Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

dynamic simulation Related Abstracts

7 Pigging Operation in Two-Phase Flow Pipeline- Empirical and Simulation

Authors: Behnaz Jamshidi, Seyed Hassan Hashemabadi


The main objective of this study is to investigate on pigging operation of two phase flow pipeline and compare the empirical and simulation results for 108 km long , 0.7934 mm (32 inches) diameter sea line of "Phase 1 South Pars Gas Complex", located in south of Iran. The pigging time, pig velocity, the amount of slug and slug catcher pressure were calculated and monitored closely as the key parameters. Simulation was done by "OLGA" dynamic simulation software and obtained results were compared and validated with empirical data in real operation. The relative errors between empirical data and simulation of the process were 3 % and 9 % for pigging time and accumulated slug volume respectively. Simulated pig velocity and changes of slug catcher pressure were consistent with real values, too. It was also found the slug catcher and condensate stabilization units have been adequately sized for gas-liquid separation and handle the slug batch during transient conditions such as pigging and start up.

Keywords: sea line, pigging, slug catcher, two-phase flow, dynamic simulation

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6 Dynamic Simulation of Disintegration of Wood Chips Caused by Impact and Collisions during the Steam Explosion Pre-Treatment

Authors: Muhammad Muzamal, Anders Rasmuson


Wood material is extensively considered as a raw material for the production of bio-polymers, bio-fuels and value-added chemicals. However, the shortcoming in using wood as raw material is that the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood material is difficult because the accessibility of enzymes to hemicelluloses and cellulose is hindered by complex chemical and physical structure of the wood. The steam explosion (SE) pre-treatment improves the digestion of wood material by creating both chemical and physical modifications in wood. In this process, first, wood chips are treated with steam at high pressure and temperature for a certain time in a steam treatment vessel. During this time, the chemical linkages between lignin and polysaccharides are cleaved and stiffness of material decreases. Then the steam discharge valve is rapidly opened and the steam and wood chips exit the vessel at very high speed. These fast moving wood chips collide with each other and with walls of the equipment and disintegrate to small pieces. More damaged and disintegrated wood have larger surface area and increased accessibility to hemicelluloses and cellulose. The energy required for an increase in specific surface area by same value is 70 % more in conventional mechanical technique, i.e. attrition mill as compared to steam explosion process. The mechanism of wood disintegration during the SE pre-treatment is very little studied. In this study, we have simulated collision and impact of wood chips (dimension 20 mm x 20 mm x 4 mm) with each other and with walls of the vessel. The wood chips are simulated as a 3D orthotropic material. Damage and fracture in the wood material have been modelled using 3D Hashin’s damage model. This has been accomplished by developing a user-defined subroutine and implementing it in the FE software ABAQUS. The elastic and strength properties used for simulation are of spruce wood at 12% and 30 % moisture content and at 20 and 160 OC because the impacted wood chips are pre-treated with steam at high temperature and pressure. We have simulated several cases to study the effects of elastic and strength properties of wood, velocity of moving chip and orientation of wood chip at the time of impact on the damage in the wood chips. The disintegration patterns captured by simulations are very similar to those observed in experimentally obtained steam exploded wood. Simulation results show that the wood chips moving with higher velocity disintegrate more. Moisture contents and temperature decreases elastic properties and increases damage. Impact and collision in specific directions cause easy disintegration. This model can be used to efficiently design the steam explosion equipment.

Keywords: Impact, dynamic simulation, disintegration of wood, steam explosion pretreatment

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5 Model-Based Diagnostics of Multiple Tooth Cracks in Spur Gears

Authors: Sadok Sassi, Ahmed Saeed Mohamed, Mohammad Roshun Paurobally


Gears are important machine components that are widely used to transmit power and change speed in many rotating machines. Any breakdown of these vital components may cause severe disturbance to production and incur heavy financial losses. One of the most common causes of gear failure is the tooth fatigue crack. Early detection of teeth cracks is still a challenging task for engineers and maintenance personnel. So far, to analyze the vibration behavior of gears, different approaches have been tried based on theoretical developments, numerical simulations, or experimental investigations. The objective of this study was to develop a numerical model that could be used to simulate the effect of teeth cracks on the resulting vibrations and hence to permit early fault detection for gear transmission systems. Unlike the majority of published papers, where only one single crack has been considered, this work is more realistic, since it incorporates the possibility of multiple simultaneous cracks with different lengths. As cracks significantly alter the gear mesh stiffness, we performed a finite element analysis using SolidWorks software to determine the stiffness variation with respect to the angular position for different combinations of crack lengths. A simplified six degrees of freedom non-linear lumped parameter model of a one-stage gear system is proposed to study the vibration of a pair of spur gears, with and without tooth cracks. The model takes several physical properties into account, including variable gear mesh stiffness and the effect of friction, but ignores the lubrication effect. The vibration simulation results of the gearbox were obtained via Matlab and Simulink. The results were found to be consistent with the results from previously published works. The effect of one crack with different levels was studied and very similar changes in the total mesh stiffness and the vibration response, both were observed and compared to what has been found in previous studies. The effect of the crack length on various statistical time domain parameters was considered and the results show that these parameters were not equally sensitive to the crack percentage. Multiple cracks are introduced at different locations and the vibration response and the statistical parameters were obtained.

