Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

drying time Related Abstracts

4 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Lyophilization Using Vacuum-Induced Freezing

Authors: Erika K. Méndez, Carlos E. Orrego, Natalia A. Salazar, Catalina Álvarez

Abstract:

Lyophilization, also called freeze-drying, is an important dehydration technique mainly used for pharmaceuticals. Food industry also uses lyophilization when it is important to retain most of the nutritional quality, taste, shape and size of dried products and to extend their shelf life. Vacuum-Induced during freezing cycle (VI) has been used in order to control ice nucleation and, consequently, to reduce the time of primary drying cycle of pharmaceuticals preserving quality properties of the final product. This procedure has not been applied in freeze drying of foods. The present work aims to investigate the effect of VI on the lyophilization drying time, final moisture content, density and reconstitutional properties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) slices (MS) and mango pulp-maltodextrin dispersions (MPM) (30% concentration of total solids). Control samples were run at each freezing rate without using induced vacuum. The lyophilization endpoint was the same for all treatments (constant difference between capacitance and Pirani vacuum gauges). From the experimental results it can be concluded that at the high freezing rate (0.4°C/min) reduced the overall process time up to 30% comparing process time required for the control and VI of the lower freeze rate (0.1°C/min) without affecting the quality characteristics of the dried product, which yields a reduction in costs and energy consumption for MS and MPM freeze drying. Controls and samples treated with VI at freezing rate of 0.4°C/min in MS showed similar results in moisture and density parameters. Furthermore, results from MPM dispersion showed favorable values when VI was applied because dried product with low moisture content and low density was obtained at shorter process time compared with the control. There were not found significant differences between reconstitutional properties (rehydration for MS and solubility for MPM) of freeze dried mango resulting from controls, and VI treatments.

Keywords: mango, drying time, lyophilization, vacuum induced freezing

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3 Improvement in Drying Characteristics of Raisin by Carbonic Maceration– Process Optimization

Authors: Nursac Akyol, Merve S. Turan, Mustafa Ozcelik, Erdogan Kucukoner, Erkan Karacabey

Abstract:

Traditional raisin production is a long time drying process under sunlight. During this procedure, grapes are open to some environmental effects besides the adverse effects of the long drying period. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternative method being applicable instead of traditional one. To this extent, a combination of a potential pretreatment (carbonic maceration, CM) with convectional oven drying was examined. CM application was used in raisin production (grape drying) as a pretreatment process before oven drying. Pressure, temperature and time were examined as application parameters of CM. In conventional oven drying, the temperature is a process variable. The aim is to find out how CM and convectional drying processes affect the drying characteristics of grapes as well as their physical and chemical properties. For this purpose, the response surface method was used to determine both the effects of the variables and the optimum pretreatment and drying conditions. The optimum conditions of CM for raisin production were 0.3 MPa of pressure value, 4°C of application temperature and 8 hours of application time. The optimized drying temperature was 77°C. The results showed that the application of CM before the drying process improved the drying characteristics. Drying took only 389 minutes for grapes pretreated by CM under optimum conditions and 495 minutes for the control group dried only by the conventional drying process. According to these results, a decrease of 21% was achieved in the time requirement for raisin production. Also, it was observed that the samples dried under optimum conditions had similar physical properties as those the control group had. It was seen that raisin, which was dried under optimum conditions were in better condition in terms of some of the bioactive contents compared to control groups. In light of all results, it is seen that CM has an important potential in the industrial drying of grape samples. The current study was financially supported by TUBITAK, Turkey (Project no: 116R038).

Keywords: Pretreatment, total phenolic, drying time, response surface methodlogy

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2 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli

Abstract:

This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.

Keywords: Activation Energy, moisture ratio, drying time, drying model, diffusion coefficients, ginger rhizomes, thin layer

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1 Investigation of the Drying Times of Blood under Different Environmental Conditions and on Different Fabrics and the Transfer of Blood at Different Times of the Drying Process

Authors: Peter Parkinson

Abstract:

The research investigates the effects of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric composition on the drying times of blood and assesses the degree of blood transfer that can occur during the drying process. An assortment of fabrics, of different composition and thicknesses, were collected and stained using two blood volumes and exposed to varying environmental conditions. The conclusion reached was that temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric thickness do have an effect on drying times. An increase in temperature and wind speed results in a decrease in drying times while an increase in fabric thickness and humidity extended the drying times of blood under similar conditions. Transfer experimentation utilized three donor fabrics, 100% white cotton, 100% acrylic, and 100% cotton denim, which were bloodstained using two blood volumes. The fabrics were subjected to both full and low/light force contact from the donor fabrics onto the recipient fabric, under different environmental conditions. Transfer times onto the 100% white cotton (recipient fabric) from all donor fabrics were shorter than the drying times observed. The intensities of the bloodstains decreased from high to low with time during the drying process. The degree of transfer at high, medium, and low intensities varied significantly between different materials and is dependent on the environmental conditions, fabric compositions, blood volumes, the type of contact (full or light force), and the drying times observed for the respective donor fabrics. These factors should be considered collectively and conservatively when assessing the time frame of secondary transfer in casework.

Keywords: Blood, Fabrics, drying time, blood stain transfer, different environmental conditions

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