Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Dynamic Related Abstracts

15 The Dynamics of Microorganisms in Dried Yogurt Storages at Different Temperatures

Authors: Jaruwan Chutrtong


Yoghurt is a fermented milk product. The process of making yogurt involves fermenting milk with live and active bacterial cultures by adding bacteria directly to the dairy product. It is usually made with a culture of Lactobacillus sp. (L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus. Many people like to eat it plain or flavored and it's also use as ingredient in many dishes. Yogurt is rich in nutrients including the microorganism which have important role in balancing the digestion and absorption of the boy.Consumers will benefit from lactic acid bacteria more or less depending on the amount of bacteria that lives in yogurt while eating. When purchasing yogurt, consumers should always check the label for live cultures. Yoghurt must keep in refrigerator at 4°C for up to ten days. After this amount of time, the cultures often become weak. This research studied freezing dry yogurt storage by monitoring on the survival of microorganisms when stored at different temperatures. At 300°C, representative room temperature of country in equator zone, number of lactic acid bacteria reduced 4 log cycles in 10 week. At 400°C, representative temperature in summer of country in equator zone, number of lactic acid bacteria also dropped 4 log cycle in 10 week, similar as storage at 300°C. But drying yogurt storage at 400°C couldn’t reformed to be good character yogurt as good as storage at 400°C only 4 week storage too. After 1 month, it couldn’t bring back the yogurt form. So if it is inevitable to keep yogurt powder at a temperature of 40°C, yoghurt is maintained only up to 4 weeks.

Keywords: Dynamic, Storage, temperature, dry yoghurt

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
14 Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability

Authors: Aizreena Azaman, Mai Ishibashi, Masanori Ishizawa, Shin-Ichiroh Yamamoto


Sensory input plays an important role to human posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test (Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore, four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to predict unbalance situation faced by human.

Keywords: Dynamic, Adaptation, sensory, balance ability, joint stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
13 Stress Study in Implants Dental

Authors: B. Serier, M. Benlebna, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, S. Khalkhal


This study focuses on the mechanical behavior of a dental prosthesis subjected to dynamic loads chewing. It covers a three-dimensional analysis by the finite element method, the level of distribution of equivalent stresses induced in the bone between the implants (depending on the number of implants). The studied structure, consisting of a braced, implant and mandibular bone is subjected to dynamic loading of variable amplitude in three directions corrono-apical, mesial-distal and bucco-lingual. These efforts simulate those of mastication. We show that compared to the implantation of a single implant, implantology using two implants promotes the weakening of the bones. This weakness is all the more likely that the implants are located in close proximity to one another.

Keywords: Bone, Distribution, Dynamic, Interaction, stress, prosthesis, Dental Implant, stress levels, effort

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
12 Automatic Classification Using Dynamic Fuzzy C Means Algorithm and Mathematical Morphology: Application in 3D MRI Image

Authors: Abdelkhalek Bakkari


Image segmentation is a critical step in image processing and pattern recognition. In this paper, we proposed a new robust automatic image classification based on a dynamic fuzzy c-means algorithm and mathematical morphology. The proposed segmentation algorithm (DFCM_MM) has been applied to MR perfusion images. The obtained results show the validity and robustness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Dynamic, Segmentation, classification, fuzzy c-means, MR image

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
11 The Consequences of Vibrations in Machining

Authors: Belaidi Idir, Boughedaoui Rachid, Ouali Mohamed


The formatting by removal of material remains an indispensable means for obtaining different forms of pieces. The objective of this work is to study the influence of parameters of the vibratory regime of the system PTM 'Piece-Tool-Machine, in the case of the machining of the thin pieces on the surface finish. As a first step, an analytical study of essential dynamic models 2D slice will be presented. The stability lobes will be thus obtained. In a second step, a characterization of PTM system will be realized. This system will be instrumented with accelerometric sensors but also a laser vibrometer so as to have the information closer to the cutting area. Dynamometers three components will be used for the analysis of cutting forces. Surface states will be measured and the condition of the cutting edge will be visualized thanks to a binocular microscope coupled to a data acquisition system. This information will allow quantifying the influence of chatter on the dimensional quality of the parts. From lobes stabilities previously determined experimental validation allow for the development a method for detecting of the phenomenon of chatter and so an approach will be proposed.

