Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Dyslexia Related Abstracts

11 Positive Psychology Intervention for Dyslexia: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Chathurika Sewwandi Kannangara, Jerome Carson

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to identify strengths among the individuals with dyslexia and design a positive psychology intervention to support such individuals. Dyslexia is a combination of abilities and difficulties that affect the learning process in areas as such reading, spelling and writing. It is a persistent condition. The research aims to adapt positive psychology techniques to support individuals with dyslexia. Population of the research will be undergraduate and college level students with dyslexia. First phase of the study will be conducted on a sample of undergraduate and college level students with dyslexia in Bolton, UK. The concept of treatment in positive psychology is not only to fix the component just what is wrong, instead it is also to develop and construct on what is right in the individual. The first phase of the research aims to identify the signature strengths among the individuals with dyslexia using Interviews, Descriptions on personal experiences on ‘My life with Dyslexia’, and Values in Action (VIA) strength survey. In order to conduct the survey for individuals with dyslexia, the VIA survey has been hosted in a website which is solely developed in the form of dyslexia friendly context. Dyslexia friendly website for surveys had designed and developed following the British Dyslexia Association guidelines. The findings of the first phase would be utilized for the second phase of the research to develop the positive psychology intervention.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Dyslexia, learning difficulties, signature strengths, qualitative study

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10 Musical Notation Reading versus Alphabet Reading-Comparison and Implications for Teaching Music Reading to Students with Dyslexia

Authors: Ora Geiger

Abstract:

Reading is a cognitive process of deciphering visual signs to produce meaning. During the reading process, written information of symbols and signs is received in the person’s eye and processed in the brain. This definition is relevant to both the reading of letters and the reading of musical notation. But while the letters of the alphabet are signs determined arbitrarily, notes are recorded systematically on a staff, with the location of each note on the staff indicating its relative pitch. In this paper, the researcher specifies the characteristics of alphabet reading in comparison to musical notation reading, and discusses the question whether a person diagnosed with dyslexia will necessarily have difficulty in reading musical notes. Dyslexia is a learning disorder that makes it difficult to acquire alphabet-reading skills due to difficulties expressed in the identification of letters, spelling, and other language deciphering skills. In order to read, one must be able to connect a symbol with a sound and to join the sounds into words. A person who has dyslexia finds it difficult to translate a graphic symbol into the sound that it represents. When teaching reading to children diagnosed with dyslexia, the multi-sensory approach, supporting the activation and involvement of most of the senses in the learning process, has been found to be particularly effective. According to this approach, when most senses participate in the reading learning process, it becomes more effective. During years of experience, the researcher, who is a music specialist, has been following the music reading learning process of elementary school age students, some of them diagnosed with Dyslexia, while studying to play soprano (descant) recorder. She argues that learning music reading while studying to play a musical instrument is a multi-sensory experience by its nature. The senses involved are: sight, hearing, touch, and the kinesthetic sense (motion), which provides the brain with information on the relative positions of the body. In this way, the learner experiences simultaneously visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic impressions. The researcher concludes that there should be no contra-indication for teaching standard music reading to children with dyslexia if an appropriate process is offered. This conclusion is based on two main characteristics of music reading: (1) musical notation system is a systematic, logical, relative set of symbols written on a staff; and (2) music reading learning connected with playing a musical instrument is by its nature a multi-sensory activity since it combines sight, hearing, touch, and movement. This paper describes music reading teaching procedures and provides unique teaching methods that have been found to be effective for students who were diagnosed with Dyslexia. It provides theoretical explanations in addition to guidelines for music education practices.

Keywords: Dyslexia, alphabet reading, multisensory teaching method, music reading, recorder playing

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9 Designing Teaching Aids for Dyslexia Students in Mathematics Multiplication

Authors: Mohini Mohamed, Nurul Huda Mas’od

Abstract:

This study was aimed at designing and developing an assistive mathematical teaching aid (courseware) in helping dyslexic students in learning multiplication. Computers and multimedia interactive courseware has benefits students in terms of increase learner’s motivation and engage them to stay on task in classroom. Most disability student has short attention span thus with the advantage offered by multimedia interactive courseware allows them to retain the learning process for longer period as compared to traditional chalk and talk method. This study was conducted in a public school at a primary level with the help of three special education teachers and six dyslexic students as participants. Qualitative methodology using interview with special education teachers and observations in classes were conducted. The development of the multimedia interactive courseware in this study was divided to three processes which were analysis and design, development and evaluation. The courseware was evaluated by using User Acceptance Survey Form and interview. Feedbacks from teachers were used to alter, correct and develop the application for a better multimedia interactive courseware.

