Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

E. coli Related Abstracts

25 Antibacterial Activity of Noble Metal Functionalized Magnetic Core-Zeolitic Shell Nanostructures

Authors: Mohsen Padervand

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Functionalized magnetic core-zeolitic shell nanostructures were prepared by the hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. The products were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The growth of mordenite nanoparticles on the surface of silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the presence of organic templates was well approved. The antibacterial activity of prepared samples was investigated by the inactivation of E.coli as a gram negative bacterium. A new mechanism was proposed to inactivate the bacterium over the prepared samples. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and reuse ability were studied too. TEM images of the destroyed microorganism after the treatment time were applied to illustrate the inactivation mechanism. The interaction of the noble metals with organic components on the surface of nanostructures studied theoretically and the results were used to interpret the experimental results.

Keywords: nickel ferrite nanoparticles, magnetic core-zeolitic shell, antibacterial activity, E. coli

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24 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxogenic Escherichia coli Associated with Dairy Product

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hazmi, Abdullah Al-Arfaj, Moussa Ihab

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Raw, unpasteurized milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria, which are responsible for causing numerous foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was molecular characterization of shiga toxogenic E. coli in raw milk collected from different Egyptian governorates by multiplex PCR. During the period of 25th May to 25th October 2012, a total of 320 bulk-tank milk samples were collected from 10 cow farms located in different Egyptian governorates. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed the presence of E. coli organisms in 65 samples (20.3%), serotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed, 35 strains (10.94%) O111, 15 strains (4.69%) O157: H7, 10 strains (3.13%) O128 and 5 strains (1.56%) O119. Multiplex PCR for detection of shiga toxin type 2 and intimin genes revealed positive amplification of 255 bp fragment of shiga toxin type 2 gene and 384 bp fragment of intimin gene from all E. coli serovar O157: H7, while from serovar O111 were 25 (71.43%), 20 (57.14%) and from serovar O128 were 6 (60%), 8 (80%), respectively. The results of multiplex PCR assay are useful for identification of STEC possessing the eaeA and stx2 genes.

Keywords: Raw Milk, E. coli, multiplex PCR, Shiga toxin type 2, intimin gene

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23 Food Safety and Quality Assurance and Skills Development among Farmers in Georgia

Authors: Kakha Nadiardze, Nana Phirosmanashvili

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The goal of this paper is to present the problems of lack of information among farmers in food safety. Global food supply chains are becoming more and more diverse, making traceability systems much harder to implement across different food markets. In this abstract, we will present our work for analyzing the key developments in Georgian food market from regulatory controls to administrative procedures to traceability technologies. Food safety and quality assurance are most problematic issues in Georgia as food trade networks become more and more complex, food businesses are under more and more pressure to ensure that their products are safe and authentic. The theme follow-up principles from farm to table must be top-of-mind for all food manufacturers, farmers and retailers. Following the E. coli breakout last year, as well as more recent cases of food mislabeling, developments in food traceability systems is essential to food businesses if they are to present a credible brand image. Alongside this are the ever-developing technologies in food traceability networks, technologies that manufacturers and retailers need to be aware of if they are to keep up with food safety regulations and avoid recall. How to examine best practice in food management is the main question in order to protect company brand through safe and authenticated food. We are working with our farmers to work with our food safety experts and technology developers throughout the food supply chain. We provide time by time food analyses on heavy metals, pesticide residues and different pollutants. We are disseminating information among farmers how the latest food safety regulations will impact the methods to use to identify risks within their products.

Keywords: Food Safety, Quality, E. coli, GMO, LMO

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22 Rapid Detection of MBL Genes by SYBR Green Based Real-Time PCR

Authors: Taru Singh, Shukla Das, V. G. Ramachandran

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Objectives: To develop SYBR green based real-time PCR assay to detect carbapenemases (NDM, IMP) genes in E. coli. Methods: A total of 40 E. coli from stool samples were tested. Six were previously characterized as resistant to carbapenems and documented by PCR. The remaining 34 isolates previously tested susceptible to carbapenems and were negative for these genes. Bacterial RNA was extracted using manual method. The real-time PCR was performed using the Light Cycler III 480 instrument (Roche) and specific primers for each carbapenemase target were used. Results: Each one of the two carbapenemase gene tested presented a different melting curve after PCR amplification. The melting temperature (Tm) analysis of the amplicons identified was as follows: blaIMP type (Tm 82.18°C), blaNDM-1 (Tm 78.8°C). No amplification was detected among the negative samples. The results showed 100% concordance with the genotypes previously identified. Conclusions: The new assay was able to detect the presence of two different carbapenemase gene type by real-time PCR.

