Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Ductility Related Abstracts

30 Behavior of Oil Palm Shell Reinforced Concrete Beams Added with Kenaf Fibres

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Sharifah M. Syed Mohsin, Sayid J. Azimi


The present article reports the findings of a study into the behavior of oil palm shell reinforced concrete (OPSRC) beams with the addition of kenaf fibres. The work aim is to examine the potential of using kenaf fibres to improve the strength and ductility of the OPSRC beams and also observe its potential in serving as part of shear reinforcement in the beams. Two different arrangements of the shear links in OPSRC beams with a selection of kenaf fibres (amount of [10kg/m] ^3 and [20kg/m] ^3) content are tested under monotonic loading. In the first arrangement, the kenaf fibres are added to the beam which has full shear reinforcement to study the structural behavior of OPSRC beams with fibres. In the second arrangement, the spacing between the shear links in the OPSRC beams are increased by 50% and experimental work is carried out to study the effect of kenaf fibres without compromising the beams strength and ductility. The results show that the addition of kenaf fibres enhanced the load carrying capacity, ductility and also altered the failure mode of the beams from a brittle shear mode to a flexural ductile one. Furthermore, the study depicts that kenaf fibres are compatible with OPSRC and suggest prospective results.

Keywords: Ductility, oil palm shell reinforced concrete, kenaf fibres, peak strength

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29 Shear Strengthening of RC T-Beams by Means of CFRP Sheets

Authors: Omar A. Farghal


This research aimed to experimentally and analytically investigate the contribution of bonded web carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets to the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams. Two strengthening techniques using CFRP strips were applied along the shear-span zone: the first one is vertical U-jacket and the later is vertical strips bonded to the beam sides only. Fibers of both U-jacket and side sheets were vertically oriented (θ = 90°). Test results showed that the strengthening technique with U-jacket CFRP sheets improved the shear strength particularly. Three mechanisms of failure were recognized for the tested beams depending upon the end condition of the bonded CFRP sheet. Although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket CFRP sheets showed more or less a ductile behavior at a higher loading level up to a load level just before failure. As a consequence, these beams approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility. Moreover, the obtained results concerning both the strains induced in the CFRP sheets and the maximum loads are used to study the applicability of the analytical models proposed in this study (ACI code) to predict: the nominal shear strength of the strengthened beams.

Keywords: Ductility, carbon fiber reinforced polymer, wrapping, shear strengthening

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28 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi


Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: Failure, Ductility, connection, moment, flat slab, shear force, unbalanced moment, punching failure, interior-column connection

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27 Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, S. A. Anuar, M. H. Hashim, S. M. D. Salleh


This paper present the experimental work on the seismic performance of double unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested at ±0.01%, ±0.1%, ±0.25%, ±0.5%, ±0.75% and ±1.0% drifts until the structure achieves its strength degradation. After that, the TFB is repaired and retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet. A similar testing approach is applied to the specimen after repair and retrofit. The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength increases by 22 in pushing direction and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover, the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double unit TFB.

Keywords: Ductility, Stiffness, tunnel form building, in-plane lateral cyclic loading, crack pattern, lateral strength, equivalent viscous damping, repair and retrofit

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26 The Flexural Improvement of RC Beams Using an Inserted Plate between Concrete and FRP Bonding Surface

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon


The primary objective of this research is to improve the flexural capacity of FRP strengthened RC Beam structures with Aluminum and Titanium laminates. FRP rupture of flexural strengthened RC beams using FRP plates generally occurs at the interface between FRP plate and the beam. Therefore, in order to prevent brittle rupture and improve the ductility of the system, this research was performed by using Aluminum and Titanium materials between the two different structural systems. The research also aims to provide various strengthening/retrofitting methods for RC beam structures and to conduct a preliminary analysis of the demands on the structural systems. This was achieved by estimation using the experimental data from this research to identify a flexural capacity for the systems. Ultimately, the preliminary analysis of current study showed that the flexural capacity and system demand ductility was significantly improved by the systems inserted with Aluminum and Titanium anchor plates. Further verification of the experimental research is currently on its way to develop a new or reliable design guideline to retrofit/strengthen the concrete-FRP structural system can be evaluated.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Ductility, FRP laminate, flexural capacity