Keywords: Dyslexia, disability students, mathematics teaching aid, multimedia interactive courseware

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8 Listening to the Voices of Teachers Who Are Dyslexic: The Careers, Professional Development, and Strategies Used by of Teachers Who Are Dyslexic

Authors: Jane Mullen

Abstract:

Little research has been undertaken on adult dyslexia and the impact it has on those who have professional careers. There are many complexities behind the career decisions people make, but for teachers who are dyslexic, it can be even more complex. Dyslexia particularly impacts on written and verbal communication, as well as planning and organisation skills which are essential skills for a teacher. As the teachers are aware of their areas of weakness many, make the conscious decision not to disclose their disability at work. In England, the reduction to three attempts to pass the compulsory English and Maths tests prior to undertaking teacher training may mean that dyslexics are now excluded from trying to enter the profession. Together with the fact that dyslexic teachers often chose to remain ‘hidden’ the situation appears to be counter to the inclusive rhetoric that dominates the current educational discourse. This paper is based on in-depth narrative research that has been undertaken with a small group of teachers who are dyslexic in England and firstly explores the strategies and resources that the teachers have found useful. The narratives of the teachers are full of difficulties as well as diversity, consequently, the paper secondly examines how life experiences have impacted on the way the teachers see their dyslexia and how it affects them professionally. Using a narrative methodology enables the teachers to tell their ‘stories’ of how they feel their dyslexia impacts on their lives professionally. The first interview centred around a limited number of semi structured questions about family background, educational experiences, career development, management roles and professional disclosure. The second interview focused on the complexities of being a teacher who is dyslexic and to ‘unlock’ some of their work based narratives visual elicitation was used. Photographs of work-based strategies, issues or concerns were sent to the researcher and these were used as the basis for discussion in the second interview. The paper concludes by discussing possible reasonable adjustments and professional development that might benefit teachers who are dyslexic.

Keywords: Professional Development, Strategies, Teachers, Dyslexia, Narrative, Life history, professional

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7 Correlation Analysis between Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS), Meares-Irlen Syndrome (MIS) and Dyslexia

Authors: Kaaryn M. Cater

Abstract:

Students with sensory processing sensitivity (SPS), Meares-Irlen Syndrome (MIS) and dyslexia can become overwhelmed and struggle to thrive in traditional tertiary learning environments. An estimated 50% of tertiary students who disclose learning related issues are dyslexic. This study explores the relationship between SPS, MIS and dyslexia. Baseline measures will be analysed to establish any correlation between these three minority methods of information processing. SPS is an innate sensitivity trait found in 15-20% of the population and has been identified in over 100 species of animals. Humans with SPS are referred to as Highly Sensitive People (HSP) and the measure of HSP is a 27 point self-test known as the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS). A 2016 study conducted by the author established base-line data for HSP students in a tertiary institution in New Zealand. The results of the study showed that all participating HSP students believed the knowledge of SPS to be life-changing and useful in managing life and study, in addition, they believed that all tutors and in-coming students should be given information on SPS. MIS is a visual processing and perception disorder that is found in approximately 10% of the population and has a variety of symptoms including visual fatigue, headaches and nausea. One way to ease some of these symptoms is through the use of colored lenses or overlays. Dyslexia is a complex phonological based information processing variation present in approximately 10% of the population. An estimated 50% of dyslexics are thought to have MIS. The study exploring possible correlations between these minority forms of information processing is due to begin in February 2017. An invitation will be extended to all first year students enrolled in degree programmes across all faculties and schools within the institution. An estimated 900 students will be eligible to participate in the study. Participants will be asked to complete a battery of on-line questionnaires including the Highly Sensitive Person Scale, the International Dyslexia Association adult self-assessment and the adapted Irlen indicator. All three scales have been used extensively in literature and have been validated among many populations. All participants whose score on any (or some) of the three questionnaires suggest a minority method of information processing will receive an invitation to meet with a learning advisor, and given access to counselling services if they choose. Meeting with a learning advisor is not mandatory, and some participants may choose not to receive help. Data will be collected using the Question Pro platform and base-line data will be analysed using correlation and regression analysis to identify relationships and predictors between SPS, MIS and dyslexia. This study forms part of a larger three year longitudinal study and participants will be required to complete questionnaires at annual intervals in subsequent years of the study until completion of (or withdrawal from) their degree. At these data collection points, participants will be questioned on any additional support received relating to their minority method(s) of information processing. Data from this study will be available by April 2017.