Keywords: Resistance, E. coli, b-lactamases, real-time PCR

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21 Quantifying the Protein-Protein Interaction between the Ion-Channel-Forming Colicin A and the Tol Proteins by Potassium Efflux in E. coli Cells

Authors: Fadilah Aleanizy

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Colicins are a family of bacterial toxins that kill Escherichia coli and other closely related species. The mode of action of colicins involves binding to an outer membrane receptor and translocation across the cell envelope, leading to cytotoxicity through specific targets. The mechanism of colicin cytotoxicity includes a non-specific endonuclease activity or depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane by pore-forming activity. For Group A colicins, translocation requires an interaction between the N-terminal domain of the colicin and a series of membrane- bound and periplasmic proteins known as the Tol system (TolB, TolR, TolA, TolQ, and Pal and the active domain must be translocated through the outer membranes. Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to virtually every cellular process. The transient protein-protein interactions of the colicin include the interaction with much more complicated assemblies during colicin translocation across the cellular membrane to its target. The potassium release assay detects variation in the K+ content of bacterial cells (K+in). This assays is used to measure the effect of pore-forming colicins such as ColA on an indicator organism by measuring the changes of the K+ concentration in the external medium (K+out ) that are caused by cell killing with a K+ selective electrode. One of the goals of this work is to employ a quantifiable in-vivo method to spot which Tol protein are more implicated in the interaction with colicin A as it is translocated to its target.

Keywords: E. coli, K+ efflux, Colicin A, Tol-proteins

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20 An Investigation of E. coli Contamination in Fars Province, Iran and Methods of Reducing the Contamination

Authors: Ali Mohagheghzadeh, Samad Vaez Badiegard, Bita Shomali

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Nowadays, with the increase in population, the need for protein sources is increasing. Different bacteria can cause food poisoning while most of the symptoms of food poisoning are similar to those of gastrointestinal infections. As a result, the diagnosis of bacteria and viruses causing food poisoning would not be possible without a stool culture. Cases of food poisoning are often accompanied by gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, vomit, and gastrointestinal stomach cramps. Thus, providing enough food, taking into account health issues has always been a concern of authorities. Since E. coli bacterium is one of the important indicators of food hygiene and quality, producing food without being contaminated by this bacterium is desired in the food industry. This study aimed at assessing the E. coli contamination of poultry meat produced in slaughterhouses. Samples were taken from critical areas of slaughterhouses, namely the feather picking area, viscera and carcass evacuation area the area after cooling chillers. The results showed that 60% of contamination occurs in feather picking area. Among antiseptic and detergent materials, the highest reduction belongs to Epimax.

Keywords: Contamination, E. coli, slaughterhouse, Epimax

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19 Growth of Metal Oxide (Tio2/Ag) Thin Films Sputtered by Hipims Effective in Bacterial Inactivation: Plasma Chemistry and Energetic

Authors: O. Baghriche, A. Zertal, C. Pulgarin, J. Kiwi, R. Sanjines

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High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) is a technology that belongs to the field of Ionized PVD of thin films. This study shows the first complete report on ultrathin TiO2/Ag nano-particulate films sputtered by highly ionized pulsed plasma magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) leading to fast bacterial loss of viability. The Ag and the TiO2/Ag sputtered films induced complete Escherichia coli inactivation in the dark, which was not observed in the case of TiO2. When Ag was present, the bacterial inactivation was accelerated under low intensity solar simulated light and this has implications for a potential for a practical technology. The design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of these innovative films are described in this study. The HIPIMS sputtered composite films present an appreciable savings in metals compared to films obtained by conventional sputtering methods. HIPIMS sputtering induces a strong interaction with the rugous polyester 3-D structure due to the higher fraction of the Ag-ions (M+) attained in the magnetron chamber. The immiscibility of Ag and TiO2 in the TiO2/Ag films is shown by High Angular Dark Field (HAADF) microscopy. The ionization degree of the film forming species is significantly increased and film growth is assisted by an intense ion flux. Reports have revealed the significant enhancement of the film properties as the HIPIMS technology is used. However, a decrease of the deposition rate, as compared to the conventional DC magnetron sputtering Pulsed (DCMSP) process is commonly observed during HIPIMS.

