Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Early Warning System Related Abstracts

8 Failure to React Positively to Flood Early Warning Systems: Lessons Learned by Flood Victims from Flash Flood Disasters: the Malaysia Experience

Authors: Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Che Su Mustaffa, Mohd Najib Marzuki, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Sapora Sipon, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Shazwani Shafiai

Abstract:

This paper describes the issues relating to the role of the flash flood early warning system provided by the Malaysian Government to the communities in Malaysia, specifically during the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Normally, flash flood disasters can occur as a result of heavy rainfall in an area, and that water may possibly cause flooding via streams or narrow channels. For this study, the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands occurred on 23 October 2013, and as a result the Sungai Bertam overflowed after the release of water from the Sultan Abu Bakar Dam. This release of water from the dam caused flash flooding which led to damage to properties and also the death of residents and livestock in the area. Therefore, the effort of this study is to identify the perceptions of the flash flood victims on the role of the flash flood early warning system. For the purposes of this study, data collection was gathered from those flood victims who were willing to participate in this study through face-to-face interviews. This approach helped the researcher to glean in-depth information about their feeling and perceptions on the role of the flash flood early warning system offered by the government. The data were analysed descriptively and the findings show that the respondents of 22 flood victims believe strongly that the flash flood early warning system was confusing and dysfunctional, and communities had failed to response positively to it. Therefore, most of the communities were not well prepared for the releasing of water from the dam that caused property damage and 3 people were killed in Cameron Highland flash flood disaster.

Keywords: Disaster Management, Early Warning System, communities affected, flash flood disaster

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7 Participatory Approach of Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

Authors: Laxman Budhathoki, Lal Bahadur Shrestha, K. C. Laxman

Abstract:

Hundreds of people are being lost their life by flood disaster in Nepal every year. Community-based disaster management committee has formed to formulate the disaster management plan including the component of EWS like EWS tower, rain gauge station, flood gauge station, culverts, boats, ropes, life jackets, a communication mechanism, emergency shelter, Spur, dykes, dam, evacuation route, emergency dry food management etc. Now EWS become a successful tool to decrease the human casualty from 13 to 0 every year in Rapti River of Chitwan District.

Keywords: Flood, Disaster Risk Reduction, Early Warning System, participatory approach

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6 Unsupervised Text Mining Approach to Early Warning System

Authors: Ichihan Tai, Bill Olson, Paul Blessner

Abstract:

Traditional early warning systems that alarm against crisis are generally based on structured or numerical data; therefore, a system that can make predictions based on unstructured textual data, an uncorrelated data source, is a great complement to the traditional early warning systems. The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index (VIX), commonly referred to as the fear index, measures the cost of insurance against market crash, and spikes in the event of crisis. In this study, news data is consumed for prediction of whether there will be a market-wide crisis by predicting the movement of the fear index, and the historical references to similar events are presented in an unsupervised manner. Topic modeling-based prediction and representation are made based on daily news data between 1990 and 2015 from The Wall Street Journal against VIX index data from CBOE.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Early Warning System, topic modeling, market prediction

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5 Early Warning Signals: Role and Status of Risk Management in Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Alexander Kelíšek, Denisa Janasová, Veronika Mitašová

Abstract:

Weak signals using is often associated with early warning. It is possible to find a link between early warning, respectively early problems detection and risk management. The idea of early warning is very important in the context of crisis management because of the risk prevention possibility. Weak signals are likened to risk symptoms. Nowadays, their usefulness as a tool of proactive problems solving is emphasized. Based on it, it is possible to use weak signals not only in strategic planning, project management, or early warning system, but also as a subsidiary element in risk management. The main question is how to effectively integrate weak signals into risk management. The main aim of the paper is to point out the possibilities of weak signals using in small and medium enterprises risk management.

