Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Drug Related Abstracts

8 Drug Use Knowledge and Antimicrobial Drug Use Behavior

Authors: Pimporn Thongmuang

Abstract:

The import value of antimicrobial drugs reached approximately fifteen million Baht in 2010, considered as the highest import value of all modern drugs, and this value is rising every year. Antimicrobials are considered the hazardous drugs by the Ministry of Public Health. This research was conducted in order to investigate the past knowledge of drug use and Antimicrobial drug use behavior. A total of 757 students were selected as the samples out of a population of 1,800 students. This selected students had the experience of Antimicrobial drugs use a year ago. A questionnaire was utilized in this research. The findings put on the view that knowledge gained by the students about proper use of antimicrobial drugs was not brought into practice. This suggests that the education procedure regarding drug use needs adjustment. And therefore the findings of this research are expected to be utilized as guidelines for educating people about the proper use of antimicrobial drugs. At a broader perspective, correct drug use behavior of the public may potentially reduce drug cost of the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand.

Keywords: Drug, Antimicrobial Drugs, drug use knowledge, drug use behavior

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7 Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist Drug on Extracellular Lipase Activityof Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, rode shape and aerobic bacterium that has shown to be resistance to many antibiotics. This resistance makes the bacterium very harmful in some diseases. It can also generate diseases in any part of the gastrointestinal tract from oropharynx to rectum. P. aeruginosa has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. One of the most important reasons that make P. aeruginosa an emerging opportunistic pathogen in patients is its ability to use various compounds as carbon sources. Lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of lipid substrate. Some lipases are expressed and secreted by pathogenic organisms during the infection. Muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. The drug has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms. Aim: In this study the inhibitory effect of a muscarinic antagonist on lipase of P. aeruginosa was investigated. Methods: P. aeruginosa was cultured in minimal salt medium with 1% olive oil as carbon source. The cells were harvested and the supernatant, which contained lipase, was used for enzyme assay. Results: Our results showed that the drug can inhibit P. aeruginosa lipase by competitive manner. In the presence of different concentrations of the drug, the Vmax (2 mmol/min/mg protein) of enzyme did not change, while the Km raised by increasing the drug concentration. The Ki (inhibition constant) and IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of drug was estimated to be about 30 uM and 60 uM which determined that the drug binds to enzyme with high affinity. Maximum activity of the enzyme was observed at pH 8 in the absence and presence of muscarinic antagonist, respectively. The maximum activity of lipase was observed at 600C and the enzyme became inactive at 900C. Conclusion: The muscarinic antagonist drug could inhibit lipase of P. aeruginosa and changed the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. The drug binded to enzyme with high affinity and did not chang the optimum pH of the enzyme. Temperature did not affect the binding of drug to musmuscarinic antagonist.

Keywords: enzyme, Drug, inhibition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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6 Kinetic and Thermodynamics of Sorption of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fl) on Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Muhammad Imran Din

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to understand the interaction between multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MCNTs) and anticancer agents and evaluate the drug-loading ability of MCNTs. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for adsorption of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FL) using MCNTs. The effect of various operating variables, viz., adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature for adsorption of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FL) has been studied. The Freundlich adsorption model was successfully employed to describe the adsorption process. It was found that the pseudo-second-order mechanism is predominant and the overall rate of the 5-Fluorouracil (5-FL) adsorption process appears to be controlled by the more than one-step. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) have been calculated respectively, revealed the spontaneous, endothermic and feasible nature of adsorption process. The results showed that carbon nano tubes were able to form supra molecular complexes with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FL) by π-π stacking and possessed favorable loading properties as drug carriers.

Keywords: Adsorption, Drug, anticancer

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5 Measure of Pleasure of Drug Users

Authors: Vano Tsertsvadze, Marina Chavchanidze, Lali Khurtsia

Abstract:

Problem of drug use is often seen as a combination of psychological and social problems, but this problem can be considered as economically rational decision in the process of buying pleasure (looking after children, reading, harvesting fruits in the fall, sex, eating, etc.). Before the adoption of the decisions people face to a trade-off - when someone chooses a delicious meal, she takes a completely rational decision, that the pleasure of eating has a lot more value than the pleasure which she will experience after two months diet on the summer beach showing off her beautiful body. This argument is also true for alcohol, drugs and cigarettes. Smoking has a negative effect on health, but smokers are not afraid of the threat of a lung cancer after 40 years, more valuable moment is a pleasure from smoking. Our hypothesis - unsatisfied pleasure and frustration, probably determines the risk of dependence on drug abuse. The purpose of research: 1- to determine the relative measure unit of pleasure, which will be used to measure and assess the intensity of various human pleasures. 2- to compare the intensity of the pleasure from different kinds of activity, with pleasures received from drug use. 3- Based on the analysis of data, to identify factors affecting the rational decision making. Research method: Respondents will be asked to recall the greatest pleasure of their life, which will be used as a measure of the other pleasures. The study will use focus groups and structured interviews.

Keywords: Measurement, Drug, satisfaction, drug-user

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4 Electrospinning of Nanofibrous Meshes and Surface-Modification for Biomedical Application

Authors: Hyuk Sang Yoo, Young Ju Son, Wei Mao, Myung Gu Kang, Sol Lee

Abstract:

Biomedical applications of electrospun nanofibrous meshes have been received tremendous attentions because of their unique structures and versatilities as biomaterials. Incorporation of growth factors in fibrous meshes can be performed by surface-modification and encapsulation. Those growth factors stimulate differentiation and proliferation of specific types of cells and thus lead tissue regenerations of specific cell types. Topographical cues of electrospun nanofibrous meshes also increase differentiation of specific cell types according to alignments of fibrous structures. Wound healing treatments of diabetic ulcers were performed using nanofibrous meshes encapsulating multiple growth factors. Aligned nanofibrous meshes and those with random configuration were compared for differentiating mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells. Thus, nanofibrous meshes can be applied to drug delivery carriers and matrix for promoting cellular proliferation.