Keywords: E. coli, sputtering, HIPIMS, inactivation bacterial

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18 Identification of Associated-Virulence Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Recovered from an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Alouache Souhila, Messai Yamina, Torres Carmen, Bakour Rabah

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Objective: It has often been reported an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence. However, resistance to quinolones seems to be an exception, it tends instead to be associated with an attenuation of virulence, particularly in clinical strains. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential virulence of 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli strains recovered from water at the inflow (n=16) and outflow (n=12) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Methods: E. coli isolates were selected on Tergitol-7 agar supplemented with 2µg/ml of ciprofloxacin, they were screened by PCR for 11 virulence genes related to Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC): papC, papG, afa/draBC, sfa/foc, kpsMTII, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT, iss and traT. The phylogenetic groups were determined by PCR and clonal relationship was evaluated by ERIC-PCR. Results: Genotyping by ERIC-PCR showed 7 and 12 DNA profiles among strains of wastewater (inflow) and treated water (outflow), respectively. Strains were assigned to the following phylogenetic groups: B2 (n = 1, 3.5%), D (n = 3, 10.7%), B1 (n = 10, 35.7%.) and A (n = 14, 50%). A total of 8 virulence-associated genes were detected, traT (n=19, 67.8%), iroN (n= 16, 57 .1%), hlyF (n=15, 53 .5%), ompT (n=15, 53 .5%), iss (n=14, 50%), iutA (n=9, 32.1%) , sfa/foc (n=7, 25%) and kpsMTII (n=2, 7.1%). Combination of virulence factors allowed to define 16 virulence profiles. The pathotype APEC was observed in 17.8% (D=1, B1=4) and human ExPEC in 7% (B2=1, D=1) of strains. Conclusion: The study showed that quinolone-resistant E. coli strains isolated from wastewater and treated water in WWTP harbored virulence genes with the presence of APEC and human ExPEC strains.

Keywords: E. coli, quinolone-resistance, virulence, WWTP

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17 Cytolethal Distending Toxins in Intestinal and Extraintestinal E. coli

Authors: Katarína Čurová, Leonard Siegfried, Radka Vargová, Marta Kmeťová, Vladimír Hrabovský

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Introduction: Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) represent intracellular acting proteins which interfere with cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. They are produced by Gram-negative bacteria with afinity to mucocutaneous surfaces and could play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. CDTs induce DNA damage probably through DNAse activity, which causes cell cycle arrest and leads to further changes (cell distension and death, apoptosis) depending on the cell type. Five subtypes of CDT (I to V) were reported in E. coli. Methods: We examined 252 E. coli strains belonging to four different groups. Of these strains, 57 were isolated from patients with diarrhea, 65 from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI), 65 from patients with sepsis and 65 from patients with other extraintestinal infections (mostly surgical wounds, decubitus ulcers and respiratory tract infections). Identification of these strains was performed by MALDI-TOF analysis and detection of genes encoding CDTs and determination of the phylogenetic group was performed by PCR. Results: In this study, we detected presence of cdt genes in 11 of 252 E. coli strains tested (4,4 %). Four cdt positive E. coli strains were confirmed in group of UTI (6,15 %), three cdt positive E. coli strains in groups of diarrhea (5,3 %) and other extraintestinal infections (4,6 %). The lowest incidence, one cdt positive E. coli strain, was observed in group of sepsis (1,5 %). All cdt positive E. coli strains belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Conclusion: CDT-producing E. coli are isolated in a low percentage from patients with intestinal and extraintestinal infections, including sepsis and our results correspond with these studies. A weak prevalence of cdt genes suggests that CDTs are not major virulence factors but in combination with other virulence factors may increase virulence potential of E. coli. We suppose that all 11 cdt positive E. coli strains represent real pathogens because they belong to the phylogenetic group B2 which is pathogenic lineage for bacteria E. coli.

