Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Durability Related Abstracts

61 Durability of Light-Weight Concrete

Authors: Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová

Abstract:

The paper focuses on research of durability and lifetime of dense light-weight concrete with artificial light-weight aggregate Liapor exposed to various types of aggressive environment. Experimental part describes testing of designed concrete of various strength classes and volume weights exposed to cyclical freezing, frost and chemical de-icers and various types of chemically aggressive environment.

Keywords: Durability, aggressive environment, physical-mechanical properties, light-weight concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
60 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glass, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000 kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4 %. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: Durability, Geological Engineering, Construction, Fibres, foamed concrete

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59 Some Aspects of Study the Leaching and Acid Corrosion of Concrete

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Alena Sicakova

Abstract:

Although properly made concrete is inherently a durable material, there are many physical and chemical forces in the environment which can contribute to its deterioration. This paper deals with two aspects of concrete durability in chemical aggressive environment: degradation effect of particular aggressive exposure and role of particular mineral additives. Results of the study of leaching and acid corrosion processes in samples prepared with specific dosage of microsilica and zeolite are given in the paper. Corrosion progress after 60-day exposition is manifested by increasing rate of both Ca and Si release, what is identified by XRF method. Kind and dosage of additions used in experiment was found to be helpful for stabilization of concrete microstructure. The lowest concentration of mean elements in leachates was observed for mixture V1 (microsilica only) unlike the V2 (microsilica + zeolite). It is surprising in the terms of recommendations of zeolite application for acid exposure. Using microsilica only seems to be more effective.

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, Sustainability, Leaching, acid corrosion

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58 Evaluate Effects of Different Curing Methods on Compressive Strength, Modulus of Elasticity and Durability of Concrete

Authors: Dhara Shah, Chandrakant Shah

Abstract:

Construction industry utilizes plenty of water in the name of curing. Looking at the present scenario, the days are not so far when all construction industries will have to switch over to an alternative-self curing system, not only to save water for sustainable development of the environment but also to promote indoor and outdoor construction activities even in water scarce areas. At the same time, curing is essential for the development of proper strength and durability. IS 456-2000 recommends a curing period of 7 days for ordinary Portland cement concrete, and 10 to 14 days for concrete prepared using mineral admixtures or blended cements. But, being the last act in the concreting operations, it is often neglected or not fully done. Consequently, the quality of hardened concrete suffers, more so, if the freshly laid concrete gets exposed to the environmental conditions of low humidity, high wind velocity and high ambient temperature. To avoid the adverse effects of neglected or insufficient curing, which is considered a universal phenomenon, concrete technologist and research scientists have come up with curing compounds. Concrete is said to be self-cured, if it is able to retain its water content to perform chemical reaction for the development of its strength. Curing compounds are liquids which are either incorporated in concrete or sprayed directly onto concrete surfaces and which then dry to form a relatively impermeable membrane that retards the loss of moisture from the concrete. They are an efficient and cost-effective means of curing concrete and may be applied to freshly placed concrete or that which has been partially cured by some other means. However, they may affect the bond between concrete and subsequent surface treatments. Special care in the choice of a suitable compound needs to be exercised in such circumstances. Curing compounds are generally formulated from wax emulsions, chlorinated rubbers, synthetic and natural resins, and from PVA emulsions. Their effectiveness varies quite widely, depending on the material and strength of the emulsion.

Keywords: Durability, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, curing methods, self-curing compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
57 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jana Kosikova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: Durability, Waste, Stabilization, Solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
56 Evaluation of Durability Performance for Bio-Energy Co-Product

Authors: Bo Yang, Ali Ulvi Uzer, Hali̇l Ceylan

Abstract:

This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of biofuel co-products (BCPs) with sulfur-free lignin addition on the unconsolidated on strength and durability behavior in pavement soil stabilization subjected to freezing–thawing cycles. For strength behavior, a series of unconfined compression tests were conducted. Mass losses were also calculated after freezing–thawing cycles as criteria for durability behavior. To investigate the effect of the biofuel co-products on the durability behavior of the four type’s soils, mass losses were calculated after 12 freezing–thawing cycles. The co-products tested are promising additives for improving durability under freeze-thaw conditions, and each type has specific advantages.