Keywords: Dynamic, Milling, chatter, lobe stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
10 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro- Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: A. M. Wahab, E. Rustighi


Elastomeric dielectric material has recently become a new alternative for actuator technology. The characteristics of dielectric elastomers placed between two electrodes to withstand large strain when electrodes are charged has attracted the attention of many researcher to study this material for actuator technology. Thus, in the past few years Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their own dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which was called PolyPower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dynamic characteristics for vibration control of a PolyPower actuator folded in ‘pull’ configuration. A range of experiments was carried out on the folded actuator including passive (without electrical load) and active (with electrical load) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiments show that the DEAP folded actuator is a non-linear system. It is also shown that the voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency. Finally, varying AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency shows the parameters that influence the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: Dynamic, Electromechanical, Static, dielectric electro-active polymer, pull actuator

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
9 Dynamic Two-Way FSI Simulation for a Blade of a Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Alberto Jiménez-Vargas, Manuel de Jesús Palacios-Gallegos, Miguel Ángel Hernández-López, Rafael Campos-Amezcua, Julio Cesar Solís-Sanchez


An optimal wind turbine blade design must be able of capturing as much energy as possible from the wind source available at the area of interest. Many times, an optimal design means the use of large quantities of material and complicated processes that make the wind turbine more expensive, and therefore, less cost-effective. For the construction and installation of a wind turbine, the blades may cost up to 20% of the outline pricing, and become more important due to they are part of the rotor system that is in charge of transmitting the energy from the wind to the power train, and where the static and dynamic design loads for the whole wind turbine are produced. The aim of this work is the develop of a blade fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation that allows the identification of the major damage zones during the normal production situation, and thus better decisions for design and optimization can be taken. The simulation is a dynamic case, since we have a time-history wind velocity as inlet condition instead of a constant wind velocity. The process begins with the free-use software NuMAD (NREL), to model the blade and assign material properties to the blade, then the 3D model is exported to ANSYS Workbench platform where before setting the FSI system, a modal analysis is made for identification of natural frequencies and modal shapes. FSI analysis is carried out with the two-way technic which begins with a CFD simulation to obtain the pressure distribution on the blade surface, then these results are used as boundary condition for the FEA simulation to obtain the deformation levels for the first time-step. For the second time-step, CFD simulation is reconfigured automatically with the next time-step inlet wind velocity and the deformation results from the previous time-step. The analysis continues the iterative cycle solving time-step by time-step until the entire load case is completed. This work is part of a set of projects that are managed by a national consortium called “CEMIE-Eólico” (Mexican Center in Wind Energy Research), created for strengthen technological and scientific capacities, the promotion of creation of specialized human resources, and to link the academic with private sector in national territory. The analysis belongs to the design of a rotor system for a 5 kW wind turbine design thought to be installed at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Keywords: Dynamic, Wind turbine, blade, FSI

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
8 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Microcantilever Beam

Authors: S. B. Kerur, B. S. Murgayya


The development of micro and nano particle is challenging task and the study of the behavior of material at the micro level is gaining importance as their behavior at micro/nano level is different. These micro particle are being used as a sensing element to measure and detects the hazardous chemical, gases, explosives and biological agents. In the present study, finite element method is used for static and dynamic analysis of simple and composite cantilever beams of different shapes. The present FE model is validated with available analytical results and various parameters like shape, materials properties, damped and undamped conditions are considered for the numerical study. The results show the effects of shape change on the natural frequency and as these are used with fluid for chemical applications, the effect of damping due to viscous nature of fluid are simulated by considering different damping coefficient effect on the dynamic behavior of cantilever beams. The obtained results show the effect of these parameters can be effectively utilized based on system requirements.