Keywords: Diarrhea, E. coli, cytolethal distending toxin, phylogenetic group, extraintestinal infection

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16 Production of Human BMP-7 with Recombinant E. coli and B. subtilis

Authors: Jong Il Rhee

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The polypeptide representing the mature part of human BMP-7 was cloned and efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, which had a clear band for hBMP-7, a homodimeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 15.4 kDa. Recombinant E.coli produced 111 pg hBMP-7/mg of protein hBMP-7 through IPTG induction. Recombinant B. subtilis also produced 350 pg hBMP-7/ml of culture medium. The hBMP-7 was purified in 2 steps using an FPLC system with an ion exchange column and a gel filtration column. The hBMP-7 produced in this work also stimulated the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner, i.e. 2.5- and 8.9-fold at 100 and 300 ng hBMP-7/ml, respectively, and showed intact biological activity.

Keywords: Fermentation, E. coli, B. subtilis, hBMP-7

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15 Genetic Change in Escherichia coli KJ122 That Improved Succinate Production from an Equal Mixture of Xylose and Glucose

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama

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Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: E. coli, xylose, sugarcane bagasse, furfural, succinate

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14 Intracellular Strategies for Gene Delivery into Mammalian Cells Using Bacteria as a Vector

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Andrew N. Osahor

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E. coli has been engineered by our group and by others as a vector to deliver DNA into cultured human and animal cells. However, so far conditions to improve gene delivery using this vector have not been investigated, resulting in a major gap in our understanding of the requirements for this vector to function optimally. Our group recently published novel data showing that simple addition of the DNA transfection reagent Lipofectamine increased the efficiency of the E. coli vector by almost 3-fold, providing the first strong evidence that further optimization of bactofection is possible. This presentation will discuss advances that demonstrate the effects of several intracellular strategies that improve the efficiency of this vector. Conditions that promote endosomal escape of internalized bacteria to evade lysosomal destruction after entry in the cell, a known obstacle limiting this vector, are elucidated. Further, treatments that increase bacterial lysis so that the vector can release its transgene into the mammalian environment for expression will be discussed. These experiments will provide valuable new insight to advance this E. coli system as an important class of vector technology for genetic correction of human disease models in cells and whole animals.

Keywords: Gene expression, Dna, E. coli, vector

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13 Mutation of Galp Improved Fermentation of Mixed Sugars to Succinate Using Engineered Escherichia coli As1600a

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama

Abstract:

Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: E. coli, xylose, sugarcane bagasse, furfural, succinat

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12 Efficient Estimation of Maximum Theoretical Productivity from Batch Cultures via Dynamic Optimization of Flux Balance Models

Authors: Peter C. St. John, Michael F. Crowley, Yannick J. Bomble

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Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture typically involves a trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. However, strategies for strain design typically involve designing mutations to achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. Such approaches tend to follow the principle of designing static networks with minimum metabolic functionality to achieve desired yields. While these methods are computationally tractable, optimum productivity is likely achieved by a dynamic strategy, in which intracellular fluxes change their distribution over time. One can use multi-stage fermentations to increase either productivity or yield. Such strategies would range from simple manipulations (aerobic growth phase, anaerobic production phase), to more complex genetic toggle switches. Additionally, some computational methods can also be developed to aid in optimizing two-stage fermentation systems. One can assume an initial control strategy (i.e., a single reaction target) in maximizing productivity - but it is unclear how close this productivity would come to a global optimum. The calculation of maximum theoretical yield in metabolic engineering can help guide strain and pathway selection for static strain design efforts. Here, we present a method for the calculation of a maximum theoretical productivity of a batch culture system. This method follows the traditional assumptions of dynamic flux balance analysis: that internal metabolite fluxes are governed by a pseudo-steady state and external metabolite fluxes are represented by dynamic system including Michealis-Menten or hill-type regulation. The productivity optimization is achieved via dynamic programming, and accounts explicitly for an arbitrary number of fermentation stages and flux variable changes. We have applied our method to succinate production in two common microbial hosts: E. coli and A. succinogenes. The method can be further extended to calculate the complete productivity versus yield Pareto surface. Our results demonstrate that nearly optimal yields and productivities can indeed be achieved with only two discrete flux stages.

