Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Dynamic Analysis Related Abstracts

24 Investigating the Behaviour of Composite Floors (Steel Beams and Concrete Slabs) under Mans Rhythmical Movement

Authors: M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, Ali Rahmani, V. Sadeghi Balkanlou, M. Ali Lotfollahi Yaghin


Structural engineers have long been trying to develop solutions using the full potential of its composing materials. Therefore, there is no doubt that the structural solution progress is directly related to an increase in materials science knowledge. These efforts in conjunction with up-to-date modern construction techniques have led to an extensive use of composite floors in large span structures. On the other hand, the competitive trends of the world market have long been forcing structural engineers to develop minimum weight and labour cost solutions. A direct consequence of this new design trend is a considerable increase in problems related to unwanted floor vibrations. For this reason, the structural floors systems become vulnerable to excessive vibrations produced by impacts such as human rhythmic activities. The main objective of this paper is to present an analysis methodology for the evaluation of the composite floors human comfort. This procedure takes into account a more realistic loading model developed to incorporate the dynamic effects induced by human walking. The investigated structural models were based on various composite floors, with main spans varying from 5 to 10 m. based on an extensive parametric study the composite floors dynamic response, in terms of peak accelerations, was obtained and compared to the limiting values proposed by several authors and design standards. This strategy was adopted to provide a more realistic evaluation for this type of structure when subjected to vibration due to human walking.

Keywords: Vibration, Resonance, Dynamic Analysis, composite floors, people’s rhythmic movement, Abaqus software

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23 Dynamic Analysis of Transmission Line Towers

Authors: L. Srikanth, D. Neelima Satyam


The transmission line towers are one of the important life line structures in the distribution of power from the source to the various places for several purposes. The predominant external loads which act on these towers are wind and earthquake loads. In this present study tower is analyzed using Indian Standards IS: 875:1987 (Wind Load), IS: 802:1995 (Structural Steel), IS:1893:2002 (Earthquake) and dynamic analysis of tower has been performed considering ground motion of 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (India). The dynamic analysis was performed considering a tower system consisting two towers spaced 800m apart and 35m height each. This analysis has been performed using numerical time stepping finite difference method which is central difference method were employed by a developed MATLAB program to get the normalized ground motion parameters includes acceleration, frequency, velocity which are important in designing the tower. The tower is analyzed using response spectrum analysis.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, response spectra, central difference method, transmission tower

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22 Structural Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: C. Amer, M. Sahin


The design of an optimised horizontal axis 5-meter-long wind turbine rotor blade in according with IEC 61400-2 standard is a research and development project in order to fulfil the requirements of high efficiency of torque from wind production and to optimise the structural components to the lightest and strongest way possible. For this purpose, a research study is presented here by focusing on the structural characteristics of a composite wind turbine blade via finite element modelling and analysis tools. In this work, first, the required data regarding the general geometrical parts are gathered. Then, the airfoil geometries are created at various sections along the span of the blade by using CATIA software to obtain the two surfaces, namely; the suction and the pressure side of the blade in which there is a hat shaped fibre reinforced plastic spar beam, so-called chassis starting at 0.5m from the root of the blade and extends up to 4 m and filled with a foam core. The root part connecting the blade to the main rotor differential metallic hub having twelve hollow threaded studs is then modelled. The materials are assigned as two different types of glass fabrics, polymeric foam core material and the steel-balsa wood combination for the root connection parts. The glass fabrics are applied using hand wet lay-up lamination with epoxy resin as METYX L600E10C-0, is the unidirectional continuous fibres and METYX XL800E10F having a tri-axial architecture with fibres in the 0,+45,-45 degree orientations in a ratio of 2:1:1. Divinycell H45 is used as the polymeric foam. The finite element modelling of the blade is performed via MSC PATRAN software with various meshes created on each structural part considering shell type for all surface geometries, and lumped mass were added to simulate extra adhesive locations. For the static analysis, the boundary conditions are assigned as fixed at the root through aforementioned bolts, where for dynamic analysis both fixed-free and free-free boundary conditions are made. By also taking the mesh independency into account, MSC NASTRAN is used as a solver for both analyses. The static analysis aims the tip deflection of the blade under its own weight and the dynamic analysis comprises normal mode dynamic analysis performed in order to obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes focusing the first five in and out-of-plane bending and the torsional modes of the blade. The analyses results of this study are then used as a benchmark prior to modal testing, where the experiments over the produced wind turbine rotor blade has approved the analytical calculations.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Fiber Reinforced Composites, horizontal axis wind turbine blade, hand-wet layup, modal testing

