Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Dyes Related Abstracts

16 Effect of Microwave Radiations on Natural Dyes’ Application on Cotton

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Rafia Asghar


The current research was related with natural dyes’ extraction from the powder of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark and studied characterization of this dye under microwave radiation’s influence. Both cotton fabric and dyeing powder were exposed to microwave rays for different time intervals (2minutes, 4 minutes, 6 minutes, 8 minutes and 10 minutes) using conventional oven. Aqueous, 60% Methanol and Ethyl Acetate solubilized extracts obtained from Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark were also exposed to different time intervals (2minutes, 4 minutes, 6 minutes, 8 minutes and 10 minutes) of microwave rays exposure. Pre, meta and post mordanting with Alum (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) was done to improve color strength of the extracted dye. Exposure of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract and cotton to microwave rays enhanced the extraction process and dyeing process by reducing extraction time, dyeing time and dyeing temperature. Microwave rays treatment had a very strong influence on color fastness and color strength properties of cotton that was dyes using Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for 30 minutes and dyeing cotton with that Neem bark extract for 75 minutes at 30°C. Among pre, meta and post mordanting, results indicated that 5% concentration of Alum in meta mordanting exhibited maximum color strength.

Keywords: Dyes, natural dyeing, ecofriendly dyes, microwave treatment

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15 Preparation of New Organoclays and Applications for Adsorption of Telon Dyes in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Benamar Makhoukhi


Clay ion-exchange using bismidazolium salts (MBIM) could provide organophilic clays materials that allow effective retention of polluting dyes. The present investigations deal with bentonite (Bt) modification using (ortho, meta and para) bisimidazolium cations and attempts to remove a synthetic textile dyes, such as (Telon-Orange, Telon-Red and Telon-Blue) by adsorption, from aqueous solutions. The surface modification of MBIM–Bt was examined using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Adsorption tests applied to Telon dyes revealed a significant increase of the maximum adsorption capacity from ca. 21-28 to 88-108 mg.g-1 after intercalation. The highest adsorption level was noticed for Telon-Orange dye on the p-MBIM–Bt, presumably due higher interlayer space and better diffusion. The pseudo-first order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics data for all three dyestuffs. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were also determined. The results show that MBIM–Bt could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of Telon dyes from effluents.

Keywords: Adsorption, Dyes, bentonite, organoclay, isotherms, Bisimidazolium

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14 Effects of Spent Dyebath Recycling on Pollution and Cost of Production in a Cotton Textile Industry

Authors: Sanjay Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Sharma


Textile manufacturing industry uses a substantial amount of chemicals not only in the production processes but also in manufacturing the raw materials. Dyes are the most significant raw material which provides colour to the fabric and yarn. Dyes are produced by using a large amount of chemicals both organic and inorganic in nature. Dyes are further classified as Reactive or Vat Dyes which are mostly used in cotton textiles. In the process of application of dyes to the cotton fiber, yarn or fabric, several auxiliary chemicals are also used in the solution called dyebath to improve the absorption of dyes. There is a very little absorption of dyes and auxiliary chemicals and a residual amount of all these substances is released as the spent dye bath effluent. Because of the wide variety of chemicals used in cotton textile dyes, there is always a risk of harmful effects which may not be apparent immediately but may have an irreversible impact in the long term. Colour imparted by the dyes to the water also has an adverse effect on its public acceptability and the potability. This study has been conducted with an objective to assess the feasibility of reuse of the spent dye bath. Studies have been conducted in two independent industries manufacturing dyed cotton yarn and dyed cotton fabric respectively. These have been referred as Unit-I and Unit-II. The studies included assessment of reduction in pollution levels and the economic benefits of such reuse. The study conclusively establishes that the reuse of spent dyebath results in prevention of pollution, reduction in pollution loads and cost of effluent treatment & production. This pollution prevention technique presents a good preposition for pollution prevention in cotton textile industry.

Keywords: Pollution, reuse, Dyes, Toxic, costs, dyebath

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13 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Hydroxyds of Metals

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou


Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated sludge, lagoons as biological processes and coagulation-flocculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and a decreasing in efficiency treatment with the increase of the initial pollutants concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of adsorption process as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to explore the characteristics of hydroxides of Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: Purification, Adsorption, Dyes, metallic hydroxydes

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12 Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

Authors: Mir Shahnawaz Jagirani, Aziza Aftab, Noorullah Soomro, Syed Farman Ali Shah, Kambiz Vafai


Utilization of indigenous adsorbent bed of power plant waste ash briquettes, a porous medium was used first time in Pakistan for low cost treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant effectively and economically. This could replace costly treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO) and the beds, containing imported and commercial grade expensive Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC).This bed was coupled with coagulants (Ferrous Sulphate and Lime) and found more effective. The coal fired ash (CFA) was collected from coal fired boilers of Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this bed resolved the disposal and environmental issues and treated waste water of chemicals, dyes and pigment manufacturing plant. The bed reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS remarkably. An adsorptive capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment alone, elimination of COD by 32%, color by 48%, and turbidity by 50% and TSS by 51% respectively. When the bed was coupled with coagulants, it resulted an excessive removal of Color 88%, TSS 92%, COD 67% and Turbidity 89%. Its regeneration was also inexpensive and simple.