Keywords: Durability, Soil Stabilization, mass lose, freezing–thawing test, bio-energy co-product

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
55 Strength Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks with Fly Ash and Glass Powder

Authors: Joel Santhosh, N. Bhavani Shankar Rao

Abstract:

Problems associated with construction site have been known for many years. Construction industry has to support a world of continuing population growth and economic development. The rising costs of construction materials and the need to adhere to sustainability, alternative construction techniques and materials are being sought. To increase the applications of concrete paving blocks, greater understanding of products produced with locally available materials and indigenously produced mineral admixtures is essential. In the present investigation, concrete paving blocks may be produced with locally available aggregates, cement, fly ash and waste glass powder as the mineral admixture. The ultimate aim of this work is to ascertain the performance of concrete paving blocks containing fly ash and glass powder and compare it with the performance of conventional concrete paving blocks. Mix design is carried out to form M40 grade of concrete by using IS: 10262: 2009 and specification given by IRC: SP: 63: 2004. The paving blocks are tested in accordance to IS: 15658: 2006. It showed that the partial replacement of cement by fly ash and waste glass powder satisfies the minimum requirement as specified by the Indian standard IS: 15658: 2006 for concrete paving blocks to be used in non traffic, light traffic and medium-heavy traffic areas. The study indicated that fly ash and waste glass powder can effectively be used as cement replacement without substantial change in strength.

Keywords: Durability, fly ash, Strength, paving block, glass powder, abrasion resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
54 Productivity Improvement in the Propeller Shaft Manufacturing Process

Authors: Won Jung

Abstract:

In automotive, propeller shaft is the device for transferring power from engine to axle via transmission, and the slip yoke is one of the main parts in the component. Since the propeller shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, they need to be strong enough to bear the stress. The purpose of this research is to improve the productivity of slip yoke for automotive propeller shaft. We present how to redesign the component that currently manufactured as a forged single body type. The research was focused on not only reducing processing time but insuring durability of the component simultaneously.

Keywords: Automotive, Durability, Productivity, propeller shaft, slip yoke

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
53 Durability of Wood Shavel Composites with Environmental Friendly Based Binder

Authors: Jul Endawati

Abstract:

The composite element of 20 mm in thickness were manufactured using high volume fly ash, silica fume as alternative hydraulic binders and Portland cement Type II. Pine wood shavel as by product of local small wood working industries were used as the composite filler. The elements were given in situ wet and dry treatment for 9 months. Visually there is no fiber degradation as a result of the interaction of the environment. The assessment were done to the elements bending strength and dimensional properties. Increase in MoR after 180 days of exposure shown that mechanically this degradation is not seen yet. The increment of MoR (213%) compare to that of 28 days might be affected by the formation of calcium hydroxide (CH) or ettringite in the transition zone. The use of pozzolan showed also a delay or minimize degradation of composites while improving the pore structure, and minimize the mineralization of the fiber bond with the cement matrix. The water absorption is 4,22% at 180 days, 7,94% at 120 days and 12,38% at 28 days, in line with the 68% decrease in Thickness Swelling (TS). This unoccured degradation could also be affected by the presence of silica fume in the binder matrix. After 270 days of exposure under tropical condition, the flexural strength started to decrease.

Keywords: Durability, fly ash, silica fume, natural fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
52 A Structure-Based Approach for Adaptable Building System

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

Existing buildings are permanently subjected to change, continuously renovated and repaired in their long service life. Old buildings are destroyed and their material and components are recycled or reused for constructing new ones. In this process, importance of sustainability principles for building construction is obviously known and great significance must be attached to consumption of resources, resulting effects on the environment and economic costs. Utilization strategies for extending buildings service life and delay in destroying have positive effect on environment protection. In addition, simpler alterability or expandability of buildings’ structures and reducing energy and natural resources consumption have benefits for users, producers and environment. To solve these problems, by applying theories of open building, structural components of some conventional building systems have been analyzed and then, a new geometry adaptive building system is developed which can transform and support different imposed loads. In order to achieve this goal, various research methods and tools such as professional and scientific literatures review, comparative analysis, case study and computer simulation were applied and data interpretation was implemented using descriptive statistics and logical arguments. Therefore, hypothesis and proposed strategies were evaluated and an adaptable and reusable 2-dimensional building system was presented which can respond appropriately to dwellers and end-users needs and provide reusability of structural components of building system in new construction or function. Investigations showed that this incremental building system can be successfully applied in achieving the architectural design objectives and by small modifications on components and joints, it is easy to obtain different and adaptable load-optimized component alternatives for flexible spaces.

