Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

drug delivery Related Abstracts

46 The Next Generation of Mucoadhesive Polymer

Authors: Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch


Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate preactivated thiomers for their mucoadhesive potential. Methods: Accordingly, chitosan-thioglycolic-mercaptonicotinamide conjugates (chitosan-TGA-MNA) were synthesized by the oxidative S-S coupling of chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA) with 6-mercaptonicotin amide (MNA). Unmodified chitosan, chitosan-TGA (thiomers) and chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates were compressed into test discs to investigate cohesive properties, cytotoxicity assays and mucoadhesion studies. Results: Due to the immobilization of MNA, the chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates exhibit comparatively higher swelling properties and cohesive properties corresponding unmodified chitosan. On the rotating cylinder, discs based on chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates displayed 3.1-fold improved mucoadhesion time compared to thiolated polymers. Tensile study results were found in good agreement with rotating cylinder results. Moreover, preactivated thiomers showed higher stability. All polymers were found non-toxic over Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: On the basis of achieved results the pre activated thiomeric therapeutic agent seems to represent a promising generation of mucoadhesive polymers which are safe to use for a prolonged residence time to target the mucosa.

Keywords: drug delivery, Polymer, Biomedical Application, thiomer

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45 Formulation and Evaluation of Colon-Specific Drug Delivery System of Zaltoprofen

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere


Compression coating is one of the strategies for delivering drug to the colon based on Gastrointestinal PH and transit time concept. The main aim of these formulations to develop rapidly disintegrating Zaltoprofen core tablets compression-coated with a mixture of time-dependent hydrophilic swellable polymer HPMC K 15 and PH responsive soluble polymer Chitosan and Guar gum in different ratios. The effect of the proportion of HPMC, Chitosan and Guar gum in the coat on premature drug release in upper part (Stomach and small intestine) of GIT and the amount of drug release in colon target area was studied. The formulations are carried out by using Direct Compression method. Sodium starch Glycolate used for rapid disintegration. FTIR used for Drug-Polymer Interaction studies. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, in-vitro disintegration, in-Vitro dissolution and in-vitro kinetic study.

Keywords: drug delivery, Formulation, chitosan, zaltoprofen

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44 Tunable Control of Therapeutics Release from the Nanochannel Delivery System (nDS)

Authors: Thomas Geninatti, Bruno Giacomo, Alessandro Grattoni


Nanofluidic devices have been investigated for over a decade as promising platforms for the controlled release of therapeutics. The nanochannel drug delivery system (nDS), a membrane fabricated with high precision silicon techniques, capable of zero-order release of drugs by exploiting diffusion transport at the nanoscale originated from the interactions between molecules with nanochannel surfaces, showed the flexibility of the sustained release in vitro and in vivo, over periods of time ranging from weeks to months. To improve the implantable bio nanotechnology, in order to create a system that possesses the key features for achieve the suitable release of therapeutics, the next generation of nDS has been created. Platinum electrodes are integrated by e-beam deposition onto both surfaces of the membrane allowing low voltage (<2 V) and active temporal control of drug release through modulation of electrostatic potentials at the inlet and outlet of the membrane’s fluidic channels. Hence, a tunable administration of drugs is ensured from the nanochannel drug delivery system. The membrane will be incorporated into a peek implantable capsule, which will include drug reservoir, control hardware and RF system to allow suitable therapeutic regimens in real-time. Therefore, this new nanotechnology offers tremendous potential solutions to manage chronic disease such as cancer, heart disease, circadian dysfunction, pain and stress.

Keywords: drug delivery, Biomems, Nanoscale Transport, nanochannel membrane, tunable release, personalized administration

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43 Pharmaceutical Science and Development in Drug Research

Authors: Adegoke Yinka Adebayo


An understanding of the critical product attributes that impact on in vivo performance is key to the production of safe and effective medicines. Thus, a key driver for our research is the development of new basic science and technology underpinning the development of new pharmaceutical products. Research includes the structure and properties of drugs and excipients, biopharmaceutical characterisation, pharmaceutical processing and technology and formulation and analysis.