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25 An Investigation into the Interaction of Concrete Frames and Infilled Masonry Walls with Emphasis on the Connections

Authors: Hamid Fazlollahi, Behzad Rafezy, Hassan Afshin


There masonry infill increases the stiffness of reinforced concrete frames, thus increasing the force of the earthquake also the interaction between the frame and infill, which can have devastating effects on structures. In contrast presence of infill to increase the structural strength and stability. What is seen in the construction and design of structures has largely ignored the effects of infill and regardless infill structure and its positive and negative effects analyzes and designs, that it is not economically justified and the positive effects of positive infill to be increased and almost all of the useful capacity of moment frames used for infill. In this paper, by using ABAQUS software, reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill will be modeled, then add a mechanical rubber element to modify the interaction between the frame and infill and thus reduce the losses caused by the presence of infill explains. Finally, by comparing the analytical curves, benefits of this approach we will study and to present the results of the interaction between the frame and infill masonry needs modification and methods it will provide.

Keywords: Interaction, Ductility, masonry infill, mechanical rubber, reinforced concrete frame

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24 Seismic Retrofit of Rectangular Columns Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: E. L. Elghazy, A. M. Sanad, M. G. Ghoneim


Over the past two decades research has shown that fiber reinforced polymers can be efficiently, economically and safely used for strengthening and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Designing FRP confined concrete columns requires reliable analytical tools that predict the level of performance and ductility enhancement. A numerical procedure is developed aiming at determining the type and thickness of FRP jacket needed to achieve a certain level of ductility enhancement. The procedure starts with defining the stress strain curve, which is used to obtain moment curvature relationship then displacement ductility ratio of reinforced concrete cross-sections subjected to bending moment and axial force. Three sets of published experimental tests were used to validate the numerical procedure. Comparisons between predicted results obtained by using the proposed procedure and actual results of experimental tests proved the reliability of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Numerical, Columns, Ductility, FRP, confinement

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23 Preliminary Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Existing Historic Masonry Building in Pristina, Kosovo

Authors: Florim Grajcevci, Flamur Grajcevci, Fatos Tahiri, Hamdi Kurteshi


The territory of Kosova is actually included in one of the most seismic-prone regions in Europe. Therefore, the earthquakes are not so rare in Kosova; and when they occurred, the consequences have been rather destructive. The importance of assessing the seismic resistance of existing masonry structures has drawn strong and growing interest in the recent years. Engineering included those of Vulnerability, Loss of Buildings and Risk assessment, are also of a particular interest. This is due to the fact that this rapidly developing field is related to great impact of earthquakes on the socioeconomic life in seismic-prone areas, as Kosova and Prishtina are, too. Such work paper for Prishtina city may serve as a real basis for possible interventions in historic buildings as are museums, mosques, old residential buildings, in order to adequately strengthen and/or repair them, by reducing the seismic risk within acceptable limits. The procedures of the vulnerability assessment of building structures have concentrated on structural system, capacity, and the shape of layout and response parameters. These parameters will provide expected performance of the very important existing building structures on the vulnerability and the overall behavior during the earthquake excitations. The structural systems of existing historical buildings in Pristina, Kosovo, are dominantly unreinforced brick or stone masonry with very high risk potential from the expected earthquakes in the region. Therefore, statistical analysis based on the observed damage-deformation, cracks, deflections and critical building elements, would provide more reliable and accurate results for the regional assessments. The analytical technique was used to develop a preliminary evaluation methodology for assessing seismic vulnerability of the respective structures. One of the main objectives is also to identify the buildings that are highly vulnerable to damage caused from inadequate seismic performance-response. Hence, the damage scores obtained from the derived vulnerability functions will be used to categorize the evaluated buildings as “stabile”, “intermediate”, and “unstable”. The vulnerability functions are generated based on the basic damage inducing parameters, namely number of stories (S), lateral stiffness (LS), capacity curve of total building structure (CCBS), interstory drift (IS) and overhang ratio (OR).