Keywords: Risk management, Early Warning System, weak signals, small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

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4 Precipitation Intensity: Duration Based Threshold Analysis for Initiation of Landslides in Upper Alaknanda Valley

Authors: Soumiya Bhattacharjee, P. K. Champati Ray, Shovan L. Chattoraj, Mrinmoy Dhara

Abstract:

The entire Himalayan range is globally renowned for rainfall-induced landslides. The prime focus of the study is to determine rainfall based threshold for initiation of landslides that can be used as an important component of an early warning system for alerting stake holders. This research deals with temporal dimension of slope failures due to extreme rainfall events along the National Highway-58 from Karanprayag to Badrinath in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Post processed 3-hourly rainfall intensity data and its corresponding duration from daily rainfall data available from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) were used as the prime source of rainfall data. Landslide event records from Border Road Organization (BRO) and some ancillary landslide inventory data for 2013 and 2014 have been used to determine Intensity Duration (ID) based rainfall threshold. The derived governing threshold equation, I= 4.738D-0.025, has been considered for prediction of landslides of the study region. This equation was validated with an accuracy of 70% landslides during August and September 2014. The derived equation was considered for further prediction of landslides of the study region. From the obtained results and validation, it can be inferred that this equation can be used for initiation of landslides in the study area to work as a part of an early warning system. Results can significantly improve with ground based rainfall estimates and better database on landslide records. Thus, the study has demonstrated a very low cost method to get first-hand information on possibility of impending landslide in any region, thereby providing alert and better preparedness for landslide disaster mitigation.

Keywords: Inventory, Landslide, Early Warning System, slope, intensity-duration, rainfall threshold, TRMM

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3 Training of Sensors for Early Warning System of Rainfall Induced Landslides

Authors: M. Naresh, Pratik Chaturvedi, Srishti Yadav, Varun Dutt, K. V. Uday

Abstract:

Changes in the Earth’s climate are likely to increase natural hazards such as drought, floods, earthquakes, landslides, etc. The present study focusing on to early warning systems (EWS) of landslides, major issues in Himalayan region without prominence to deforestation, encroachments and un-engineered cutting of slopes and reforming for infrastructural purposes. EWS can be depicted by conducting a series of flume tests using micro-electro mechanical systems sensors data after reaching threshold values under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the threshold value database, an alert will be sent via SMS.

Keywords: Sensors, Early Warning System, slope-instability, flume test

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2 Establishment of Landslide Warning System Using Surface or Sub-Surface Sensors Data

Authors: Sumit Sharma, Neetu Tyagi

Abstract:

The study illustrates the results of an integrated study done on Tangni landslide located on NH-58 at Chamoli, Uttarakhand. Geological, geo-morphological and geotechnical investigations were carried out to understand the mechanism of landslide and to plan further investigation and monitoring. At any rate, the movements were favored by continuous rainfall water infiltration from the zones where the phyllites/slates and Dolomites outcrop. The site investigations were carried out including the monitoring of landslide movements and of the water level fluctuations due to rainfall give us a better understanding of landslide dynamics that have been causing in time soil instability at Tangni landslide site. The Early Warning System (EWS) installed different types of sensors and all sensors were directly connected to data logger and raw data transfer to the Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) server room with the help of File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The slip surfaces were found at depths ranging from 8 to 10 m from Geophysical survey and hence sensors were installed to the depth of 15m at various locations of landslide. Rainfall is the main triggering factor of landslide. In this study, the developed model of unsaturated soil slope stability is carried out. The analysis of sensors data available for one year, indicated the sliding surface of landslide at depth between 6 to 12m with total displacement up to 6cm per year recorded at the body of landslide. The aim of this study is to set the threshold and generate early warning. Local peoples already alert towards landslide, if they have any types of warning system.

Keywords: Geotechnical, Landslide, Early Warning System, file transfer protocol, geo-morphological

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1 Collaborative Early Warning System: An Integrated Framework for Mitigating Impacts of Natural Hazards in the UAE

Authors: Abdulla Al Hmoudi

Abstract:

The impacts and costs of natural disasters on people, properties and the environment is often severe when they occur on a large scale or when not prepared for. Factors such as impacts of climate change, urban growth, poor planning to mention a few, have continued to significantly increase the frequencies and aggravate the impacts of natural hazards across the world; the United Arab Emirates (UAE) inclusive. The lack of deployment of an early warning system, low risk and hazard knowledge and impact of natural hazard experienced in some communities in the UAE have emphasised the need for more effective early warning systems. This paper focuses on the collaborative approach taken to instituting and implementing an early warning system. Using mixed methods 888 people completed the questionnaire and eight people were interviewed in Abu Dhabi. The results indicate that the collaborative approach to early warning system is UAE is needed, but lacks essential principles of the early warning system and currently underutilised. It is recommended that the collaborative early warning system is applied at every stage of the early warning system with the specific responsibility of each stakeholder and actor.

Keywords: Community, Emergency Management, Early Warning System, UAE

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