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21 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: S. K. Madan, R. S. Malik, V. K. Sehgal


Reinforced concrete (RCC) buildings with dual system consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames or braces and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The two dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of the combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied therefore has practically no work to refer to. The combination may prove to be more effective in lateral load resistance by employing the peculiar advantages of shear walls and braces simultaneously and may also improve the architectural appearance of structures. This concept has been applied to regular RCC buildings provided with shear walls, braces, and their combinations.

Keywords: Displacement, Pushover Analysis, Dynamic Analysis, dual structures, storey drift

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20 Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Responses of the Plate Subjected to Impulsive Loads

Authors: Behzad Mohammadzadeh, Huyk Chun Noh


The plate is one of the popular structural elements used in a wide range of industries and structures. They may be subjected to blast loads during explosion events, missile attacks or aircraft attacks. This study is to investigate dynamic responses of the rectangular plate subjected to explosive loads. The effects of material properties and plate thickness on responses of the plate are to be investigated. The compressive pressure is applied to the surface of the plate. Different amounts of thickness in the range from 10mm to 30mm are considered for the plate to evaluate the changes in responses of the plate with respect to the plate thickness. Two different properties are considered for the steel. First, the analysis is performed by considering only the elastic-plastic properties for the steel plate. Later on damping is considered to investigate its effects on the responses of the plate. To do analysis, the numerical method using a finite element based package ABAQUS is applied. Finally, dynamic responses and graphs showing the relation between maximum displacement of the plate and aim parameters are provided.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, ABAQUS, impulsive loaded plates, material nonlinearity

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19 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Mustafa Paşa Mosque in Skopje

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti


The masonry building stock in Istanbul and in other cities of Turkey are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. Determination of the safety of masonry structures against earthquakes is a complex challenge. This study deals with experimental tests and non-linear dynamic analysis of masonry structures modeled through discrete element method. The 1:10 scale model of Mustafa Paşa Mosque was constructed and the data were obtained from the sensors on it during its testing on the shake table. The results were used in the calibration/validation of the numerical model created on the basis of the 1:10 scale model built for shake table testing. 3D distinct element model was developed that represents the linear and nonlinear behavior of the shake table model as closely as possible during experimental tests. Results of numerical analyses with those from the experimental program were compared and discussed.

Keywords: Masonry, Dynamic Analysis, non-linear modeling, shake table tests

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18 Static and Dynamic Analysis on a Buddhism Goddess Guanyin in Shuangyashan

Authors: Zhao Caiqi, Gong Kangming


High-rise special-shaped structure, such as main frame structure of the statues, is one of the structure forms in irregular structure widely used. Due to the complex shape of the statue structure, with a large aspect ratio, its wind load value and the overall mechanical properties are very different from the high-rise buildings with the general rules. The paper taking a certain 48 meters high main frame structure of the statue located in Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province, static and dynamic properties are analyzed by the finite element software. Through static and dynamic analysis, it got a number of useful conclusions that have a certain reference value for the analysis and design of the future similar structure.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, wind load, node design, a Buddhism goddess Guanyin body, bolster

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17 Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake

Authors: F. Fekak, A. Gravouil, M. Brun, B. Depale


During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.