Keywords: tissue, Nanofiber, Drug, Mesh

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3 Monitoring of Cannabis Cultivation with High-Resolution Images

Authors: Levent Basayigit, Sinan Demir, Burhan Kara, Yusuf Ucar

Abstract:

Cannabis is mostly used for drug production. In some countries, an excessive amount of illegal cannabis is cultivated and sold. Most of the illegal cannabis cultivation occurs on the lands far from settlements. In farmlands, it is cultivated with other crops. In this method, cannabis is surrounded by tall plants like corn and sunflower. It is also cultivated with tall crops as the mixed culture. The common method of the determination of the illegal cultivation areas is to investigate the information obtained from people. This method is not sufficient for the determination of illegal cultivation in remote areas. For this reason, more effective methods are needed for the determination of illegal cultivation. Remote Sensing is one of the most important technologies to monitor the plant growth on the land. The aim of this study is to monitor cannabis cultivation area using satellite imagery. The main purpose of this study was to develop an applicable method for monitoring the cannabis cultivation. For this purpose, cannabis was grown as single or surrounded by the corn and sunflower in plots. The morphological characteristics of cannabis were recorded two times per month during the vegetation period. The spectral signature library was created with the spectroradiometer. The parcels were monitored with high-resolution satellite imagery. With the processing of satellite imagery, the cultivation areas of cannabis were classified. To separate the Cannabis plots from the other plants, the multiresolution segmentation algorithm was found to be the most successful for classification. WorldView Improved Vegetative Index (WV-VI) classification was the most accurate method for monitoring the plant density. As a result, an object-based classification method and vegetation indices were sufficient for monitoring the cannabis cultivation in multi-temporal Earthwiev images.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Drug, Cannabis, Object-Based Classification

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2 Role of Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Diseases and Drug Discovery in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Authors: Neelam Rashid, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Syed Nasar Shah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to study the role of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments in Azad Kashmir. Various ethno medicinal surveys were carried out during 2016 to enlist the uses of plants against various ailments by rural communities of the area. Information was obtained from 60 local people including 45 males (10 traditional health practitioners) and 15 females by semi structured interviews and group discussions. 65 plant species belonging to 45 families were reported. The dominant plant habit was herbaceous (56%) while decoction was the most common method of utilization (40%). The most cited turmoil was the gastrointestinal disorders. The data obtained were analyzed using ethno medicinal indices such as FL, UV, ICF, FC, and RFC. Results revealed that various species had numerous uses in curing of diseases. So conservation of biodiversity of these medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can play important role in improving the local health conditions of rural people and modern drug discovery and development.

Keywords: Health, Medicinal Plants, traditional, Drug, ailments

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1 Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside a 3D Carotid Model

Authors: E. G. Karvelas, C. Liosis, A. Theodorakakos, T. E. Karakasidis

Abstract:

Magnetic navigation of the drug inside the human vessels is a very important concept since the drug is delivered to the desired area. Consequently, the quantity of the drug required to reach therapeutic levels is being reduced while the drug concentration at targeted sites is increased. Magnetic navigation of drug agents can be achieved with the use of magnetic nanoparticles where anti-tumor agents are loaded on the surface of the nanoparticles. The magnetic field that is required to navigate the particles inside the human arteries is produced by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device. The main factors which influence the efficiency of the usage of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications in magnetic driving are the size and the magnetization of the biocompatible nanoparticles. In this study, a computational platform for the simulation of the optimal gradient magnetic fields for the navigation of magnetic nanoparticles inside a carotid artery is presented. For the propulsion model of the particles, seven major forces are considered, i.e., the magnetic force from MRIs main magnet static field as well as the magnetic field gradient force from the special propulsion gradient coils. The static field is responsible for the aggregation of nanoparticles, while the magnetic gradient contributes to the navigation of the agglomerates that are formed. Moreover, the contact forces among the aggregated nanoparticles and the wall and the Stokes drag force for each particle are considered, while only spherical particles are used in this study. In addition, gravitational forces due to gravity and the force due to buoyancy are included. Finally, Van der Walls force and Brownian motion are taken into account in the simulation. The OpenFoam platform is used for the calculation of the flow field and the uncoupled equations of particles' motion. To verify the optimal gradient magnetic fields, a covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES) is used in order to navigate the particles into the desired area. A desired trajectory is inserted into the computational geometry, which the particles are going to be navigated in. Initially, the CMAES optimization strategy provides the OpenFOAM program with random values of the gradient magnetic field. At the end of each simulation, the computational platform evaluates the distance between the particles and the desired trajectory. The present model can simulate the motion of particles when they are navigated by the magnetic field that is produced by the MRI device. Under the influence of fluid flow, the model investigates the effect of different gradient magnetic fields in order to minimize the distance of particles from the desired trajectory. In addition, the platform can navigate the particles into the desired trajectory with an efficiency between 80-90%. On the other hand, a small number of particles are stuck to the walls and remains there for the rest of the simulation.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Navigation, Drug, artery

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