Keywords: Metabolic Engineering, E. coli, succinate, A. succinogenes, metabolite fluxes, multi-stage fermentations

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11 Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern at Bangladesh

Authors: Shahjada Selim, Mohammad Saifuddin

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Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop infection, especially urinary tract infection (UTI) in comparison with non-diabetics. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic strains, the choice of antimicrobial agent is sometimes difficult. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in Diabetic patients and corresponding sensitivity patterns and to correlate the microbiological results with various clinical parameters. A nine-month retrospective review of 100 urine culture reports of Diabetic patients from January 2015 to September 2015 from semiurbanmultispeciality hospital of Feni, Bangladesh were analyzed. Only Diabetic patients were included in this study who were clinically diagnosed as UTI patients with a corresponding urine culture showing a bacterial count of ˃105cfu/ml.Out of 100 patients with UTI, 39 (39%) were male, and 61 (61%) were female. Organisms grown in urine culture were Escherichia coli (64) followed by Klebsiella (11), Proteus (7), Staph Aureus (4), Pseudomonas (4), Acinetobacter (3), Sreptococcus(3), Enterococcus (2 ) and one each of Enterobacter and Fungi. Overall sensitivity pattern in decreasing order of various commonly used antibiotics was Meropenem (89%), Nitrofurantoin (86%), Amikacin (81%), Ceftriaxone (68%), Cefuroxime (61%), Cefixime (39%), Quinolones (28%), Amoxicillin (16%). The significance of the study lies in the determination of common pathogens in diabetic patients with UTI and the resistance pattern of antibiotics so that physicians and pharmacists get the proper information rationalizing the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection, diabetes mellitus, E. coli, Bangladesh

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10 An Evaluative Microbiological Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Supply in the Carpathian Region: Identification of Occurrent Hazardous Bacteria with Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Method

Authors: Anikó Kaluzsa

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The article's author aims to introduce and analyze those microbiological safety hazards which indicate the presence of secondary contamination in the water supply system. Since drinking water belongs to primary foods and is the basic condition of life, special attention should be paid on its quality. There are such indicators among the microbiological features can be found in water, which are clear evidence of the presence of water contamination, and based on this there is no need to perform other diagnostics, because they prove properly the contamination of the given water supply section. Laboratory analysis can help - both technologically and temporally – to identify contamination, but it does matter how long takes the removal and if the disinfection process takes place in time. The identification of the factors that often occur in the same places or the chance of their occurrence is greater than the average, facilitates our work. The pathogen microbiological risk assessment by the help of several features determines the most likely occurring microbiological features in the Carpathian basin. From among all the microbiological indicators, that are recommended targets for routine inspection by the World Health Organization, there is a paramount importance of the appearance of Escherichia coli in the water network, as its presence indicates the potential ubietiy of enteric pathogens or other contaminants in the water network. In addition, the author presents the steps of microbiological risk assessment analyzing those pathogenic micro-organisms registered to be the most critical.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, drinking water, E. coli, microbiological indicators, water safety plan

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9 Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Using Infra-Red-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Ahmad Salman, Uraib Sharaha, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Elad Shufan, Klaris Riesenberg, Irving J. Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel

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Antimicrobial drugs have an important role in controlling illness associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global health-care problem. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing like disk diffusion are time-consuming and other method including E-test, genotyping are relatively expensive. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 550 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 85% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.