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Vulnerability, Ductility, seismic microzone

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22 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Diagrid Components

Authors: Taejin Kim, Jong-Ho Kim, Heonwoo Lee, Dongchul Lee


Recently, there have been various high-rise building projects which reflect unique inspiration from architects to their feature. And it is frequently found that some of these buildings have diagrid structural system. Diagrid system provides engineers many options for structural plan, since it has triangular module so it can form a number of complex shapes. Unlike braced frame systems, diagonal members in diagrid system resist gravity and horizontal loads simultaneously. Correspondingly, diagrid members take roles of both beams and columns, and it is expected that their ductile capacity may depend on the amount of gravity loads. However, not enough studies have been made for this issue so far, which means that there is demand of examination on the seismic behavior of diagrid members under large gravity loads. Therefore, in this study, the ductile capacity of diagrid members was evaluated through analytical and experimental method. Several cases that have different vertical load condition were set up for both approaches to consider the effect of initial compression force due to gravity load. Regarding the result, it was found that buckling in a diagonal member occurs at smaller drift angle when larger gravity load acts on the specimen, which also reduces the amount of energy dissipation. It means that axial stress in a diagonal member reaches critical buckling force early due to the combined axial force from not only horizontal load but also gravity load.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, buckling, Ductility, diagrid

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21 Investigation on the Effect of Titanium (Ti) Plus Boron (B) Addition to the Mg-AZ31 Alloy in the as Cast and After Extrusion on Its Metallurgical and Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Raghad S. Hemeimat


Magnesium - aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are used in manufacturing a number of engineering and industrial parts in the automobile and aircraft industries due to their strength – to –weight -ratio. Against these preferable characteristics, magnesium is difficult to deform at room temperature therefore it is alloyed with other elements mainly Aluminum and Zinc to add some required properties particularly for their high strength - to -weight ratio. Mg and its alloys oxidize rapidly therefore care should be taken during melting or machining them; but they are not fire hazardous. Grain refinement is an important technology to improve the mechanical properties and the micro structure uniformity of the alloys. Grain refinement has been introduced in early fifties; when Cibula showed that the presence of Ti, and Ti+ B, produced a great refining effect in Al. since then it became an industrial practice to grain refine Al. Most of the published work on grain refinement was directed toward grain refining Al and Zinc alloys; however, the effect of the addition of rare earth material on the grain size or the mechanical behavior of Mg alloys has not been previously investigated. This forms the main objective of the research work; where, the effect of Ti addition on the grain size, mechanical behavior, ductility, and the extrusion force & energy consumed in forward extrusion of Mg-AZ31 alloy is investigated and discussed in two conditions, first in the as cast condition and the second after extrusion. It was found that addition of Ti to Mg- AZ31 alloy has resulted in reduction of its grain size by 14%; the reduction in grain size after extrusion was much higher. However the increase in Vicker’s hardness was 3% after the addition of Ti in the as cast condition, and higher values for Vicker’s hardness were achieved after extrusion. Furthermore, an increase in the strength coefficient by 36% was achieved with the addition of Ti to Mg-AZ31 alloy in the as cast condition. Similarly, the work hardening index was also increased indicating an enhancement of the ductility and formability. As for the extrusion process, it was found that the force and energy required for the extrusion were both reduced by 57% and 59% with the addition of Ti.