Keywords: Earthquake, Impact, Dynamic Analysis, implicit, explicit, bridge crane

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16 Dynamic Analysis of Viscoelastic Plates with Variable Thickness

Authors: Gülçin Tekin, Fethi Kadıoğlu


In this study, the dynamic analysis of viscoelastic plates with variable thickness is examined. The solutions of dynamic response of viscoelastic thin plates with variable thickness have been obtained by using the functional analysis method in the conjunction with the Gâteaux differential. The four-node serendipity element with four degrees of freedom such as deflection, bending, and twisting moments at each node is used. Additionally, boundary condition terms are included in the functional by using a systematic way. In viscoelastic modeling, Three-parameter Kelvin solid model is employed. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain are transformed to the real time domain by using MDOP, Dubner & Abate, and Durbin inverse transform techniques. To test the performance of the proposed mixed finite element formulation, numerical examples are treated.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, inverse laplace transform techniques, mixed finite element formulation, viscoelastic plate with variable thickness

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15 Parametric Study of the Structures: Influence of the Shells

Authors: Serikma Mourad, Mezidi Amar


The conception (design) of an earthquake-resistant structure is a complex problem seen the necessity of meeting the requirements of security been imperative by the regulations, and of economy been imperative by the increasing costs of the structures. The resistance of a building in the horizontal actions (shares) is mainly ensured by a mixed brace system; for a concrete building, this system is constituted by frame or shells; or both at the same time. After the earthquake of Boumerdes (May 23; 2003) in Algeria, the studies made by experts, ended in modifications of the Algerian Earthquake-resistant Regulation (AER 99). One of these modifications was to widen the use of shells for the brace system. This modification has create a conflict on the quantities, the positions and the type of the shells at adopt. In the present project, we suggest seeing the effect of the variation of the dimensions, the localization and the conditions of rigidity in extremities of shells. The study will be led on a building (F+5) implanted in zone of seismicity average. To do it, we shall proceed to a classic dynamic study of a structure by using 4 alternatives for shells by varying the lengths and number in order to compare the cost of the structure for 4 dispositions of the shells with a technical-economic study of the brace system by the use of different dispositions of shells and to estimate the quantities of necessary materials (concrete and steel).

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Beams, Dynamic Analysis, Shells, mixed brace system

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14 A Static and Dynamic Slope Stability Analysis of Sonapur

Authors: Ashim Kanti Dey, Rupam Saikia


Sonapur is an intense hilly region on the border of Assam and Meghalaya lying in North-East India and is very near to a seismic fault named as Dauki besides which makes the region seismically active. Besides, these recently two earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and 6.9 have struck North-East India in January and April 2016. Also, the slope concerned for this study is adjacent to NH 44 which for a long time has been a sole important connecting link to the states of Manipur and Mizoram along with some parts of Assam and so has been a cause of considerable loss to life and property since past decades as there has been several recorded incidents of landslide, road-blocks, etc. mostly during the rainy season which comes into news. Based on this issue this paper reports a static and dynamic slope stability analysis of Sonapur which has been carried out in MIDAS GTS NX. The slope being highly unreachable due to terrain and thick vegetation in-situ test was not feasible considering the current scope available so disturbed soil sample was collected from the site for the determination of strength parameters. The strength parameters were so determined for varying relative density with further variation in water content. The slopes were analyzed considering plane strain condition for three slope heights of 5 m, 10 m and 20 m which were then further categorized based on slope angles 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 considering the possible extent of steepness. Initially static analysis under dry state was performed then considering the worst case that can develop during rainy season the slopes were analyzed for fully saturated condition along with partial degree of saturation with an increase in the waterfront. Furthermore, dynamic analysis was performed considering the El-Centro Earthquake which had a magnitude of 6.7 and peak ground acceleration of 0.3569g at 2.14 sec for the slope which were found to be safe during static analysis under both dry and fully saturated condition. Some of the conclusions were slopes with inclination above 40 onwards were found to be highly vulnerable for slopes of height 10 m and above even under dry static condition. Maximum horizontal displacement showed an exponential increase with an increase in inclination from 30 to 70. The vulnerability of the slopes was seen to be further increased during rainy season as even slopes of minimal steepness of 30 for height 20 m was seen to be on the verge of failure. Also, during dynamic analysis slopes safe during static analysis were found to be highly vulnerable. Lastly, as a part of the study a comparative study on Strength Reduction Method (SRM) versus Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM) was also carried out and some of the advantages and disadvantages were figured out.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Dynamic Analysis, factor of safety, strength reduction method