Keywords: Dynamic, Micro, FEM, cantilever beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
7 Dynamic Exergy Analysis for the Built Environment: Fixed or Variable Reference State

Authors: Valentina Bonetti


Exergy analysis successfully helps optimizing processes in various sectors. In the built environment, a second-law approach can enhance potential interactions between constructions and their surrounding environment and minimise fossil fuel requirements. Despite the research done in this field in the last decades, practical applications are hard to encounter, and few integrated exergy simulators are available for building designers. Undoubtedly, an obstacle for the diffusion of exergy methods is the strong dependency of results on the definition of its 'reference state', a highly controversial issue. Since exergy is the combination of energy and entropy by means of a reference state (also called "reference environment", or "dead state"), the reference choice is crucial. Compared to other classical applications, buildings present two challenging elements: They operate very near to the reference state, which means that small variations have relevant impacts, and their behaviour is dynamical in nature. Not surprisingly then, the reference state definition for the built environment is still debated, especially in the case of dynamic assessments. Among the several characteristics that need to be defined, a crucial decision for a dynamic analysis is between a fixed reference environment (constant in time) and a variable state, which fluctuations follow the local climate. Even if the latter selection is prevailing in research, and recommended by recent and widely-diffused guidelines, the fixed reference has been analytically demonstrated as the only choice which defines exergy as a proper function of the state in a fluctuating environment. This study investigates the impact of that crucial choice: Fixed or variable reference. The basic element of the building energy chain, the envelope, is chosen as the object of investigation as common to any building analysis. Exergy fluctuations in the building envelope of a case study (a typical house located in a Mediterranean climate) are confronted for each time-step of a significant summer day, when the building behaviour is highly dynamical. Exergy efficiencies and fluxes are not familiar numbers, and thus, the more easy-to-imagine concept of exergy storage is used to summarize the results. Trends obtained with a fixed and a variable reference (outside air) are compared, and their meaning is discussed under the light of the underpinning dynamical energy analysis. As a conclusion, a fixed reference state is considered the best choice for dynamic exergy analysis. Even if the fixed reference is generally only contemplated as a simpler selection, and the variable state is often stated as more accurate without explicit justifications, the analytical considerations supporting the adoption of a fixed reference are confirmed by the usefulness and clarity of interpretation of its results. Further discussion is needed to address the conflict between the evidence supporting a fixed reference state and the wide adoption of a fluctuating one. A more robust theoretical framework, including selection criteria of the reference state for dynamical simulations, could push the development of integrated dynamic tools and thus spread exergy analysis for the built environment across the common practice.

Keywords: Building, Dynamic, Exergy, reference state

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
6 A Study of Life Expectancy in an Urban Set up of North-Eastern India under Dynamic Consideration Incorporating Cause Specific Mortality

Authors: Mompi Sharma, Labananda Choudhury, Anjana M. Saikia


Background: The period life table is entirely based on the assumption that the mortality patterns of the population existing in the given period will persist throughout their lives. However, it has been observed that the mortality rate continues to decline. As such, if the rates of change of probabilities of death are considered in a life table then we get a dynamic life table. Although, mortality has been declining in all parts of India, one may be interested to know whether these declines had appeared more in an urban area of underdeveloped regions like North-Eastern India. So, attempt has been made to know the mortality pattern and the life expectancy under dynamic scenario in Guwahati, the biggest city of North Eastern India. Further, if the probabilities of death changes then there is a possibility that its different constituent probabilities will also change. Since cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Guwahati. Therefore, an attempt has also been made to formulate dynamic cause specific death ratio and probabilities of death due to CVD. Objectives: To construct dynamic life table for Guwahati for the year 2011 based on the rates of change of probabilities of death over the previous 10 and 25 years (i.e.,2001 and 1986) and to compute corresponding dynamic cause specific death ratio and probabilities of death due to CVD. Methodology and Data: The study uses the method proposed by Denton and Spencer (2011) to construct dynamic life table for Guwahati. So, the data from the Office of the Birth and Death, Guwahati Municipal Corporation for the years 1986, 2001 and 2011 are taken. The population based data are taken from 2001 and 2011 census (India). However, the population data for 1986 has been estimated. Also, the cause of death ratio and probabilities of death due to CVD are computed for the aforementioned years and then extended to dynamic set up for the year 2011 by considering the rates of change of those probabilities over the previous 10 and 25 years. Findings: The dynamic life expectancy at birth (LEB) for Guwahati is found to be higher than the corresponding values in the period table by 3.28 (5.65) years for males and 8.30 (6.37) years for females during the period of 10 (25) years. The life expectancies under dynamic consideration in all the other age groups are also seen higher than the usual life expectancies, which may be possible due to gradual decline in probabilities of death since 1986-2011. Further, a continuous decline has also been observed in death ratio due to CVD along with cause specific probabilities of death for both sexes. As a consequence, dynamic cause of death probability due to CVD is found to be less in comparison to usual procedure. Conclusion: Since incorporation of changing mortality rates in period life table for Guwahati resulted in higher life expectancies and lower probabilities of death due to CVD, this would possibly bring out the real situation of deaths prevailing in the city.