Keywords: Ductility, direct extrusion, cast condition, MgAZ31 alloy, super - plasticity

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20 Durability of Lime Treated Soil Reinforced by Natural Fibre under Bending Force

Authors: Vivi Anggraini, Afshin Asadi, Bujang B. K. Huat


Earth structures constructed of marine clay soils have tendency to crack. In order to improve the flexural strength and brittleness, a technique of mixing short fibers is introduced to the soil lime mixture. Coir fiber was used in this study as reinforcing elements. An experimental investigation consisting primarily of flexural tensile tests was conducted to examine the influence of coir fibers on the flexural behaviour of the reinforced soils. The test results demonstrated that the coir fibers were effective in improving the flexural strength and young’s modulus of all soils were examined and ductility after peak strength for reinforced marine clay soil was treated by lime. 5% lime treated soil and 1% coir fiber reinforced soil specimen’s demonstrated good strength and durability when submerged in water and retained 45% of their air-cured strengths.

Keywords: lime, Ductility, flexural strength, durabilty, coir fibers, bending force

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19 Seismic Performance of Two-Storey RC Frame Designed EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, A. Azmi, M. I. Adiyanto


This main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the seismic performance of double bay two-storey reinforced concrete frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading which designed using Eurocode 8 (EC8) by taking into account of seismic loading. The prototype model of reinforced concrete frame was constructed in one-half scale tested under in-plane lateral cyclic loading starts with ±0.2% drift, ±0.25% up to ±3.0% drift with the increment of ±0.25%. The performance of the RC frame is evaluated in terms of the hysteresis loop (load vs. displacement), stiffness, ductility, lateral strength, stress-strain relationship and equivalent viscous damping. Visual observation of the crack pattern after testing were observed where the beam- column joint suffer the most severe damage as it is the critical part in moment resisting frame. Spalling of concrete starts occurred at ±2.0% drift and become worse at ±2.5% drift. The experimental result shows that the maximum lateral strength of specimen is 99.98 kN and ductility of the specimen is µ=4.07 which lies between 3≤µ≤6 in order to withstand moderate to severe earthquakes.

Keywords: Ductility, Stiffness, hysteresis loops, lateral strength, equivalent viscous damping

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18 An Experimental Analysis of Squeeze Casting Parameters for 2017 a Wrought Al Alloy

Authors: Mohamed Ben Amar, Najib Souissi, Chedly Bradai


A Taguchi design investigation has been made into the relationship between the ductility and process variables in a squeeze cast 2017A wrought aluminium alloy. The considered process parameters were: squeeze pressure, melt temperature and die preheating temperature. An orthogonal array (OA), main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to analyze the effect of casting parameters. The results have shown that the selected parameters significantly affect the ductility of 2017A wrought Al alloy castings. Optimal squeeze cast process parameters were provided to illustrate the proposed approach and the results were proven to be trustworthy through practical experiments.

Keywords: Microstructure, process parameters, Ductility, Taguchi method, squeeze casting

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17 Effects of Applied Pressure and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Squeeze Cast Al-Si Alloy Were Examined

Authors: Mohamed Ben Amar, Henda Barhoumi, Hokia Siala, Foued Elhalouani


The present contribution consists of a purely experimental investigation on the effect of Squeeze casting on the micro structural and mechanical propriety of Al-Si alloys destined to automotive industry. Accordingly, we have proceeding, by ourselves, to all the thermal treatment consisting of solution treatment at 540°C for 8h and aging at 160°C for 4h. The various thermal treatment, have been carried out in order to monitor the processes of formation and dissolution accompanying the solid state phase transformations as well as the resulting changes in the mechanical proprieties. The examination of the micrographs of the aluminum alloys reveals the dominant presence of dendrite. Concerning the mechanical characteristic the Vickers micro-hardness curve an increase as a function of the pressure. As well as the heat treatment increase mechanical propriety such that pressure and micro hardness. The curves have been explained in terms of structural hardening resulting from the various compounds formation.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, process parameters, Ductility, squeeze casting