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13 Reinforced Concrete Foundation for Turbine Generators

Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharya


Steam Turbine-Generators (STG) and Combustion Turbine-Generator (CTG) are used in almost all modern petrochemical, LNG plants and power plant facilities. The reinforced concrete table top foundations are required to support these high speed rotating heavy machineries and is one of the most critical and challenging structures on any industrial project. The paper illustrates through a practical example, the step by step procedure adopted in designing a table top foundation supported on piles for a steam turbine generator with operating speed of 60 Hz. Finite element model of a table top foundation is generated in ANSYS. Piles are modeled as springs-damper elements (COMBIN14). Basic loads are adopted in analysis and design of the foundation based on the vendor requirements, industry standards, and relevant ASCE & ACI codal provisions. Static serviceability checks are performed with the help of Misalignment Tolerance Matrix (MTM) method in which the percentage of misalignment at a given bearing due to displacement at another bearing is calculated and kept within the stipulated criteria by the vendor so that the machine rotor can sustain the stresses developed due to this misalignment. Dynamic serviceability checks are performed through modal and forced vibration analysis where the foundation is checked for resonance and allowable amplitudes, as stipulated by the machine manufacturer. Reinforced concrete design of the foundation is performed by calculating the axial force, bending moment and shear at each of the critical sections. These values are calculated through area integral of the element stresses at these critical locations. Design is done as per ACI 318-05.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Static Analysis, finite element, steam turbine generator foundation

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12 Dynamic Study on the Evaluation of the Settlement of Soil under Sea Dam

Authors: Amar Kahil, Faroudja Meziani


In order to study the variation in settlement of soil under a dyke dam, the modelisation in our study consists of applying an imposed displacement at the base of the mass of soil (consisting of a saturated sand). The imposed displacement follows the evolution of acceleration of the earthquake of Boumerdes 2003 in Algeria. Moreover, the gravity load is taken into consideration by taking account the specific weight of the materials constituting the dyke. The results obtained show that the gravity loads have a direct influence on the evolution of settlement, especially at the center of the dyke where these loads are higher.

Keywords: Soil Dynamics, Settlement, Dynamic Analysis, rockfill dam, effect of earthquake

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11 Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation

Authors: Merve Ermis, Akif Kutlu, Nihal Eratlı, Mehmet H. Omurtag


The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam lying on elastic foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in frequency domain, the element matrices of two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well-known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the presented finite element formulation is verified through the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Then, the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation is conducted.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Finite Element Method, elastic foundation, curved beam

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10 Analysis and Design of Offshore Triceratops under Ultra-Deep Waters

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, R. Nagavinothini


Offshore platforms for ultra-deep waters are form-dominant by design; hybrid systems with large flexibility in horizontal plane and high rigidity in vertical plane are preferred due to functional complexities. Offshore triceratops is relatively a new-generation offshore platform, whose deck is partially isolated from the supporting buoyant legs by ball joints. They allow transfer of partial displacements of buoyant legs to the deck but restrain transfer of rotational response. Buoyant legs are in turn taut-moored to the sea bed using pre-tension tethers. Present study will discuss detailed dynamic analysis and preliminary design of the chosen geometric, which is necessary as a proof of validation for such design applications. A detailed numeric analysis of triceratops at 2400 m water depth under random waves is presented. Preliminary design confirms member-level design requirements under various modes of failure. Tether configuration, proposed in the study confirms no pull-out of tethers as stress variation is comparatively lesser than the yield value. Presented study shall aid offshore engineers and contractors to understand suitability of triceratops, in terms of design and dynamic response behaviour.