Keywords: dynamic simulation, spur gear, gear mesh stiffness, simultaneous tooth cracks, vibration-based fault detection

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4 Assessment of Multi-Domain Energy Systems Modelling Methods

Authors: M. Stewart, Ameer Al-Khaykan, J. M. Counsell


Emissions are a consequence of electricity generation. A major option for low carbon generation, local energy systems featuring Combined Heat and Power with solar PV (CHPV) has significant potential to increase energy performance, increase resilience, and offer greater control of local energy prices while complementing the UK’s emissions standards and targets. Recent advances in dynamic modelling and simulation of buildings and clusters of buildings using the IDEAS framework have successfully validated a novel multi-vector (simultaneous control of both heat and electricity) approach to integrating the wide range of primary and secondary plant typical of local energy systems designs including CHP, solar PV, gas boilers, absorption chillers and thermal energy storage, and associated electrical and hot water networks, all operating under a single unified control strategy. Results from this work indicate through simulation that integrated control of thermal storage can have a pivotal role in optimizing system performance well beyond the present expectations. Environmental impact analysis and reporting of all energy systems including CHPV LES presently employ a static annual average carbon emissions intensity for grid supplied electricity. This paper focuses on establishing and validating CHPV environmental performance against conventional emissions values and assessment benchmarks to analyze emissions performance without and with an active thermal store in a notional group of non-domestic buildings. Results of this analysis are presented and discussed in context of performance validation and quantifying the reduced environmental impact of CHPV systems with active energy storage in comparison with conventional LES designs.

Keywords: Control, Thermal Storage, dynamic simulation, CHPV

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3 Simulation-Based Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality and Comfort Control in Non-Residential Buildings

Authors: Torsten Schwan, Rene Unger


Simulation of thermal and electrical building performance more and more becomes part of an integrative planning process. Increasing requirements on energy efficiency, the integration of volatile renewable energy, smart control and storage management often cause tremendous challenges for building engineers and architects. This mainly affects commercial or non-residential buildings. Their energy consumption characteristics significantly distinguish from residential ones. This work focuses on the many-objective optimization problem indoor air quality and comfort, especially in non-residential buildings. Based on a brief description of intermediate dependencies between different requirements on indoor air treatment it extends existing Modelica-based building physics models with additional system states to adequately represent indoor air conditions. Interfaces to corresponding HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system and control models enable closed-loop analyzes of occupants' requirements and energy efficiency as well as profitableness aspects. A complex application scenario of a nearly-zero-energy school building shows advantages of presented evaluation process for engineers and architects. This way, clear identification of air quality requirements in individual rooms together with realistic model-based description of occupants' behavior helps to optimize HVAC system already in early design stages. Building planning processes can be highly improved and accelerated by increasing integration of advanced simulation methods. Those methods mainly provide suitable answers on engineers' and architects' questions regarding more exuberant and complex variety of suitable energy supply solutions.

Keywords: non-residential buildings, Indoor Air Quality, dynamic simulation, energy efficient control

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2 Dynamic Simulation for Surface Wear Prognosis of the Main Bearings in the Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Yanyan Zhang, Ziyu Diao, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan


The wear character of the main bearing is one of the critical indicators for the overhaul of an internal combustion engine, and the aim of this paper is to reveal the dynamic wear mechanism of the main bearings. A numerical simulation model combined multi-body dynamic equations of the engine, the average Reynolds equations of the bearing lubricant, asperity contact and wear model of the joint surfaces were established under typical operating conditions. The wear results were verified by experimental data, and then the influence of operating conditions, bearing clearance and cylinder pressure on the wear character of selected main bearings were analyzed. The results show that the contribution degree of different working conditions on the wear profile and depth of each bearing is obviously different, and the increase of joint clearance or cylinder pressure will accelerate the wear. The numerical model presented can be used to wear prognosis for joints and provide guidance for optimization design of sliding bearings.

Keywords: Multi-body dynamics, dynamic simulation, sliding bearing, surface wear

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1 Optimization Process for Ride Quality of a Nonlinear Suspension Model Based on Newton-Euler’ Augmented Formulation

Authors: Mohamed Belhorma, Aboubakar S. Bouchikhi, Belkacem Bounab


This paper addresses modeling a Double A-Arm suspension, a three-dimensional nonlinear model has been developed using the multibody systems formalism. Dynamical study of the different components responses was done, particularly for the wheel assembly. To validate those results, the system was constructed and simulated by RecurDyn, a professional multibody dynamics simulation software. The model has been used as the Objectif function in an optimization algorithm for ride quality improvement.

Keywords: dynamic simulation, double A-Arm suspension, multibody systems, ride quality optimization

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