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16 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation on the Dynamic Behavior of the Building

Authors: Yassine Sadji


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities, and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accélérogramme) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Seismic, Structure, response, Ductility, irregularity

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15 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation

Authors: Houmame Benbouali


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Seismic, Structure, response, Ductility, irregularity

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14 Influence of Slenderness Ratio on the Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Portal Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Hamizi Mohand, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Nekmouche Aghiles, Titouche Billal


The ductility is an important parameter in the nonlinear behavior of portal structures reinforced concrete. It may be explained by the ability of the structure to deform in the plastic range, or the geometric characteristics in the map may influence the overall ductility. Our study is based on the influence of geometric slenderness (Lx / Ly) on the overall ductility of these structures, a study is made on a structure has 05 floors with varying the column section of 900 cm², 1600 cm² and 1225 cm². A slight variation in global ductility is noticed as (Lx/Ly) varies; however, column sections can control satisfactorily the plastic behavior of buildings.

Keywords: Pushover Analysis, Structural Behavior, Ductility, Nonlinear Behavior, geometric slenderness

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13 Use of PET Fibers for Enhancing the Ductility of Exterior RC Beam-Column Connections Subjected to Reversed Cyclic Loading

Authors: Comingstarful Marthong, Shembiang Marthong


Application of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber for enhancing the seismic performance of exterior RC beam-column connections in substitution of steel fibers is experimentally investigated. The study involves the addition of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber-reinforced concrete, i.e., PFRC at the joint region of the connection. The PET fiber of 0.5% volume fraction used in the PFRC mix is obtained by hand cutting of post-consumer PET bottles. Specimens design as per relevant codes was casted and tested to reverse cyclic loading. PFRC specimen was also casted and subjected to similar loading sequence. Test results established that addition of PET fibers in the joint region is effective in enhancing the displacement ductility and energy dissipation capacity. The improvement of damage indices and principal tensile stresses of PFRC specimens gave experimental evidence of the suitability of PET fibers as a discrete reinforcement in the substitution of steel fiber for structural use.

Keywords: Ductility, beam-column connections, polyethylene terephthalate fibers reinforced concrete, joint region, seismic capacity

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12 Seismic Response of Structures of Reinforced Concrete Buildings: Regular and Irregular Configurations

Authors: Abdelhammid Chibane


Often, for architectural reasons or designs, several buildings have a non-uniform profile in elevation. Depending on the configuration of the construction and the arrangements structural elements, the non-uniform profile in elevation (the recess) is considered concept of a combination of non-uniform distributions of strength, stiffness, weight and geometry along the height of irregular structures. Therefore, this type of configuration can induce irregular distribution load causing a serious concentration stresses at the discontinuity. This therefore requires a serious behavioral treatment buildings in an earthquake. If appropriate measures are not taken into account, structural irregularity may become a major source of damage during earthquakesEarth. In the past, several research investigations have identified differences in dynamic response of irregular and regular porches. Among the most notable differences are the increments of displacements and ductility applications in floors located above the level of the shoulder and an increase in the contribution of the higher modes cisaillement1 efforts, ..., 10. The para -ssismiques codes recommend the methods of analysis Dynamic (or modal history) to establish the forces of calculation instead of the static method equivalent, which is basically applicable only to regular structures without major discontinuities in the mass, rigidity and strength along the height 11, 12 .To investigate the effects of irregular profiles on the structures, the main objective of this study was the assessment of the inelastic response, in terms of applications of ductility four types of non-uniform multi-stage structures subjected to relatively severe earthquakes. In the This study, only the parallel responses are analyzed setback.