Keywords: Offshore Structures, Dynamic Analysis, Preliminary Design, random waves, triceratops, buoyant legs

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9 Estimation of the Effect of Initial Damping Model and Hysteretic Model on Dynamic Characteristics of Structure

Authors: Naohiro Nakamura, Yuji Miyazu, Shinji Ukita


In considering the dynamic characteristics of structure, natural frequency and damping ratio are useful indicator. When performing dynamic design, it's necessary to select an appropriate initial damping model and hysteretic model. In the linear region, the setting of initial damping model influences the response, and in the nonlinear region, the combination of initial damping model and hysteretic model influences the response. However, the dynamic characteristics of structure in the nonlinear region remain unclear. In this paper, we studied the effect of setting of initial damping model and hysteretic model on the dynamic characteristics of structure. On initial damping model setting, Initial stiffness proportional, Tangent stiffness proportional, and Rayleigh-type were used. On hysteretic model setting, TAKEDA model and Normal-trilinear model were used. As a study method, dynamic analysis was performed using a lumped mass model of base-fixed. During analysis, the maximum acceleration of input earthquake motion was gradually increased from 1 to 600 gal. The dynamic characteristics were calculated using the ARX model. Then, the characteristics of 1st and 2nd natural frequency and 1st damping ratio were evaluated. Input earthquake motion was simulated wave that the Building Center of Japan has published. On the building model, an RC building with 30×30m planes on each floor was assumed. The story height was 3m and the maximum height was 18m. Unit weight for each floor was 1.0t/m2. The building natural period was set to 0.36sec, and the initial stiffness of each floor was calculated by assuming the 1st mode to be an inverted triangle. First, we investigated the difference of the dynamic characteristics depending on the difference of initial damping model setting. With the increase in the maximum acceleration of the input earthquake motions, the 1st and 2nd natural frequency decreased, and the 1st damping ratio increased. Then, in the natural frequency, the difference due to initial damping model setting was small, but in the damping ratio, a significant difference was observed (Initial stiffness proportional≒Rayleigh type>Tangent stiffness proportional). The acceleration and the displacement of the earthquake response were largest in the tangent stiffness proportional. In the range where the acceleration response increased, the damping ratio was constant. In the range where the acceleration response was constant, the damping ratio increased. Next, we investigated the difference of the dynamic characteristics depending on the difference of hysteretic model setting. With the increase in the maximum acceleration of the input earthquake motions, the natural frequency decreased in TAKEDA model, but in Normal-trilinear model, the natural frequency didn’t change. The damping ratio in TAKEDA model was higher than that in Normal-trilinear model, although, both in TAKEDA model and Normal-trilinear model, the damping ratio increased. In conclusion, in initial damping model setting, the tangent stiffness proportional was evaluated the most. In the hysteretic model setting, TAKEDA model was more appreciated than the Normal-trilinear model in the nonlinear region. Our results would provide useful indicator on dynamic design.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, natural frequency, damping ratio, initial damping model, hysteretic model

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8 Strength Investigation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Cylinders: Dynamic Loads

Authors: Moudar Zgoul, Hashem Alkhaldi


A large number of transportable LPG cylinders are manufactured annually for domestic use. These LPG cylinders are manufactured from mild steel and filled maximally with 12.5 kg liquefied gas under internal pressure of 0.6 N/mm² at a temperature of 50°C. Many millions of such LPG cylinders are in daily use mainly, for purposes of space heating, water heating, and cooking. Thereby, they are imposed to severe conditions leading to their failure. Each year not less than 5000 of these LPG cylinders fail, some of those failures cause damage and loss in lives and properties. In this work, LPG cylinders were investigated; Stress calculations and deformations under dynamic (impact) loadings were carried out to simulate the effects of such loads on the cylinders while in service. Analysis of the LPG cylinders was carried out using the finite element method; shell and cylindrical elements were used at the top, bottom, and in middle (weld region), permitting elastic-plastic analysis for a thin-walled LPG cylinder. Variables such as maximum stresses and maximum deflections under the effect of impact loading were investigated in this work. Results showed that the maximum stresses reach 680 MPa when dropped from 3m-height. The maximum radial deformation occurs at the cylinder’s top in case of the top-position impact. This information should be useful for enhancing the strength of such cylinders and to for prolonging their service life.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Finite Element Method, impact load, LPG cylinders