Keywords: Durability, Adaptability, service life, open building, structural building system

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
51 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: Durability, Life Cycle, bending stress, erosion in steel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
50 The Effects of Various Curing Compounds on the Mechanical Characteristics of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements (RCCP)

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parmida Hayati, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami

Abstract:

Curing is a very important factor in the ultimate strength and durability of roller compacted concrete pavements (RCCP). Curing involves keeping the concrete is saturated or close to saturation point. Since maintaining concrete moisture has a significant impact on its mechanical properties, permeability and durability, curing is important. The most common procedure for curing of roller compacted concrete is using a white pigmented curing compound. This method is effective, economical and fast. In the present study, different curing compounds were applied on concrete specimens and the results of their effects on the mechanical properties were compared with each other and usual methods of curing in order to select appropriate materials and methods of curing for RCCP construction.

Keywords: Durability, Mechanical Properties, curing compounds, roller compacted concrete pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
49 Adaptability of Steel-Framed Industrialized Building System In Post-Service Life

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

Existing buildings are permanently subjected to change, continuously renovated and repaired in their long service life. Old buildings are destroyed and their material and components are recycled or reused for constructing new ones. In this process, the importance of sustainability principles for building construction is obviously known and great significance must be attached to the consumption of resources, resulting effects on the environment and economic costs. Utilization strategies for extending buildings service life and delay in destroying have a positive effect on environment protection. In addition, simpler alterability or expandability of buildings’ structures and reducing energy and natural resources consumption have benefits for users, producers and the environment. To solve these problems, by applying theories of open building, structural components of some conventional building systems have been analyzed and then, a new geometry adaptive building system is developed which can transform and support different imposed loads. In order to achieve this goal, various research methods and tools such as professional and scientific literatures review, comparative analysis, case study and computer simulation were applied and data interpretation was implemented using descriptive statistics and logical arguments. Therefore, hypothesis and proposed strategies were evaluated and an adaptable and reusable 2-dimensional building system was presented which can respond appropriately to dwellers and end-users needs and provide reusability of structural components of building system in new construction or function. Investigations showed that this incremental building system can be successfully applied in achieving the architectural design objectives and by small modifications on components and joints, it is easy to obtain different and adaptable load-optimized component alternatives for flexible spaces.

Keywords: Durability, Adaptability, service life, open building, structural building system

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
48 Durability of Lightweight Concrete Material Made from Date Palma Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Almograbi

Abstract:

Libya is one of the largest producers of dates from date palm, generating about 60000 tonnes of date palm seeds (DPS) annually. This large amount of seeds led to studies into the possible use as aggregates in lightweight concrete for some special structures. The utilization of DPS as aggregate in concrete provides a good solution as alternative aggregate to the stone aggregate. It has been recognized that, DPS can be used as coarse aggregate in structural lightweight concrete industry. For any structure member, the durability is one of the most important considerations during its service life. This paper presents the durability properties of DPS concrete. These include the water permeability, water absorption, sorptivity and chloride penetration. The test results obtained were comparable to the conventional lightweight concrete.

Keywords: Durability, Sustainability, lightweight concrete, date palm seeds, permeability of concrete, water absorption of concrete, sorptivity of concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
47 Durability Analysis of a Knuckle Arm Using VPG System

Authors: Kwon-Hee Lee, S. P. Praveen Kumar, Geun-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

A steering knuckle arm is the component that connects the steering system and suspension system. The structural performances such as stiffness, strength, and durability are considered in its design process. The former study suggested the lightweight design of a knuckle arm considering the structural performances and using the metamodel-based optimization. The six shape design variables were defined, and the optimum design was calculated by applying the kriging interpolation method. The finite element method was utilized to predict the structural responses. The suggested knuckle was made of the aluminum Al6082, and its weight was reduced about 60% in comparison with the base steel knuckle, satisfying the design requirements. Then, we investigated its manufacturability by performing foraging analysis. The forging was done as hot process, and the product was made through two-step forging. As a final step of its developing process, the durability is investigated by using the flexible dynamic analysis software, LS-DYNA and the pre and post processor, eta/VPG. Generally, a car make does not provide all the information with the part manufacturer. Thus, the part manufacturer has a limit in predicting the durability performance with the unit of full car. The eta/VPG has the libraries of suspension, tire, and road, which are commonly used parts. That makes a full car modeling. First, the full car is modeled by referencing the following information; Overall Length: 3,595mm, Overall Width: 1,595mm, CVW (Curve Vehicle Weight): 910kg, Front Suspension: MacPherson Strut, Rear Suspension: Torsion Beam Axle, Tire: 235/65R17. Second, the road is selected as the cobblestone. The road condition of the cobblestone is almost 10 times more severe than that of usual paved road. Third, the dynamic finite element analysis using the LS-DYNA is performed to predict the durability performance of the suggested knuckle arm. The life of the suggested knuckle arm is calculated as 350,000km, which satisfies the design requirement set up by the part manufacturer. In this study, the overall design process of a knuckle arm is suggested, and it can be seen that the developed knuckle arm satisfies the design requirement of the durability with the unit of full car. The VPG analysis is successfully performed even though it does not an exact prediction since the full car model is very rough one. Thus, this approach can be used effectively when the detail to full car is not given.