Keywords: Buildings, Designs, Ductility, concentration stresses, irregular structures

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11 Seismic Performance of Micropiles in Sand with Predrilled Oversized Holes

Authors: Cui Fu, Yi-Zhou Zhuang, Sheng-Zhi Wang


Full scale tests of six micropiles with different predrilled-hole parameters under low frequency cyclic lateral loading in-sand were carried out using the MTS hydraulic loading system to analyze the seismic performance of micropiles. Hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, energy dissipation capacity and ductility of micropiles were investigated. The experimental results show the hysteresis curves appear like plump bows in the elastic–plastic stage and failure stage which exhibit good hysteretic characteristics without pinching phenomena and good energy dissipating capacities. The ductility coefficient varies from 2.51 to 3.54 and the depth and loose backfill of oversized holes can improve ductility, but the diameter of predrilled-hole has a limited effect on enhancing its ductility. These findings and conclusions could make contribution to the practical application of the semi-integral abutment bridges and provide a reference for the predrilled oversized hole technology in integral abutment bridges.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, Ductility, energy dissipation capacity, micropile with predrilled oversized hole, semi-integral abutment bridge

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10 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally


This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: Strength, Ductility, ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, rectangularity ratio

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9 Study on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) Beams on Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: K. Bala Subramanian, A. Siva, Kinson Prabu


Concrete is widely used construction materials all over the world. Now a day’s fibers are used in this construction due to its advantages like increase in stiffness, energy absorption, ductility and load carrying capacity. The fiber used in the concrete to increases the structural integrity of the member. It is one of the emerging techniques used in the construction industry. In this paper, the effective utilization of high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams has been experimental investigated. The experimental investigation has been conducted on different steel fibers (Hooked, Crimpled, and Hybrid) under cyclic loading. The behaviour of HPFRC beams is compared with the conventional beams. Totally four numbers of specimens were cast with different content of fiber concrete and compared conventional concrete. The fibers are added to the concrete by base volume replacement of concrete. The silica fume and superplasticizers were used to modify the properties of concrete. Single point loading was carried out for all the specimens, and the beam specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The load-deflection behaviour of fibers is compared with the conventional concrete. The ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and ductility of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete is higher than the conventional concrete by 5% to 10%.

Keywords: Structural Integrity, Ductility, cyclic loading, high performance fiber reinforced concrete

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8 Vulnerability Assessment of Vertically Irregular Structures during Earthquake

Authors: Pranab Kumar Das


Vulnerability assessment of buildings with irregularity in the vertical direction has been carried out in this study. The constructions of vertically irregular buildings are increasing in the context of fast urbanization in the developing countries including India. During two reconnaissance based survey performed after Nepal earthquake 2015 and Imphal (India) earthquake 2016, it has been observed that so many structures are damaged due to the vertically irregular configuration. These irregular buildings are necessary to perform safely during seismic excitation. Therefore, it is very urgent demand to point out the actual vulnerability of the irregular structure. So that remedial measures can be taken for protecting those structures during natural hazard as like earthquake. This assessment will be very helpful for India and as well as for the other developing countries. A sufficient number of research has been contributed to the vulnerability of plan asymmetric buildings. In the field of vertically irregular buildings, the effort has not been forwarded much to find out their vulnerability during an earthquake. Irregularity in vertical direction may be caused due to irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and geometrically irregular configuration. Detailed analysis of such structures, particularly non-linear/ push over analysis for performance based design seems to be challenging one. The present paper considered a number of models of irregular structures. Building models made of both reinforced concrete and brick masonry are considered for the sake of generality. The analyses are performed with both help of finite element method and computational method.The study, as a whole, may help to arrive at a reasonably good estimate, insight for fundamental and other natural periods of such vertically irregular structures. The ductility demand, storey drift, and seismic response study help to identify the location of critical stress concentration. Summarily, this paper is a humble step for understanding the vulnerability and framing up the guidelines for vertically irregular structures.

Keywords: Vulnerability, Ductility, stress concentration, vertically irregular structure

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7 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi


If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, Ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

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6 Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders

Authors: Jeon Chi-Ho, Lee Jae-Bin, Shim Chang-Su


National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.