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7 Dynamic Analysis of Differential Systems with Infinite Memory and Damping

Authors: Jin Liang, Ti-Jun Xiao, Kun-Peng Jin


In this work, we are concerned with the dynamic behaviors of solutions to some coupled systems with infinite memory, which consist of two partial differential equations where only one partial differential equation has damping. Such coupled systems are good mathematical models to describe the deformation and stress characteristics of some viscoelastic materials affected by temperature change, external forces, and other factors. By using the theory of operator semigroups, we give wellposedness results for the Cauchy problem for these coupled systems. Then, with the help of some auxiliary functions and lemmas, which are specially designed for overcoming difficulties in the proof, we show that the solutions of the coupled systems decay to zero in a strong way under a few basic conditions. The results in this dynamic analysis of coupled systems are generalizations of many existing results.

Keywords: Damping, Dynamic Analysis, coupled system, infinite memory

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6 Modeling and Simulation of Ship Structures Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Javid Iqbal, Zhu Shifan


The development in the construction of unconventional ships and the implementation of lightweight materials have shown a large impulse towards finite element (FE) method, making it a general tool for ship design. This paper briefly presents the modeling and analysis techniques of ship structures using FE method for complex boundary conditions which are difficult to analyze by existing Ship Classification Societies rules. During operation, all ships experience complex loading conditions. These loads are general categories into thermal loads, linear static, dynamic and non-linear loads. General strength of the ship structure is analyzed using static FE analysis. FE method is also suitable to consider the local loads generated by ballast tanks and cargo in addition to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads. Vibration analysis of a ship structure and its components can be performed using FE method which helps in obtaining the dynamic stability of the ship. FE method has developed better techniques for calculation of natural frequencies and different mode shapes of ship structure to avoid resonance both globally and locally. There is a lot of development towards the ideal design in ship industry over the past few years for solving complex engineering problems by employing the data stored in the FE model. This paper provides an overview of ship modeling methodology for FE analysis and its general application. Historical background, the basic concept of FE, advantages, and disadvantages of FE analysis are also reported along with examples related to hull strength and structural components.

Keywords: Finite element methods, Vibration analysis, Dynamic Analysis, ship structure

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5 Seismic Analysis of Structurally Hybrid Wind Mill Tower

Authors: Atul K. Desai, Hemal J. Shah


The tall windmill towers are designed as monopole tower or lattice tower. In the present research, a 125-meter high hybrid tower which is a combination of lattice and monopole type is proposed. The response of hybrid tower is compared with conventional monopole tower. The towers were analyzed in finite element method software considering nonlinear seismic time history load. The synthetic seismic time history for different soil is derived using the SeismoARTIF software. From the present research, it is concluded that, in the hybrid tower, we are not getting resonance condition. The base shear is less in hybrid tower compared to monopole tower for different soil conditions.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, hybrid wind mill tower, resonance condition, synthetic time history

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4 Weak Instability in Direct Integration Methods for Structural Dynamics

Authors: Shuenn-Yih Chang, Chiu-Li Huang


Three structure-dependent integration methods have been developed for solving equations of motion, which are second-order ordinary differential equations, for structural dynamics and earthquake engineering applications. Although they generally have the same numerical properties, such as explicit formulation, unconditional stability and second-order accuracy, a different performance is found in solving the free vibration response to either linear elastic or nonlinear systems with high frequency modes. The root cause of this different performance in the free vibration responses is analytically explored herein. As a result, it is verified that a weak instability is responsible for the different performance of the integration methods. In general, a weak instability will result in an inaccurate solution or even numerical instability in the free vibration responses of high frequency modes. As a result, a weak instability must be prohibited for time integration methods.