Keywords: wastewater, Dyes, coal fly ash, spheres

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11 Indigo Production in a Fed Batch Bioreactor Using Aqueous-Solvent Two Phase System

Authors: Vaishnavi Unde, Srikanth Mutnuri


Today dye stuff sector is one of the major chemical industries in India. Indigo is a blue coloured dye used all over the world in large quantity. The indigo dye produced and used in textile industries is synthetic having toxic effect, thus there is an increase in interest for natural dyes owing to the environmental concerns. The present study focuses on the use of a strain Pandoraea sp. isolated from garage soil, for the production of indigo in fed batch bioreactor. A comparative study between single phase and two phase production was carried out in this work. The blue colour produced during the experiments was analyzed using, TLC, UV-visible spectrophotometer and FTIR technique. The blue pigment was found to be indigo. The production of bio-indigo was done in a single phase fermentor carrying medium and substrate indole in dissolved form and was found to produce maximum of 0.041 g/L of indigo. Whereas there was an increase in production of indigo to 0.068 g/L in a two phase, water-silicone oil system. In this study the advantage of using second phase as silicone oil has enhanced the indigo production, as the second phase made the substrate available to the bacteria by increasing the surface area as well as it helped to prevent the inhibition effect of the high concentration of substrate, indole. The effect of single and two phases on the growth of bacteria was also studied.

Keywords: Dyes, indigo, indole, fed batch reactor

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10 Carbon Nanocomposites : Structure, Characterization and Environmental Application

Authors: Bensacia Nabila, Hadj-Ziane Amel, Sefah Karima


Carbon nanocomposites have received more attention in the last years in view of their special properties such as low density, high specific surface area, and thermal and mechanical stability. Taking into account the importance of these materials, many studies aimed at improving the synthesis process have been conducted. However, the presence of impurities could affect significantly the properties of these materials, and the characterization of these compounds is an important challenge to assure the quality of the new carbon nanocomposites. The present study aims to develop a new recyclable decontaminating material for dyes removal. This new material consists of an active element based on carbon nanotubes wrapped in a microcapsule of iron oxide. The adsorbent is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and the surface area was measured by the BET method.

Keywords: Dyes, elimination, carbon nanocomposite, chitozen

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9 Batch Adsorption Studies for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Aqueous Solution on Three Different Pine Bark

Authors: B. Cheknane, F. Zermane


The main objective of the present study is the valorization of natural raw materials of plant origin for the treatment of textile industry wastewater. Selected bark was: maritime (MP), pinyon (PP) and Aleppo pine (AP) bark. The efficiency of these barks were tested for the removal of three dye; rhodamine B (RhB), Green Malachite (GM) and X Methyl Orange (MO). At the first time we focus to study the different parameters which can influence the adsorption processes such as: nature of the adsorbents, nature of the pollutants (dyes) and the effect of pH. Obtained results reveals that the speed adsorption is strongly influencing by the pH medium and the comparative study show that adsorption is favorable in the acidic medium with amount adsorbed of (Q=40mg/g) for rhodamine B and (Q=46mg/g) for orange methyl. Results of adsorption kinetics reveals that the molecules of GM are adsorbed better (Q=48mg/g) than the molecules of RhB (Q=46mg/g) and methyl orange (Q=18mg/g), with equilibrium time of 6 hours. The results of adsorption isotherms show clearly that the maritime pine bark is the most effective adsorbents with adsorbed amount of (QRhB=200mg/g) and (QMO=88mg/g) followed by pinyon pine (PP) with (QRhB=184mg/g) and (QMO=56mg/g) and finally Aleppo pine (AP) bark with (QRhB=131mg/g) and (QMO= 46mg/g). The different obtained isotherms were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich models and according to the adjustment coefficient values R2, the obtained isotherms are well represented by Freundlich model.