Keywords: Durability, Structural Optimization, forging, metamodel, knuckle arm, VPG (Virtual Proving Ground)

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46 The Mechanical Behavior of a Cement-Fiber Composite Material

Authors: K. Harrat, M. Hidjeb, M. T’kint

Abstract:

The aim of the present research work is to characterize a cement palm date fiber composite in order to be used in isolation and in the manufacture of new structural materials. This technique may possibly participate seriously in the preservation of the environment and develop a growing need for plant products. On one hand, It has been shown that the presence of natural fiber in the composite materials manufacture, based on hydraulic binder, has improved the mechanical behaviour of the material. On the Other hand, It has been proven that the durability of composite materials reinforced with untreated fibers was largely affected by the presence of organic matter. In order to extract the organic material, the fibers were treated with boiling water and then coated with different types of products. A considerable improvement in the sensitivity to water of the fibers, as well as in the mechanical strength and in the ductility of the composite material was observed. The fiber being sensitive to water, the study put the emphasis on its dimensional stability.

Keywords: Durability, Heat Treatment, mechanical behaviour, cement composite, vegetal fiber

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45 Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: M. Oliveira, M. Eckert

Abstract:

The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.

Keywords: Durability, Wind Tunnel, recycled aggregate, plastic shrinkage cracking

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44 Steady State and Accelerated Decay Rate Evaluations of Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEM Fuel Cells

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Lung-Yu Sung, Huan-Jyun Ciou

Abstract:

Durability of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells was evaluated in both steady state and accelerated decay modes. Steady state mode was carried out at constant current of 800mA / cm2 for 2500 hours using air as cathode feed and pure hydrogen as anode feed. The degradation of the cell voltage was 0.015V after such 2500 hrs operation. The degradation rate was therefore calculated to be 6uV / hr. Accelerated mode was carried out by switching the voltage of the single cell between OCV and 0.2V. The durations held at OCV and 0.2V were 20 and 40 seconds, respectively, meaning one minute per cycle. No obvious change in performance of the MEA was observed after 10000 cycles of such operation.

Keywords: Durability, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, lifetime, membrane electrode assembly

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43 Bond Strength of Different Strengthening Systems: Concrete Elements under Freeze–Thaw Cycles and Salt Water Immersion Exposure

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Firas Al-Mahmoud, Jean-Michel Mechling

Abstract:

The long-term durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is often stated as being the main reason for the use of these materials. Indeed, structures externally or Near Surface Mounted (NSM) reinforced with Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Polymer CFRP are often in contact with temperature cycles and salt water immersion and other environmental conditions that reduce the expected durability of the system. Bond degradation is a frequent cause of premature failure of structural elements and environmental conditions are known to relate to such failures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of environmental exposure on the bond for different CFRP strengthening systems. Bending tests were conducted to evaluate the bond with and without environmental exposure. The specimens were strengthened with CFRP sheets, CFRP plates and NSM CFRP rods embedded in two filling materials: epoxy resin and mortar. Then, they were exposed to up to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. One freeze–thaw cycle consisted of four stages according to ASTM or immersed in 3.5% salted tap water. A total of thirty-six specimens were prepared for this purpose. Results showed a decrease in ultimate bond strength for specimens strengthened by CFRP sheets that were immersed in salt water for 120 days, while a reduction was shown for CFRP sheet and plate bonded specimens that were subjected to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. Exposing NSM CFRP rod strengthened specimens, embedded in resin or mortar, to freeze–thaw cycles or to immersion in salt water does not affect the bond strength.

