific Earthquake Ground Motion Levels That Would Affect Medium-To-High Rise Buildings

Authors: Rhommel Grutas, Ishmael Narag, Harley Lacbawan

Abstract:

Construction of high-rise buildings is a means to address the increasing population in Metro Manila, Philippines. The existence of the Valley Fault System within the metropolis and other nearby active faults poses threats to a densely populated city. The distant, shallow and large magnitude earthquakes have the potential to generate slow and long-period vibrations that would affect medium-to-high rise buildings. Heavy damage and building collapse are consequences of prolonged shaking of the structure. If the ground and the building have almost the same period, there would be a resonance effect which would cause the prolonged shaking of the building. Microzoning the long-period ground response would aid in the seismic design of medium to high-rise structures. The shear-wave velocity structure of the subsurface is an important parameter in order to evaluate ground response. Borehole drilling is one of the conventional methods of determining shear-wave velocity structure however, it is an expensive approach. As an alternative geophysical exploration, microtremor array measurements can be used to infer the structure of the subsurface. Microtremor array measurement system was used to survey fifty sites around Metro Manila including some municipalities of Rizal and Cavite. Measurements were carried out during the day under good weather conditions. The team was composed of six persons for the deployment and simultaneous recording of the microtremor array sensors. The instruments were laid down on the ground away from sewage systems and leveled using the adjustment legs and bubble level. A total of four sensors were deployed for each site, three at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with one sensor at the centre. The circular arrays were set up with a maximum side length of approximately four kilometers and the shortest side length for the smallest array is approximately at 700 meters. Each recording lasted twenty to sixty minutes. From the recorded data, f-k analysis was applied to obtain phase velocity curves. Inversion technique is applied to construct the shear-wave velocity structure. This project provided a microzonation map of the metropolis and a profile showing the long-period response of the deep sedimentary basin underlying Metro Manila which would be suitable for local administrators in their land use planning and earthquake resistant design of medium to high-rise buildings.

Keywords: Earthquake, Ground Motion, Seismic Microzonation, microtremor

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69 A Finite Elements Model for the Study of Buried Pipelines Affected by Strike-Slip Fault

Authors: Reza Akbari, Jalal MontazeriFashtali, PeymanMomeni Taromsari

Abstract:

Pipeline systems, play an important role as a vital element in reducing or increasing the risk of earthquake damage and vulnerability. Pipelines are suitable, cheap, fast, and safe routes for transporting oil, gas, water, sewage, etc. The sepipelines must pass from a wide geographical area; hence they will structurally face different environmental and underground factors of earthquake forces’ effect. Therefore, structural engineering analysis and design for this type of lines requires the understanding of relevant parameters behavior and lack of familiarity with them can cause irreparable damages and risks to design and execution, especially in the face of earthquakes. Today, buried pipelines play an important role in human life cycle, thus, studying the vulnerability of pipeline systems is of particular importance. This study examines the behavior of buried pipelines affected by strike-slip fault. Studied fault is perpendicular to the tube axis and causes stress and deformation in the tube by sliding horizontally. In this study, the pipe-soil interaction is accurately simulated, so that one can examine the large displacements and strains, nonlinear material behavior and contact and friction conditions of soil and pipe. The results can be used for designing buried pipes and determining the amount of fault displacement that causes the failure of the buried pipes.

Keywords: Earthquake, fault, pipe lines, soil-fault interaction

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68 A General Review of Çarpanak Church

Authors: Soner Guler, Muhammet Kurucu, Sahabettin Ozturk

Abstract:

Çarpanak church is one of the well-known churches in the eastern part of Turkey. It is located on Çarpanak island of Van city. Çarpanak Church was built in the 6th. century and then restored in 1462 year. After an earthquake in 1703 year, the church was again restored between 1712 and 1720 years. In spite of some parts of Çarpanak church have been destroyed by natural disasters, it has survived until today without total collapse. In this study, present condition of Çarpanak church is introduced and evaluated briefly.

Keywords: Earthquake, Restoration, Van city, Çarpanak church

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67 Implementation of Iterative Algorithm for Earthquake Location

Authors: Hussain K. Chaiel

Abstract:

The development in the field of the digital signal processing (DSP) and the microelectronics technology reduces the complexity of the iterative algorithms that need large number of arithmetic operations. Virtex-Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are programmable silicon foundations which offer an important solution for addressing the needs of high performance DSP designer. In this work, Virtex-7 FPGA technology is used to implement an iterative algorithm to estimate the earthquake location. Simulation results show that an implementation based on block RAMB36E1 and DSP48E1 slices of Virtex-7 type reduces the number of cycles of the clock frequency. This enables the algorithm to be used for earthquake prediction.