Keywords: Multivariate analysis, Antibiotics, Susceptibility, E. coli, FTIR

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8 Assessment of Escherichia coli along Nakibiso Stream in Mbale Municipality, Uganda

Authors: Abdul Walusansa

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The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbial pollution along Nakibiso stream. The study was carried out in polluted waters of Nakibiso stream, originating from Mbale municipality and running through ADRA Estates to Namatala Wetlands in Eastern Uganda. Four sites along the stream were selected basing on the activities of their vicinity. A total of 120 samples were collected in sterile bottles from the four sampling locations of the stream during the wet and dry seasons of the year 2011. The samples were taken to the National water and Sewerage Cooperation Laboratory for Analysis. Membrane filter technique was used to test for Erischerichia coli. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and temperature were also measured. Results for Nitrogen and Phosphorus for sites; 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.8, 8.8, 7.7 and 13.8 NH4-N mg/L; and 1.8, 2.1, 1.8 and 2.3 PO4-P mg/L respectively. Basing on these results, it was estimated that farmers use 115 and 24 Kg/acre of Nitrogen and Phosphorus respectively per month. Taking results for Nitrogen, the same amount of Nutrients in artificial fertilizers would cost $ 88. This shows that reuse of wastewater has a potential in terms of nutrients. The results for E. coli for sites 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.1 X 107, 9.1 X 105, 7.4 X 105, and 3.4 X 105 respectively. E. coli hence decreased downstream with statistically significant variations between sites 1 and 4. Site 1 had the highest mean E.coli counts. The bacterial contamination was significantly higher during the dry season when more water was needed for irrigation. Although the water had the potential for reuse in farming, bacterial contamination during both seasons was higher than 103 FC/100ml recommended by WHO for unrestricted Agriculture.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Waste water, Water reuse, Phosphorus, E. coli

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7 Assessment of a Rapid Detection Sensor of Faecal Pollution in Freshwater

Authors: Fiona Regan, Brendan Heery, Ciprian Briciu-Burghina, Dermot Brabazon

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Good quality bathing water is a highly desirable natural resource which can provide major economic, social, and environmental benefits. Both in Ireland and Europe, such water bodies are managed under the European Directive for the management of bathing water quality (BWD). The BWD aims mainly: (i) to improve health protection for bathers by introducing stricter standards for faecal pollution assessment (E. coli, enterococci), (ii) to establish a more pro-active approach to the assessment of possible pollution risks and the management of bathing waters, and (iii) to increase public involvement and dissemination of information to the general public. Standard methods for E. coli and enterococci quantification rely on cultivation of the target organism which requires long incubation periods (from 18h to a few days). This is not ideal when immediate action is required for risk mitigation. Municipalities that oversee the bathing water quality and deploy appropriate signage have to wait for laboratory results. During this time, bathers can be exposed to pollution events and health risks. Although forecasting tools exist, they are site specific and as consequence extensive historical data is required to be effective. Another approach for early detection of faecal pollution is the use of marker enzymes. β-glucuronidase (GUS) is a widely accepted biomarker for E. coli detection in microbiological water quality control. GUS assay is particularly attractive as they are rapid, less than 4 h, easy to perform and they do not require specialised training. A method for on-site detection of GUS from environmental samples in less than 75 min was previously demonstrated. In this study, the capability of ColiSense as an early warning system for faecal pollution in freshwater is assessed. The system successfully detected GUS activity in all of the 45 freshwater samples tested. GUS activity was found to correlate linearly with E. coli (r2=0.53, N=45, p < 0.001) and enterococci (r2=0.66, N=45, p < 0.001) Although GUS is a marker for E. coli, a better correlation was obtained for enterococci. For this study water samples were collected from 5 rivers in the Dublin area over 1 month. This suggests a high diversity of pollution sources (agricultural, industrial, etc) as well as point and diffuse pollution sources were captured in the sample size. Such variety in the source of E. coli can account for different GUS activities/culturable cell and different ratios of viable but not culturable to viable culturable bacteria. A previously developed protocol for the recovery and detection of E. coli was coupled with a miniaturised fluorometer (ColiSense) and the system was assessed for the rapid detection FIB in freshwater samples. Further work will be carried out to evaluate the system’s performance on seawater samples.

