E-light Related Abstracts
2 A LED Warning Vest as Safety Smart Textile and Active Cooperation in a Working Group for Building a Normative Standard
Authors: Werner Grommes
Abstract:The institute of occupational safety and health works in a working group for building a normative standard for illuminated warning vests and did a lot of experiments and measurements as basic work (cooperation). Intelligent car headlamps are able to suppress conventional warning vests with retro-reflective stripes as a disturbing light. Illuminated warning vests are therefore required for occupational safety. However, they must not pose any danger to the wearer or other persons. Here, the risks of the batteries (lithium types), the maximum brightness (glare) and possible interference radiation from the electronics on the implant carrier must be taken into account. The all-around visibility, as well as the required range, play an important role here. For the study, many luminance measurements of already commercially available LEDs and electroluminescent warning vests, as well as their electromagnetic interference fields and aspects of electrical safety, were measured. The results of this study showed that LED lighting is all far too bright and causes strong glare. The integrated controls with pulse modulation and switching regulators cause electromagnetic interference fields. Rechargeable lithium batteries can explode depending on the temperature range. Electroluminescence brings even more hazards. A test method was developed for the evaluation of visibility at distances of 50, 100, and 150 m, including the interview of test persons. A measuring method was developed for the detection of glare effects at close range with the assignment of the maximum permissible luminance. The electromagnetic interference fields were tested in the time and frequency ranges. A risk and hazard analysis were prepared for the use of lithium batteries. The range of values for luminance and risk analysis for lithium batteries were discussed in the standards working group. These will be integrated into the standard. This paper gives a brief overview of the topics of illuminated warning vests, which takes into account the risks and hazards for the vest wearer or others Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1 Measurements for Risk Analysis and Detecting Hazards by Active Wearables
Authors: Werner Grommes
Abstract:Intelligent wearables (illuminated vests or hand and foot-bands, smart watches with a laser diode, Bluetooth smart glasses) overflow the market today. They are integrated with complex electronics and are worn very close to the body. Optical measurements and limitation of the maximum light density are needed. Smart watches are equipped with a laser diode or control different body currents. Special glasses generate readable text information that is received via radio transmission. Small high-performance batteries (lithium-ion/polymer) supply the electronics. All these products have been tested and evaluated for risk. These products must, for example, meet the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility as well as the requirements for electromagnetic fields affecting humans or implant wearers. Extensive analyses and measurements were carried out for this purpose. Many users are not aware of these risks. The result of this study should serve as a suggestion to do it better in the future or simply to point out these risks. Commercial LED warning vests, LED hand and foot-bands, illuminated surfaces with inverter (high voltage), flashlights, smart watches, and Bluetooth smart glasses were checked for risks. The luminance, the electromagnetic emissions in the low-frequency as well as in the high-frequency range, audible noises, and nervous flashing frequencies were checked by measurements and analyzed. Rechargeable lithium-ion or lithium-polymer batteries can burn or explode under special conditions like overheating, overcharging, deep discharge or using out of the temperature specification. Some risk analysis becomes necessary. The result of this study is that many smart wearables are worn very close to the body, and an extensive risk analysis becomes necessary. Wearers of active implants like a pacemaker or implantable cardiac defibrillator must be considered. If the wearable electronics include switching regulators or inverter circuits, active medical implants in the near field can be disturbed. A risk analysis is necessary.
Keywords: LED, Electrical Safety, EMF, EMC, illuminated warning vest, optical glare effects, E-light, electric luminescent, safety and hazards, active medical implants, optical radiation, hand and head lamps, safety batteries, light densityProcedia PDF Downloads 2