Keywords: Dynamic, Life Expectancy, cause specific death ratio, cause specific probabilities of death

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
5 Remote Sensing and Gis Use in Trends of Urbanization and Regional Planning

Authors: Sawan Kumar Jangid


The paper attempts to study various facets of urbanization and regional planning in the framework of the present conditions and future needs. Urbanization is a dynamic system in which development and changes are prominent features; which implies population growth and changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary sector in the economy. Urban population is increasing day by day due to a natural increase in population and migration from rural areas, and the impact is bound to have in urban areas in terms of infrastructure, environment, water supply and other vital resources. For the organized way of planning and monitoring the implementation of Physical urban and regional plans high-resolution satellite imagery is the potential solution. Now the Remote Sensing data is widely used in urban as well as regional planning, infrastructure planning mainly telecommunication and transport network planning, highway development, accessibility to market area development in terms of catchment and population built-up area density. With Remote Sensing it is possible to identify urban growth, which falls outside the formal planning control. Remote Sensing and GIS technique combined together facilitate the planners, in making a decision, for general public and investors to have relevant data for their use in minimum time. This paper sketches out the Urbanization modal for the future development of Urban and Regional Planning. The paper suggests, a dynamic approach towards regional development strategy.

Keywords: Migration, Development, Dynamic, Resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
4 Finite Element Analysis and Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Industrial Robot

Authors: Rahul Arora, S. S. Dhami


This paper implements the design structure of industrial robot along with the different transmission components like gear assembly and analysis of complete industrial robot. In this paper, it gives the overview on the most efficient types of modeling and different analysis results that can be obtained for an industrial robot. The investigation is executed in regards to two classifications i.e. the deformation and the stress tests. SolidWorks is utilized to design and review the 3D drawing plan while ANSYS Workbench is utilized to execute the FEA on an industrial robot and the designed component. The CAD evaluation was conducted on a disentangled model of an industrial robot. The study includes design and drafting its transmission system. In CAE study static, modal and dynamic analysis are presented. Every one of the outcomes is divided in regard with the impact of the static and dynamic analysis on the situating exactness of the robot. It gives critical data with respect to parts of the industrial robot that are inclined to harm under higher high force applications. Therefore, the mechanical structure under different operating conditions can help in optimizing the manipulator geometry and in selecting the right material for the same. The FEA analysis is conducted for four different materials on the same industrial robot and gear assembly.

Keywords: Dynamic, Robot, CAD, cae, FEA, Static, modal, gear assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
3 Impact of Contemporary Performance Measurement System and Organization Justice on Academic Staff Work Performance

Authors: Amizawati Mohd Amir, Ruhanita Maelah, Zaidi Mohd Noor


As part of the Malaysia Higher Institutions' Strategic Plan in promoting high-quality research and education, the Ministry of Higher Education has introduced various instrument to assess the universities performance. The aims are that university will produce more commercially-oriented research and continue to contribute in producing professional workforce for domestic and foreign needs. Yet the spirit of the success lies in the commitment of university particularly the academic staff to translate the vision into reality. For that reason, the element of fairness and justice in assessing individual academic staff performance is crucial to promote directly linked between university and individual work goals. Focusing on public research universities (RUs) in Malaysia, this study observes at the issue through the practice of university contemporary performance measurement system. Accordingly management control theory has conceptualized that contemporary performance measurement consisting of three dimension namely strategic, comprehensive and dynamic building upon equity theory, the relationships between contemporary performance measurement system and organizational justice and in turn the effect on academic staff work performance are tested based on online survey data administered on 365 academic staff from public RUs, which were analyzed using statistics analysis SPSS and Equation Structure Modeling. The findings validated the presence of strategic, comprehensive and dynamic in the contemporary performance measurement system. The empirical evidence also indicated that contemporary performance measure and procedural justice are significantly associated with work performance but not for distributive justice. Furthermore, procedural justice does mediate the relationship between contemporary performance measurement and academic staff work performance. Evidently, this study provides evidence on the importance of perceptions of justice towards influencing academic staff work performance. This finding may be a fruitful input in the setting up academic staff performance assessment policy.