Keywords: Earthquake, FPGA, dsp, iterative algorithm

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66 Basic Modal Displacements (BMD) for Optimizing the Buildings Subjected to Earthquakes

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Mohsen Khatibinia

Abstract:

In structural optimizations through meta-heuristic algorithms, analyses of structures are performed for many times. For this reason, performing the analyses in a time saving way is precious. The importance of the point is more accentuated in time-history analyses which take much time. To this aim, peak picking methods also known as spectrum analyses are generally utilized. However, such methods do not have the required accuracy either done by square root of sum of squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination (CQC) rules. The paper presents an efficient technique for evaluating the dynamic responses during the optimization process with high speed and accuracy. In the method, first by using a static equivalent of the earthquake, an initial design is obtained. Then, the displacements in the modal coordinates are achieved. The displacements are herein called basic modal displacements (MBD). For each new design of the structure, the responses can be derived by well scaling each of the MBD along the time and amplitude and superposing them together using the corresponding modal matrices. To illustrate the efficiency of the method, an optimization problems is studied. The results show that the proposed approach is a suitable replacement for the conventional time history and spectrum analyses in such problems.

Keywords: Optimization, Earthquake, spectrum, basic modal displacements

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65 Earthquake Identification to Predict Tsunami in Andalas Island, Indonesia Using Back Propagation Method and Fuzzy TOPSIS Decision Seconder

Authors: Muhamad Aris Burhanudin, Angga Firmansyas, Bagus Jaya Santosa

Abstract:

Earthquakes are natural hazard that can trigger the most dangerous hazard, tsunami. 26 December 2004, a giant earthquake occurred in north-west Andalas Island. It made giant tsunami which crushed Sumatra, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore. More than twenty thousand people dead. The occurrence of earthquake and tsunami can not be avoided. But this hazard can be mitigated by earthquake forecasting. Early preparation is the key factor to reduce its damages and consequences. We aim to investigate quantitatively on pattern of earthquake. Then, we can know the trend. We study about earthquake which has happened in Andalas island, Indonesia one last decade. Andalas is island which has high seismicity, more than a thousand event occur in a year. It is because Andalas island is in tectonic subduction zone of Hindia sea plate and Eurasia plate. A tsunami forecasting is needed to mitigation action. Thus, a Tsunami Forecasting Method is presented in this work. Neutral Network has used widely in many research to estimate earthquake and it is convinced that by using Backpropagation Method, earthquake can be predicted. At first, ANN is trained to predict Tsunami 26 December 2004 by using earthquake data before it. Then after we get trained ANN, we apply to predict the next earthquake. Not all earthquake will trigger Tsunami, there are some characteristics of earthquake that can cause Tsunami. Wrong decision can cause other problem in the society. Then, we need a method to reduce possibility of wrong decision. Fuzzy TOPSIS is a statistical method that is widely used to be decision seconder referring to given parameters. Fuzzy TOPSIS method can make the best decision whether it cause Tsunami or not. This work combines earthquake prediction using neural network method and using Fuzzy TOPSIS to determine the decision that the earthquake triggers Tsunami wave or not. Neural Network model is capable to capture non-linear relationship and Fuzzy TOPSIS is capable to determine the best decision better than other statistical method in tsunami prediction.

Keywords: Earthquake, Tsunami, Neural Network, fuzzy TOPSIS

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64 Measures for Earthquake Risk Reduction in Algeria

Authors: Farah Lazzali, Yamina Ait Meziane

Abstract:

Recent earthquakes in Algeria have demonstrated the need for seismic risk reduction. In fact, the latest major earthquake that affected the Algiers-Boumerdes region in 2003 caused excessive levels of loss of life and property. Economic, social and environmental damage were also experienced. During the three days following the event, a relatively weak coordination of public authority was noted. Many localities did not receive any relief due to lack of information from concerned authorities and delay in connecting damaged roads. Following this event, Algerian government and civil society has recognized the urgent need for an appropriate and immediate seismic risk mitigation strategy. This paper describes procedures for emergency response following past earthquakes in Algeria and provides a brief review of risk mitigation activities since 1980. The paper also aims to provide measures to reduce earthquake risk through general strategy and practical implementation of the mitigation actions.

Keywords: Prevention, Earthquake, Strategy, risk reduction, Hazard

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63 Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall

Authors: Snehal R. Pathak, Sachin S. Munnoli

Abstract:

Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.

Keywords: Earthquake, retaining walls, Earth Pressure, plaxis, wall movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
62 Seismic Response Mitigation of Structures Using Base Isolation System Considering Uncertain Parameters

Authors: Rama Debbarma

Abstract:

The present study deals with the performance of Linear base isolation system to mitigate seismic response of structures characterized by random system parameters. This involves optimization of the tuning ratio and damping properties of the base isolation system considering uncertain system parameters. However, the efficiency of base isolator may reduce if it is not tuned to the vibrating mode it is designed to suppress due to unavoidable presence of system parameters uncertainty. With the aid of matrix perturbation theory and first order Taylor series expansion, the total probability concept is used to evaluate the unconditional response of the primary structures considering random system parameters. For this, the conditional second order information of the response quantities are obtained in random vibration framework using state space formulation. Subsequently, the maximum unconditional root mean square displacement of the primary structures is used as the objective function to obtain optimum damping parameters Numerical study is performed to elucidate the effect of parameters uncertainties on the optimization of parameters of linear base isolator and system performance.

Keywords: Optimization, Earthquake, linear base isolator, uncertain parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 286