Keywords: Dyslexia, highly sensitive person (HSP), Meares-Irlen Syndrome (MIS), minority forms of information processing, sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)

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6 Robot Technology Impact on Dyslexic Students’ English Learning

Authors: Khaled Hamdan, Abid Amorri, Fatima Hamdan

Abstract:

Involving students in English language learning process and achieving an adequate English language proficiency in the target language can be a great challenge for both teachers and students. This can prove even a far greater challenge to engage students with special needs (Dyslexia) if they have physical impairment and inadequate mastery of basic communicative language competence/proficiency in the target language. From this perspective, technology like robots can probably be used to enhance learning process for the special needs students who have extensive communication needs, who face continuous struggle to interact with their peers and teachers and meet academic requirements. Robots, precisely NAO, can probably provide them with the perfect opportunity to practice social and communication skills, and meet their English academic requirements. This research paper aims to identify to what extent robots can be used to improve students’ social interaction and communication skills and to understand the potential for robotics-based education in motivating and engaging UAEU dyslexic students to meet university requirements. To reach this end, the paper will explore several factors that come into play – Motion Level-involving cognitive activities, Interaction Level-involving language processing, Behavior Level -establishing a close relationship with the robot and Appraisal Level- focusing on dyslexia students’ achievement in the target language.

Keywords: Interaction, Dyslexia, Motion, Robot Technology, behavior and appraisal levels, social and communication skills

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5 A Prototype of an Information and Communication Technology Based Intervention Tool for Children with Dyslexia

Authors: Rajlakshmi Guha, Sajjad Ansari, Shazia Nasreen, Hirak Banerjee, Jiaul Paik

Abstract:

Dyslexia is a neurocognitive disorder, affecting around fifteen percent of the Indian population. The symptoms include difficulty in reading alphabet, words, and sentences. This can be difficult at the phonemic or recognition level and may further affect lexical structures. Therapeutic intervention of dyslexic children post assessment is generally done by special educators and psychologists through one on one interaction. Considering the large number of children affected and the scarcity of experts, access to care is limited in India. Moreover, unavailability of resources and timely communication with caregivers add on to the problem of proper intervention. With the development of Educational Technology and its use in India, access to information and care has been improved in such a large and diverse country. In this context, this paper proposes an ICT enabled home-based intervention program for dyslexic children which would support the child, and provide an interactive interface between expert, parents, and students. The paper discusses the details of the database design and system layout of the program. Along with, it also highlights the development of different technical aids required to build out personalized android applications for the Indian dyslexic population. These technical aids include speech database creation for children, automatic speech recognition system, serious game development, and color coded fonts. The paper also emphasizes the games developed to assist the dyslexic child on cognitive training primarily for attention, working memory, and spatial reasoning. In addition, it talks about the specific elements of the interactive intervention tool that makes it effective for home based intervention of dyslexia.

Keywords: Intervention, Dyslexia, Cognitive Training, Android applications

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4 Neuropsychology of Dyslexia and Rehabilitation Approaches: A Research Study Applied to School Aged Children with Reading Disorders in Greece

Authors: Argyris Karapetsas, Rozi Laskaraki, Aikaterini Karapetsa

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the efficacy of a rehabilitation program based on musical activities, implied to a group of school-aged dyslexic children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of auditory training including musical exercises in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants and Methods: 45 third-, and fourth-grade students with DD and a matched control group (n=45) were involved in this study. In the beginning, students participated in a clinical assessment, including both electrophysiological (i.e., event related potentials (ERPs) esp.P300 waveform) and neuropsychological tests, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Initial assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant lower performance for children with DD, compared to that of the typical readers. After clinical assessment, a subgroup of children with dyslexia was submitted to a music auditory training program, conducted in 45-minute training sessions, once a week, for twenty weeks. The program included structured and digitized musical activities involving pitch, rhythm, melody and tempo perception and discrimination as well as auditory sequencing. After the intervention period, children underwent a new recording of ERPs. Results: The electrophysiological results revealed that children had similar P300 latency values to that of the controls, after the remediation program; thus children overcame their deficits. Conclusion: The outcomes of the current study suggest that ERPs is a valid clinical tool in neuropsychological assessment settings and dyslexia can be ameliorated through music auditory training.