Keywords: Dynamic, Strategic, Distributive Justice, work performance, comprehensive, contemporary performance measurement system, procedure justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2 High-Frequency Monitoring Results of a Piled Raft Foundation under Wind Loading

Authors: Laurent Pitteloud, Jörg Meier


Piled raft foundations represent an efficient and reliable technique for transferring high vertical and horizontal loads to the subsoil. Piled raft foundations were success­fully implemented for several high-rise buildings world­wide over the last decades. For the structural design of this foundation type the stiffnesses of both the piles and the raft have to be deter­mined for the static (e.g. dead load, live load) and the dynamic load cases (e.g. earthquake). In this context the question often arises, to which proportion wind loads are to be considered as dynamic loads. Usually a piled raft foundation has to be monitored in order to verify the design hypotheses. As an additional benefit, the analysis of this monitoring data may lead to a better under­standing of the behaviour of this foundation type for future projects in similar subsoil conditions. In case the measurement frequency is high enough, one may also draw conclusions on the effect of wind loading on the piled raft foundation. For a 41-storey office building in Basel, Switzerland, the preliminary design showed that a piled raft foundation was the best solution to satisfy both design requirements, as well as economic aspects. A high-frequency monitoring of the foundation including pile loads, vertical stresses under the raft, as well as pore water pressures was performed over 5 years. In windy situations the analysis of the measure­ments shows that the pile load increment due to wind consists of a static and a cyclic load term. As piles and raft react with different stiffnesses under static and dynamic loading, these measure­ments are useful for the correct definition of stiffnesses of future piled raft foundations. This paper outlines the design strategy and the numerical modelling of the aforementioned piled raft foundation. The measurement results are presented and analysed. Based on the findings, comments and conclusions on the definition of pile and raft stiffnesses for vertical and wind loading are proposed.

Keywords: Design, Dynamic, monitoring, foundation, wind load, pile, raft

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1 Dynamic Environmental Impact Study during the Construction of the French Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: A. Er-Raki, D. Hartmann, J. P. Belaud, S. Negny


This paper has a double purpose: firstly, a literature review of the life cycle analysis (LCA) and secondly a comparison between conventional (static) LCA and multi-level dynamic LCA on the following items: (i) inventories evolution with time (ii) temporal evolution of the databases. The first part of the paper summarizes the state of the art of the static LCA approach. The different static LCA limits have been identified and especially the non-consideration of the spatial and temporal evolution in the inventory, for the characterization factors (FCs) and into the databases. Then a description of the different levels of integration of the notion of temporality in life cycle analysis studies was made. In the second part, the dynamic inventory has been evaluated firstly for a single nuclear plant and secondly for the entire French nuclear power fleet by taking into account the construction durations of all the plants. In addition, the databases have been adapted by integrating the temporal variability of the French energy mix. Several iterations were used to converge towards the real environmental impact of the energy mix. Another adaptation of the databases to take into account the temporal evolution of the market data of the raw material was made. An identification of the energy mix of the time studied was based on an extrapolation of the production reference values of each means of production. An application to the construction of the French nuclear power plants from 1971 to 2000 has been performed, in which a dynamic inventory of raw material has been evaluated. Then the impacts were characterized by the ILCD 2011 characterization method. In order to compare with a purely static approach, a static impact assessment was made with the V 3.4 Ecoinvent data sheets without adaptation and a static inventory considering that all the power stations would have been built at the same time. Finally, a comparison between static and dynamic LCA approaches was set up to determine the gap between them for each of the two levels of integration. The results were analyzed to identify the contribution of the evolving nuclear power fleet construction to the total environmental impacts of the French energy mix during the same period. An equivalent strategy using a dynamic approach will further be applied to identify the environmental impacts that different scenarios of the energy transition could bring, allowing to choose the best energy mix from an environmental viewpoint.

Keywords: Nuclear Energy, Construction, Dynamic, Inventory, Energy Transition, Energy Mix, Static, LCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 5