Keywords: High Frequency, Dynamic Analysis, integration method, overshoot, weak instability

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3 Structural Performance of a Bridge Pier on Dubious Deep Foundation

Authors: Víctor Cecilio, Roberto Gómez, J. Alberto Escobar, Héctor Guerrero


The study of the structural behavior of a support/pier of an elevated viaduct in Mexico City is presented. Detection of foundation piles with uncertain integrity prompted the review of possible situations that could jeopardy the structural safety of the pier. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural conditions of the support, taking into account the type of anomaly reported and the depth at which it is located, the position of the pile with uncertain integrity in the foundation system, the stratigraphy of the surrounding soil and the geometry and structural characteristics of the pier. To carry out the above, dynamic analysis, spectral modal, and step-by-step, with elastic and inelastic material models, were performed. Results were evaluated in accordance with the standards used for the design of the original structural project and with the Construction Regulations for Mexico’s Federal District (RCDF-2017, 2017). Comments on the response of the analyzed models are issued, and the conclusions are presented from a structural point of view.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, bridge pier, inelastic models, dubious foundation

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2 A Seismic Study on The Settlement of Superstructures Due to the Tunnel Construction

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Rapid urban development leads to the construction of urban tunnels for transport. Passage of tunnels under the surface structures and utilities prompted the changes in the site conditions and hence alteration of the dynamic response of surface structures. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the interaction of tunnel-superstructure on the site response is investigated numerically. For this purpose, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC 2D) is used, and stratification and properties of soil layers are selected based on the line No 7 of Tehran subway. The superstructure is modeled both as an equivalent surcharge and the actual structure, and the results are compared. A comparison of the results shows that consideration of structure geometry is necessary for dynamic analysis and it leads to the changes in displacements and accelerations. Consequently, the geometry of the superstructure should be modeled completely instead of the application of an equivalent load. The effect of tunnel diameter and depth on the settlement of superstructures is also studied. Results show that when the tunnel depth and diameter grow, the settlements increase considerably.

Keywords: Settlement, Tunnel, Dynamic Analysis, FLAC2D

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1 Prediction of Sepsis Illness from Patients Vital Signs Using Long Short-Term Memory Network and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Marcio Freire Cruz, Naoaki Ono, Shigehiko Kanaya, Carlos Arthur Mattos Teixeira Cavalcante


The systems that record patient care information, known as Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and those that monitor vital signs of patients, such as heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure have been extremely valuable for the effectiveness of the patient’s treatment. Several kinds of research have been using data from EMRs and vital signs of patients to predict illnesses. Among them, we highlight those that intend to predict, classify, or, at least identify patterns, of sepsis illness in patients under vital signs monitoring. Sepsis is an organic dysfunction caused by a dysregulated patient's response to an infection that affects millions of people worldwide. Early detection of sepsis is expected to provide a significant improvement in its treatment. Preceding works usually combined medical, statistical, mathematical and computational models to develop detection methods for early prediction, getting higher accuracies, and using the smallest number of variables. Among other techniques, we could find researches using survival analysis, specialist systems, machine learning and deep learning that reached great results. In our research, patients are modeled as points moving each hour in an n-dimensional space where n is the number of vital signs (variables). These points can reach a sepsis target point after some time. For now, the sepsis target point was calculated using the median of all patients’ variables on the sepsis onset. From these points, we calculate for each hour the position vector, the first derivative (velocity vector) and the second derivative (acceleration vector) of the variables to evaluate their behavior. And we construct a prediction model based on a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Network, including these derivatives as explanatory variables. The accuracy of the prediction 6 hours before the time of sepsis, considering only the vital signs reached 83.24% and by including the vectors position, speed, and acceleration, we obtained 94.96%. The data are being collected from Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) Database, a public database that contains vital signs, laboratory test results, observations, notes, and so on, from more than 60.000 patients.

Keywords: sepsis, prediction, Dynamic Analysis, long short-term memory

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