Keywords: Adsorption, Dyes, maritime pine bark (MP), pinyon pine bark (PP), Aleppo pine (AP) bark

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8 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong


Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Fermentation, Dyes, laccase

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7 Valorization of a Forest Waste, Modified P-Brutia Cones, by Biosorption of Methyl Geen

Authors: Abdeltif Amrane, Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Abdelbaki Reffas Khalil Guediri


The removal of Methyl Green dye (MG) from aqueous solutions using modified P-brutia cones (PBH and PBN), has been investigated work. The physical parameters such as pH, temperature, initial MG concentration, ionic strength are examined in batch experiments on the sorption of the dye. Adsorption removal of MG was conducted at natural pH 4.5 because the dye is only stable in the range of pH 3.8 to 5. It was observed in experiments that the P-brutia cones treated with NaOH (PBN) exhibited high affinity and adsorption capacity compared to the MG P-brutia cones treated with HCl (PBH) and biosorption capacity of modified P-brutia cones (PBN and PBH) was enhanced by increasing the temperature. This is confirmed by the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° and ΔH°) which show that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The positive values of ΔS° suggested an irregular increase in the randomness for both adsorbent (PBN and PBH) during the adsorption process. The kinetic model pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion coefficient were examined to analyze the sorption process; they showed that the pseudo-second-order model is the one that best describes the adsorption process (MG) on PBN and PBH with a correlation coefficient R²> 0.999. The ionic strength has shown that it has a negative impact on the adsorption of MG on two supports. A reduction of 68.5% of the adsorption capacity for a value Ce=30 mg/L was found for the PBH, while the PBN did not show a significant influence of the ionic strength on adsorption especially in the presence of NaCl. Among the tested isotherm models, the Langmuir isotherm was found to be the most relevant to describe MG sorption onto modified P-brutia cones with a correlation factor R²>0.999. The capacity adsorption of P-brutia cones, was confirmed for the removal of a dye, MG, from aqueous solution. We note also that P-brutia cones is a material very available in the forest and low-cost biomaterial

Keywords: Adsorption, Dyes, isotherm, p-brutia cones, forest wastes

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6 Recovery of Waste Acrylic Fibers for the Elimination of Basic Dyes

Authors: N. Ouslimani, M. T. Abadlia


Environment protection is a precondition for sustained growth and a better quality of life for all people on earth. Aqueous industrial effluents are the main sources of pollution. Among the compounds of these effluents, dyes are particularly resistant to discoloration by conventional methods, and discharges present many problems that must be supported. The scientific literature shows that synthetic organic dyes are compounds used in many industrial sectors. They are found in the chemical, car, paper industry and particularly the textile industry, where all the lines and grades of the chemical family are represented. The affinity between the fibers and dyes vary depending on the chemical structure of dyes and the type of materials to which they are applied. It is not uncommon to find that during the dyeing operation from 15 to 20 % of sulfur dyes, and sometimes up to 40 % of the reactants are discharged with the effluent. This study was conducted for the purpose of fading basics dyes from wastewater using as adsorbent fiber waste material. This technique presents an interesting alternative to usual treatment, as it allows the recovery of waste fibers, which can find uses as raw material for the manufacture of cleaning products or in other sectors In this study the results obtained by fading fiber waste are encouraging, given the rate of color removal which is about 90%.This method also helps to decrease BOD and suspended solids MES in an effective way.

Keywords: wastewater, Adsorption, Fiber, Dyes, Valorization

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5 Optimisation of Dyes Decolourisation by Bacillus aryabhattai

Authors: J. M. Cruz, A. Paz, S. Cortés Diéguez, A. B. Moldes, J. M. Domínguez


Synthetic dyes are extensively used in the paper, food, leather, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and textile industries. Wastewater resulting from their production means several environmental problems. Improper disposal of theirs effluents involves adverse impacts and not only about the colour, also on water quality (Total Organic Carbon, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, suspended solids, salinity, etc.) on flora (inhibition of photosynthetic activity), fauna (toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic effects) and human health. The aim of this work is to optimize the decolourisation process of different types of dyes by Bacillus aryabhattai. Initially, different types of dyes (Indigo Carmine, Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Remazol Brilliant Blue R) and suitable culture media (Nutritive Broth, Luria Bertani Broth and Trypticasein Soy Broth) were selected. Then, a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimise and analyse the significance of each abiotic parameter. Three process variables (temperature, salt concentration and agitation) were investigated in the CCD at 3 levels with 2-star points. A total of 23 experiments were carried out according to a full factorial design, consisting of 8 factorial experiments (coded to the usual ± 1 notation), 6 axial experiments (on the axis at a distance of ± α from the centre), and 9 replicates (at the centre of the experimental domain). Experiments results suggest the efficiency of this strain to remove the tested dyes on the 3 media studied, although Trypticasein Soy Broth (TSB) was the most suitable medium. Indigo Carmine and Coomassie Brilliant Blue at maximal tested concentration 150 mg/l were completely decolourised, meanwhile, an acceptable removal was observed using the more complicate dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R at a concentration of 50 mg/l.