Keywords: E. coli, faecal pollution, β-glucuronidase (GUS), bathing water

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6 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Faecal Carriage Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli among Hospitalized Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: C. A. Ologunde

Abstract:

Escherichia coli have been a major microorganisms associated with, and isolated from feacal samples either in adult or children all over the world. Strains of these organisms are resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients and FQs are the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial class in hospitals, and the level of resistant of E. coli to these antimicrobial agents is a risk factor that should be assessed. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli in hospitalized patients in Ado-Ekiti. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients in hospitals in the study area and FQ-resistant E. coli were isolated and identified by means of Nalidixic acid multi-disk and a 1-step screening procedure. Species identification and FQ resistance were confirmed by automated testing (Vitek, bioMerieux, USA). Individual colonies were subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine macro-restriction polymorphism after digestion of chromosomal DNA. FQ-resistant E. coli was detected in the stool sample of 37(62%) hospitalized patient. With multivariable analyses, the use of FQ before hospitalization was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures for the 3-12 months of study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified conal spread of 1(one) strain among 18 patients. Loss (9 patients) or acquisition (10 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. It was concluded that FQ-resistant E. coli carriage was associated with clonal spread. The differential effects of individual fluoroquinolone on antimicrobial drug resistance are an important area for future study, as hospitals manipulate their formularies with regard to use of individual fluoroquinolone, often for economic reasons.

Keywords: Risk Factors, E. coli, fluoroquinolone, Ado-Ekiti, feacal carriage, hospitalized patients

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5 Kinetic Study of C₃N₄/CuWO₄: Photocatalyst towards Solar Light Inactivation of Mixed Populated Bacteria

Authors: Rimzhim Gupta, Bhanupriya Boruah, Jayant M. Modak, Giridhar Madras

Abstract:

Microbial contamination is one of the major concerns in the field of water treatment. AOP (advanced oxidation processes) is well-established method to resolve the issue of removal of contaminants in water. A Z-scheme composite g-C₃N₄/CuWO₄ was synthesized by sol-gel method for the photocatalytic inactivation of a mixed population of Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli). The photoinactivation was observed for different types of bacteria in the same medium together and individually in the absence of the nutrients. The lattice structures and phase purities were determined by X-ray diffraction. For morphological and topographical features, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses were carried out. The band edges of the semiconductor (valence band and conduction band) were determined by ultraviolet photoelectron microscopy. The lifetime of the charge carriers and band gap of the semiconductors were determined by time resolved florescence spectroscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of weight ratio of C₃N₄ and CuWO₄ was observed by performing photocatalytic experiments. To investigate the exact mechanism and major responsible radicals for photocatalysis, scavenger studies were performed. The rate constants and order of the inactivation reactions were obtained by power law kinetics. For E. coli and S. aureus, the order of reaction and rate constants are 1.15, 0.9 and 1.39 ± 0.03 (CFU/mL)⁻⁰.¹⁵ h⁻¹, 47.95 ± 1.2 (CFU/mL)⁰.¹ h⁻¹, respectively.

Keywords: E. coli, sol-gel, S. aureus, z-scheme

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4 Nanobiosensor System for Aptamer Based Pathogen Detection in Environmental Waters

Authors: Nimet Yildirim Tirgil, Ahmed Busnaina, April Z. Gu

Abstract:

Environmental waters are monitored worldwide to protect people from infectious diseases primarily caused by enteric pathogens. All long, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a good indicator for potential enteric pathogens in waters. Thus, a rapid and simple detection method for E. coli is very important to predict the pathogen contamination. In this study, to the best of our knowledge, as the first time we developed a rapid, direct and reusable SWCNTs (single walled carbon nanotubes) based biosensor system for sensitive and selective E. coli detection in water samples. We use a novel and newly developed flexible biosensor device which was fabricated by high-rate nanoscale offset printing process using directed assembly and transfer of SWCNTs. By simple directed assembly and non-covalent functionalization, aptamer (biorecognition element that specifically distinguish the E. coli O157:H7 strain from other pathogens) based SWCNTs biosensor system was designed and was further evaluated for environmental applications with simple and cost-effective steps. The two gold electrode terminals and SWCNTs-bridge between them allow continuous resistance response monitoring for the E. coli detection. The detection procedure is based on competitive mode detection. A known concentration of aptamer and E. coli cells were mixed and after a certain time filtered. The rest of free aptamers injected to the system. With hybridization of the free aptamers and their SWCNTs surface immobilized probe DNA (complementary-DNA for E. coli aptamer), we can monitor the resistance difference which is proportional to the amount of the E. coli. Thus, we can detect the E. coli without injecting it directly onto the sensing surface, and we could protect the electrode surface from the aggregation of target bacteria or other pollutants that may come from real wastewater samples. After optimization experiments, the linear detection range was determined from 2 cfu/ml to 10⁵ cfu/ml with higher than 0.98 R² value. The system was regenerated successfully with 5 % SDS solution over 100 times without any significant deterioration of the sensor performance. The developed system had high specificity towards E. coli (less than 20 % signal with other pathogens), and it could be applied to real water samples with 86 to 101 % recovery and 3 to 18 % cv values (n=3).