Keywords: Corrosion, Strength, Ductility, tendon, prestressed concrete bridge

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5 Experimental Investigation of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) Wrap

Authors: Sana Gul, Furqan Farooq, Arslan Akbar


Inadequate design of seismic structures and use of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) remains the major aspect of structure failure. Parametric investigation (LSC) beams based on experimental work using externally applied Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) warp in flexural behavior is studied. The ambition is to know the behavior of beams under loading condition, and its strengthening enhancement after inducing crack is studied, Moreover comparison of results using abacus software is studied. Results show significant enhancement in load carrying capacity, experimental work is compared with abacus software. The research is based on the conclusion that various existing structure but inadequacy in seismic design could increase the load carrying capacity by applying CFRP techniques, which not only strengthened but also provide them to resist even larger potential earthquake by improving its strength as well as ductility.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Strengthening, Carbon Fiber, Ductility

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4 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan


This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: Ductility, Plate, deflection, concrete beam

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3 Square Concrete Columns under Axial Compression

Authors: Suniti Suparp, Panuwat Joyklad, Qudeer Hussain


This is a well-known fact that the actual latera forces due to natural disasters, for example, earthquakes, floods and storms are difficult to predict accurately. Among these natural disasters, so far, the highest amount of deaths and injuries have been recorded for the case of earthquakes all around the world. Therefore, there is always an urgent need to establish suitable strengthening methods for existing concrete and steel structures. This paper is investigating the structural performance of square concrete columns strengthened using low cost and easily available steel clamps. The salient features of these steel clamps are comparatively low cost, easy availability and ease of installation. To achieve research objectives, a large-scale experimental program was established in which a total number of 12 square concrete columns were constructed and tested under pure axial compression. Three square concrete columns were tested without any steel lamps to serve as a reference specimen. Whereas, remaining concrete columns were externally strengthened using steel clamps. The steel clamps were installed at a different spacing to investigate the best configuration of the steel clamps. The experimental results indicate that steel clamps are very effective in altering the structural performance of the square concrete columns. The square concrete columns externally strengthened using steel clamps demonstrate higher load carrying capacity and ductility as compared with the control specimens.

Keywords: Concrete, steel, Strength, Columns, Ductility, axial compression, pre-stressed, Clamps, stress and strain

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2 Experimental Characterization of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips

Authors: Djamal Atlaoui, Youcef Bouafia


This work deals with the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, by shear tests (fracture shear), elements of concrete beams reinforced with fibers in chips. These fibers come from the machining waste of the steel parts. The shear tests are carried out on prismatic specimens of dimensions (10x20x120) cm³. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%), of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a Sable on Gravel ratio equal to one (S / G = 1). The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used to limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.

Keywords: Characterization, Ductility, shear, cracking mode, chips fibers, undulation

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1 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Strengthening with Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Abdulsamee Halahla, Emad Allout


The purpose of this research is to study the behavior of exterior beam-column joints (BCJs) strengthened with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), in terms of the shear strength and maximum displacement using pushover analysis at the tip of the beam. A finite element (F.E) analysis was performed to study three main parameters – the level of the axial load in the column (N), the beam shear reinforcement (Av/s)B, and the effect of using UHPC. The normal concrete at the studied joint region was replaced by UHPC. The model was verified by using experimental results taken from the literature. The results showed that the UHPC contributed to the transference of the plastic hinge from the joint to the beam-column interface. In addition, the strength of the UHPC-strengthened joints was enhanced dramatically from 8% to 38% for the joints subjected to 12.8MPa and zero axial loads, respectively. Moreover, the UHPC contributed in improving the maximum deflection. This improvement amounted to 1% and 176% for the joints subjected to zero and 12.8MPa axial load, respectively.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Ductility, Ultra High Performance Concrete, reinforced concrete joints, nonlinear behavior; pushover analysis

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