Keywords: Dyes, central composite design, decolourisation, Bacillus aryabhattai

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4 Experimental and Theoretical Studies for Removal of Dyes from Industrial Wastewater Using Bioremediation

Authors: Suresh Gupta, Navneet Kaur, Sakshi Batra, Pratik Pande, Lovdeep Kaur


The objective of this study is removal of Methylene blue dye or reactive orange-16 from industrial waste water or from soil using bioremediation technique. As huge amount of dyes are releasing from textile industry in water and soil environment during dyeing process. In this study, we focused on removal of Methylene blue dye and Reactive orange dye from industrial soil at different initial concentration of dye. An experiment study was carried out at methylene blue dye or Reactive orange-16 dye at varying concentration of both the dye as 50 ppm, 100ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm. Maximum removal is obtained at 16-20 hours Experiments are carried out for pH, Temperature and MSM composition. The final concentration has been observed by UV-VIS. The two species has been isolated from the Industrial effluent. Finally the product analysis has been done by GC-MS.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Environment, Dyes, cultural growth

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3 Visible-Light Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Molecules over ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 Composite

Authors: Sudarat Issarapanacheewin, Katcharin Wetchakun, Sukon Phanichphant, Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon, Natda Wetchakun


The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm) were studied in this research. The structural and photophysical properties of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite on the photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. The as-prepared ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst exhibits wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of MB and RhB. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to electron-hole separation with the appropriate band potential and the physicochemical properties of ZnWO4 and Bi2WO6. The main active species for the degradation of organic dyes were investigated to explain the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB and RhB dyes and charge transfer of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite was proposed.

Keywords: Composite, Dyes, Photocatalytic Activity, ZnWO4-Bi2WO6

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2 Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend

Authors: K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy, Omaima G. Allam, O. A. Hakeim


In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: Dyes, sericin, polyester viscose blends fabric, colour value

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1 Acceleration of Adsorption Kinetics by Coupling Alternating Current with Adsorption Process onto Several Adsorbents

Authors: A. Kesraoui, M. Seffen


Applications of adsorption onto activated carbon for water treatment are well known. The process has been demonstrated to be widely effective for removing dissolved organic substances from wastewaters, but this treatment has a major drawback is the high operating cost. The main goal of our research work is to improve the retention capacity of Tunisian biomass for the depollution of industrial wastewater and retention of pollutants considered toxic. The biosorption process is based on the retention of molecules and ions onto a solid surface composed of biological materials. The evaluation of the potential use of these materials is important to propose as an alternative to the adsorption process generally expensive, used to remove organic compounds. Indeed, these materials are very abundant in nature and are low cost. Certainly, the biosorption process is effective to remove the pollutants, but it presents a slow kinetics. The improvement of the biosorption rates is a challenge to make this process competitive with respect to oxidation and adsorption onto lignocellulosic fibers. In this context, the alternating current appears as a new alternative, original and a very interesting phenomenon in the acceleration of chemical reactions. Our main goal is to increase the retention acceleration of dyes (indigo carmine, methylene blue) and phenol by using a new alternative: alternating current. The adsorption experiments have been performed in a batch reactor by adding some of the adsorbents in 150 mL of pollutants solution with the desired concentration and pH. The electrical part of the mounting comprises a current source which delivers an alternating current voltage of 2 to 15 V. It is connected to a voltmeter that allows us to read the voltage. In a 150 mL capacity cell, we plunged two zinc electrodes and the distance between two Zinc electrodes has been 4 cm. Thanks to alternating current, we have succeeded to improve the performance of activated carbon by increasing the speed of the indigo carmine adsorption process and reducing the treatment time. On the other hand, we have studied the influence of the alternating current on the biosorption rate of methylene blue onto Luffa cylindrica fibers and the hybrid material (Luffa cylindrica-ZnO). The results showed that the alternating current accelerated the biosorption rate of methylene blue onto the Luffa cylindrica and the Luffa cylindrica-ZnO hybrid material and increased the adsorbed amount of methylene blue on both adsorbents. In order to improve the removal of phenol, we performed the coupling between the alternating current and the biosorption onto two adsorbents: Luffa cylindrica and the hybrid material (Luffa cylindrica-ZnO). In fact, the alternating current has succeeded to improve the performance of adsorbents by increasing the speed of the adsorption process and the adsorption capacity and reduce the processing time.

Keywords: Modeling, Adsorption, Dyes, alternating current

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