Keywords: Durability, Strengthening, Bond, FRP, freeze–thaw

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42 Stress Recovery and Durability Prediction of a Vehicular Structure with Random Road Dynamic Simulation

Authors: Jia-Shiun Chen, Quoc-Viet Huynh

Abstract:

This work develops a flexible-body dynamic model of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), capable of recovering dynamic stresses while the ATV travels on random bumpy roads. The fatigue life of components is forecasted as well. While considering the interaction between dynamic forces and structure deformation, the proposed model achieves a highly accurate structure stress prediction and fatigue life prediction. During the simulation, stress time history of the ATV structure is retrieved for life prediction. Finally, the hot sports of the ATV frame are located, and the frame life for combined road conditions is forecasted, i.e. 25833.6 hr. If the usage of vehicle is eight hours daily, the total vehicle frame life is 8.847 years. Moreover, the reaction force and deformation due to the dynamic motion can be described more accurately by using flexible body dynamics than by using rigid-body dynamics. Based on recommendations made in the product design stage before mass production, the proposed model can significantly lower development and testing costs.

Keywords: Durability, Dynamics, Fatigue, flexible-body dynamics, veicle

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41 Predicting Durability of Self Compacting Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: R. Boudjelthia

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine the influence of mix composition of concrete as the content of water and cement, water–binder ratio, and the replacement of fly ash on the durability of self compacting concrete (SCC) by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). To achieve this, an ANNs model is developed to predict the durability of self compacting concrete which is expressed in terms of chloride ions permeability in accordance with ASTM C1202-97 or AASHTO T277. Database gathered from the literature for the training and testing the model. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted using the trained and tested ANN model to investigate the effect of fly ash on the durability of SCC. The results indicate that the developed model is reliable and accurate. the durability of SCC expressed in terms of total charge passed over a 6-h period can be significantly improved by using at least 25% fly ash as replacement of cement. This study show that artificial neural network have strong potentialas a feasible tool for predicting accurately the durability of SCC containing fly ash.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Durability, self compacting concrete, chloride ions permeability

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40 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: J. Hroudova, J. Zach, M. Sedlmajer, P. Rovnaníková

Abstract:

There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, Zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

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39 Durability and Early-Age Behavior of Sprayed Concrete with an Expansion Admixture

Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Kyeo-Re Lee, Kyong Namkung, Seung-Yeon Han, Pan-Gil Choi

Abstract:

Sprayed concrete is a way to spray a concrete using a machinery with high air pressure. There are insufficient studies on the durability and early-age behavior of sprayed concrete using high quality expansion agent. A series of an experiment were executed with 5 varying expansion agent replacement rates, while all the other conditions were kept constant, including cement binder content and water-cement ratio. The tests includes early-age shrinkage test, rapid chloride permeability test, and image analysis of air void structure. The early-age expansion test with the variation of expansion agent show that the expansion strain increases as the ratio of expansion agent increases. The rapid chloride permeability test shows that it decrease as the expansion agent increase. Therefore, expansion agent affects into the rapid chloride permeability in a better way. As expansion agent content increased, spacing factor slightly decreased while specific surface kept relatively stable. As a results, the optimum ratio of expansion agent would be selected between 7 % and 11%.

Keywords: Durability, sprayed concrete, early-age behavior, expansion admixture

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38 The Feasibility of Using Milled Glass Wastes in Concrete to Resist Freezing-Thawing Action

Authors: Raed Abendeh, Mousa Bani Baker, Hesham Ahmad, Zaydoun Abu Salem

Abstract:

The using of waste materials in the construction industry can reduce the dependence on the natural aggregates which are going at the end to deplete. The glass waste is generated in a huge amount which can make one of its disposal in concrete industry effective not only as a green solution but also as an advantage to enhance the performance of mechanical properties and durability of concrete. This article reports the performance of concrete specimens containing different percentages of milled glass waste as a partial replacement of cement (Powder), when they are subject to cycles of freezing and thawing. The tests were conducted on 75-mm cubes and 75 x 75 x 300-mm prisms. Compressive strength based on laboratory testing and non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test were performed during the action of freezing-thawing cycles (F/T). The results revealed that the incorporation of glass waste in concrete mixtures is not only feasible but also showed generally better strength and durability performance than control concrete mixture. It may be said that the recycling of waste glass in concrete mixes is not only a disposal way, but also it can be an exploitation in concrete industry.