Keywords: Music, Rehabilitation, Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, event related potentials

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3 College Faculty Perceptions of Instructional Strategies That Are Effective for Students with Dyslexia

Authors: Samantha R. Dutra

Abstract:

There are many issues that students face in college, such as academic-based struggles, financial issues, family responsibilities, and vocational problems. Students with dyslexia struggle even more with these problems compared to other students. This qualitative study examines faculty perceptions of instructing students with dyslexia. This study is important to the human services and post-secondary educational fields due to the increase in disabled students enrolled in college. This study is also substantial because of the reported bias faced by students with dyslexia and their academic failure. When students with LDs such as dyslexia experience bias, discrimination, and isolation, they are more apt to not seek accommodations, lack communication with faculty, and are more likely to drop out or fail. College students with dyslexia often take longer to complete their post-secondary education and are more likely to withdraw or drop out without earning a degree. Faculty attitudes and academic cultures are major barriers to the success and use of accommodations as well as modified instruction for students with disabilities, which leads to student success. Faculty members are often uneducated or misinformed regarding students with dyslexia. More importantly, many faculty members are unaware of the many ethical and legal implications that they face regarding accommodating students with dyslexia. Instructor expectations can generally be defined as the understanding and perceptions of students regarding their academic success. Skewed instructor expectations can affect how instructors interact with their students and can also affect student success. This is true for students with dyslexia in that instructors may have lower and biased expectations of these students and, therefore, directly impact students’ academic successes and failures. It is vital to understand how instructor attitudes affect the academic achievement of dyslexic students. This study will examine faculty perceptions of instructing students with dyslexia and faculty attitudes towards accommodations and institutional support. The literature concludes that students with dyslexia have many deficits and several learning needs. Furthermore, these are the students with the highest dropout and failure rates, as well as the lowest retention rates. Disabled students generally have many reasons why accommodations and supports just do not help. Some research suggests that accommodations do help students and show positive outcomes. Many improvements need to be made between student support service personnel, faculty, and administrators regarding providing access and adequate supports for students with dyslexia. As the research also suggests, providing more efficient and effective accommodations may increase positive student as well as faculty attitudes in college, and may improve student outcomes overall.

Keywords: Higher Education, Dyslexia, Learning disability, faculty perception

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2 Neuropsychological Assessment and Rehabilitation Settings for Developmental Dyslexia in Children in Greece. The Use of Music at Intervention Protocols.

Authors: Maria Bampou, Aikaterini Karapetsa, Argyris Karapetsas, Rozi Laskaraki, Valentini Vamvaka

Abstract:

The main aim of the current protocol is the contribution of Neuropsychology in both Assessment and Rehabilitation settings for children with Dyslexia. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant role of Neuropsychological Assessment including both Psychometric and Electrophysiological tests as well as to investigate the effectiveness of an Auditory Training program, designed via Music designed for children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD). Materials: In our study participated 45 third-, and fourth-grade students with DD and a matched control group (n=45). Method: At the first phase of the protocol, children underwent a clinical assessment, including both Electrophysiological [i.e. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) esp. P300 waveform] and Psychometric tests, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant lower performance for children with DD for all tests, compared to the typical readers of the control group. After evaluation, a subgroup of children with DD participated in a Rehabilitation Program including digitized musical auditory training activities. Results: The electrophysiological recordings after the intervention revealed shorter, almost similar, P300 latency values for children with DD to those of the control group, indicating the beneficial effects of the Intervention, thus enabling children develop reading skills and become successful readers. Discussion: Similar research data confirm the crucial role of Neuropsychology in both Diagnosis and Treatment of common disorders, observed in children. Indeed, as for DD, there is growing evidence that brain activity dysfunction does occur, as it is confirmed by Neuropsychological Assessment and also musical auditory training may have remedial effects. Conclusions: The outcomes of the current study suggest that due to the neurobiological origin of DD, Neuropsychology may give the means in both Neuropsychological Assessment and Rehabilitation, enabling professionals to cope with cerebral dysfunction and recovery more efficiently.

Keywords: Music, Rehabilitation, Neuropsychology, Diagnosis, Dyslexia, ERPs

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1 A Quantitative Study Identifying the Prevalence of Anxiety in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones

Abstract:

-Adult students with dyslexia in higher education can receive support for their cognitive needs but may also experience negative emotion such as anxiety due to their dyslexia in connection with their studies. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that adult dyslexic learners have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers. A quantitative approach was used to measure differences in academic and social anxiety between 102 students with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia compared to 72 students with no history of learning difficulties. Academic and social anxiety was measured in a questionnaire based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Findings showed that dyslexic students showed statistically significant higher levels of academic, but not social anxiety in comparison to the non-dyslexic sample. Dyslexic students in higher education show academic anxiety levels that are well above what is shown by students without dyslexia. The implications of this for the dyslexia practitioner is that delivery of strategies to deal with anxiety should be seen equally as important, if not more so, than interventions to deal with cognitive difficulties.

Keywords: Quantitative, Anxiety, Academic, Dyslexia

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