Keywords: E. coli, aptamer, nanobiosensor, environmental detection, SWCTs

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3 CoFe₂O₄ as Anode for Enhanced Energy Recovery in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Mehak Munjal, Raj Kishore Sharma, Gurmeet Singh

Abstract:

Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are an alternative sustainable approach that utilize bacteria present in waste water as a bio-catalyst for the production of energy. It is a promising growing technology with minimal requirement for chemical supplements. Here electrode material plays a vital role in its performance. The present study represents CoFe2O4 spinel as a novel anode material in the MFC. It not only improve the bacterial metabolics but also enhance the power output. Generally, biocompatible conductive carbon paper/cloth, graphite and stainless steel are utilised as anode in MFCs. However, these materials lack electrochemical activity for anodic microbial reaction. Therefore, we developed CoFe2O4 on graphite sheet which enhanced the anodic charge transfer process. Redox pair in CoFe2O4 helped in improvement of extracellular electron transfer, thereby enhancing the performance. The physical characterizations (FT-IR, XRD, Raman) and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the strong interaction with E.coli bacteria and thus providing an excellent power density i.e. 1850 mW/m2 .The maximum anode half -cell potential is measured to be 0.65V. Therefore, use of noble metal free anodic material further decrease the cost and the long term cell stability makes it an effective material for practical applications.

Keywords: Bioelectricity, E. coli, microbial fuel cell, cobalt ferrite

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2 The Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria as an Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows

Authors: Nenny Harijani, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to know the bacteriocin as antimicrobial activity produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows. The antimicrobial is produced by LAB which isolates from cattle intestine can inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, Steptocococcus agalactiae an Escherichia coli which were caused by dairy cattle subclinical mastitis. The failure of this bacteria growth was indicated by the formation of a clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. The bacteriocin was produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as antimicrobial, which could inhibit the growth of indicator bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, S.aglactiae and E.coli. This study was also developed bacteriocin to be used as a therapeutic of subclinical mastitis on dairy cows. The method used in this study was isolation, selection and identification of LAB using Mann Rogosa Sharp Medium, followed by characterization of the bacteriocin produced by LAB. The result of the study showed that bacteriocin isolated from beef cattle’s intestine could inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, an Escherichia coli, which was indicated by clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. Characteristics of bacteriocin were heat-stable exposed to 80 0C for 30 minutes and 100 ⁰C for 15 minutes and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin. This approach has suggested the development of bacteriocin as a therapeutic agent for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Bacteriocin, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, sub

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1 Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration Produced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli in Water

Authors: Zohreh Rashmei

Abstract:

Introduction: Plasma inactivation is one of the emerging technologies in biomedical field and has been applied to the inactivation of microorganisms in water. The inactivation effect has been attributed to the presence of active plasma species, i.e. OH, O, O3, H2O2, UV and electric fields, generated by the discharge of plasma. Material and Method: To evaluate germicidal effects of plasma, the electric spark discharge device was used. After the effect of the plasma samples were collected for culture medium agar plate count. In addition to biological experiments, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was also measured. Results: The results showed that Plasma is able to inactivate a high concentration of E. coli. After a short period of plasma radiation on the surface of water, the amount log8 reduced the microbial load. Starting plasma radiation on the surface of the water, the measurements show of production and increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide in water. So that at the end of the experiment, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to about 100 mg / l increased. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is directly related to the reduction of microbial load. The results of E. coli culture in media containing certain concentrations of H2O2 showed that E. coli can not to grow in a medium containing more than 2/5 mg/l of H2O2. Surely we can say that the main cause of killing bacteria is a molecule of H2O2.

Keywords: plasma, Hydrogen Peroxide, E. coli, disinfection

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