Keywords: Durability, non-destructive test, glass waste, freeze-thaw cycles

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37 An Experimental and Numerical Study on the Pultruded GFRP I-Sections Beams

Authors: Parinaz Arashnia, Farzad Hatami, Saeed Ghaffarpour Jahromi

Abstract:

Using steel in bridges’ construction because of their desired tensile and compressive strength and light weight especially in large spans was widely popular. Disadvantages of steel such as corrosion, buckling and weaknesses in high temperature and unsuitable weld could be solve with using Fibres Reinforced Polymer (FRP) profiles. The FRP is a remarkable class of composite polymers that can improve structural elements behaviour like corrosion resistance, fir resistance with good proofing and electricity and magnetic non-conductor. Nowadays except FRP reinforced bars and laminates, FRP I-beams are made and studied. The main reason for using FRP profiles is, prevent of corrosion and increase the load carrying capacity and durability, especially in large spans in bridges’ deck. In this paper, behaviour of I-section glass fibres reinforced polymer (GFRP) beam is discussed under point loads with numerical models and results has been compared and verified with experimental tests.

Keywords: Durability, Composite, Finite Element Method, numerical model, glass fibres reinforced polymer, I-section beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
36 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sand and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performance of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at %10 and %20 replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at %20 replacement level was effective in mitigating expansions.

Keywords: Durability, expansion, alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite

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35 Experimental Study of Mechanical and Durability Properties of HPC Made with Binary Blends of Cement

Authors: Vatsal Patel, Niraj Shah

Abstract:

The aim of the research reported in this paper is to assess the Strength and durability performance of High Performance Concrete containing different percentages of waste marble powder produced from marble industry. Concrete mixes possessing a target mean compressive strength of 70MPa were prepared with 0%,5%,10%,15% and 20% cement replacement by waste marble powder with W/B =0.33. More specifically, the compressive strength, flexural strength, chloride penetration, sorptivity and accelerated corrosion were determined. Concrete containing 10% waste marble powder proved to have best Mechanical and durability properties than other mixtures made with binary blends. However, poorer performance was noticeable when replacement percentage was higher. The replacement of Waste Marble Powder will have major environmental benefits.

Keywords: Durability, High Performance Concrete, accelerated corrosion, sorptivity, marble waste powder

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34 The Influence of Incorporating in the Concrete of Recycled Waste from Shredding Used Tires and Crushed Glass on Their Characteristics and Behavior

Authors: Samiha Ramdani, Abdelhamid Geuttala

Abstract:

There is no doubt that the batteries increasingly used tires create environmental concerns. Algeria generates large amounts of by industrial and household waste, such as used tires and colored glass bottles and dishes, whose valuation in cementitious materials could be an interesting ecological and economical alternative for broadening eliminating cumbersome landfills. This work is a contribution to the promotion of local materials with the use of waste tires and glass bottle in the development of a new cementitious composite having the acceptable compressive strength and a capacity of improved strains. For this purpose, rubber crumb (GC) from shredding used tires were used as partial replacement of quarry sand with 10%, 20%, 40, 60%. In addition, some mixtures also contain glass powder at15% cement replacement by volume. The compressive strength, tensile strength, deformability, the water permeability and penetration Inions chlorides are studied. As results; an acceptable compressive strength was obtained with the substitution rate of 10% and 20% by volume, the deformability of the composite increases with increased replacement rate. The addition of finely ground glass as a partial replacement of cement concrete increases the resistance to penetration of Inions chloride and reduce the water permeability thereof; then increases their durability.

Keywords: Durability, compressive strength, crumb rubber, deformability, finely ground glass, behavior law

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33 Effects of the Usage of Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement on the Durability of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Talah Aissa

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental study of the influence of marble powder used as a partial substitute for Portland cement (PC) on the mechanical properties and durability of high-performance concretes. The analysis of the experimental results on concrete at 15% content of marble powder with a fineness modulus of 11500 cm2/g, in a chloride environment, showed that it contributes positively to the perfection of its mechanical characteristics, its durability with respect to migration of chloride ions and oxygen permeability. On the basis of the experiments performed, it can be concluded that the marble powder is suitable for formulation of high performance concretes (HPC) and their properties are significantly better compared to the reference concrete (RC).

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, cement, marble powder

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32 The Mechanical Strength and Durability of High Performance Concrete Using Local Materials

Authors: I. Guemidi, Y. Abdelaziz, T. Rikioui

Abstract:

In this work, an experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the mechanical and durability properties of high performance concretes (HPC) containing local southwest Algerian materials. The mechanical properties were assessed from the compressive strength and the flexural strength, whilst the durability characteristics were investigated in terms of sulphate attack. The results obtained allow us to conclude that it is possible to make a high performance concrete (HPC) based on existing materials in the local market, if these are carefully selected and properly mixed in such away to optimize grain size distribution.

Keywords: Durability, sulphate attack, Local Materials, High Performance Concrete, high strength, Southwest Algerian

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