Keywords: drug delivery, Drug discovery, Drug Development

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42 Self-Assembled Nano Aggregates Based On Polyaspartamide Graft Copolymers for pH-Controlled Release of Doxorubicin

Authors: Van Tran Thi Thuy, Cheol Won Lim, Dukjoon Kim


A series of biodegradable copolymers based on polyaspartamide (PASPAM) were synthesized by grafting hydrophilic O-(2-aminoethyl)-O'-methylpoly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG), hydrophobic cholic acid (CA), and pH-sensitive hydrazine (Hyd) segments on a PASPAM backbone. The hydrazine group was effectively cleaved to release doxorubicin (DOX) conjugated on PASPAM in an acidic environment. The chemical structure of the polymer and the degree of substitution of each graft segment were analyzed using FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The size of the MPEG/Hyd/CA-g-PASPAM copolymer self-aggregates was examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mean diameter of the self - aggregates increased from 125 to 200 nm at pH 7.4, as the degree of substitution of CA increased from 10 to 20 %. The release kinetics of DOX was strongly affected by the pH of the releasing medium. While less than 30% of the DOX-loaded was released in about 30 h at pH 7.4, more than 60% was released at pH 5.0 within the same time. The viability tests of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human embryonic kidney cells (293T) show the potential application of MPEG/Hyd/CA-g-PASPAM copolymer self-aggregates in the controlled intracellular delivery for cancer treatments.

Keywords: Self-Assembly, drug delivery, pH-sensitive, polyaspartamide, nano-aggregates

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41 Development and in vitro Characterization of Loteprednol Etabonate-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Sah, Preeti K. Suresh


Effective drug delivery to the eye is a massive challenge, due to complicated physiological ocular barriers, rapid washout by tear and nasolachrymal drainage. Thus, most of the conventional ophthalmic formulations face the problem of low ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic drug therapy can be improved by enhancing the precorneal drug retention along with improved drug penetration. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a biodegradable polymer poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) coated nanoparticulate carrier of loteprednol etabonate. PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method using high-speed homogenizer followed by sonication. The nanoparticles were characterized for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release profile and stability. The prepared nanocarriers displayed mean particle size in the range of 271.7 to 424.4 nm, with zeta potential less than –10 mV. In vitro release in simulated tear fluid (STF) nanocarrier showed an extended release profile of loteprednol etabonate. TEM confirmed the spherical morphology and smooth surface of the particles. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable at varying temperatures.

Keywords: drug delivery, ocular delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, loteprednol etabonate

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40 Phage Capsid for Efficient Delivery of Cytotoxic Drugs

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova, Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez, Dita Munzova


The boom of nanomedicine in recent years has led to the development of numerous new nanomaterials that can be used as nanocarriers in the drug delivery. These nanocarriers can either be synthetic or natural-based. The disadvantage of many synthetic nanocarriers is their toxicity in patient’s body. Protein cages that can naturally be found in human body do not exhibit such disadvantage. However, the release of cargo from some protein cages in target cells can be problematic. As a special type of protein cages can serve the capsid of many viruses, including phage. Phages infect bacterial cells; therefore they are not harmful to human cells. The targeting of phage particles to cancer cells can be solved by producing of empty phage capsids during which the targeting moieties (e.g. peptides) can be cloned into genes of phage capsid to decorate its surface. Moreover, the produced capsids do not contain viral nucleic acid and are therefore not infectious to beneficial bacteria in the patient’s body. The protein cage composed of viral capsid is larger than other frequently used apoferritin cage but its size is still small enough to benefit from passive targeting by Enhanced Permeability and Retention effect. In this work, bacteriophage λ was used, both whole and its empty capsid for delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, etoposide and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in medium with 0.2 % maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by ultracentrifugation at 130 000 g and 4 °C for 3 h. The encapsulation of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25 µg/ml). Free molecules of drugs were removed by dialysis. The encapsulation was verified using spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods. The amount of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the amount of applied drug (determination coefficient R2=0.8013). 76% of applied drug was encapsulated in phage λ particles (concentration of 10 µg/ml), even with the highest applied concentration of drugs, 200 µg/ml. Only 1% of encapsulated drug was detected in phage DNA. Similar results were obtained with encapsulation in phage empty capsid. Therefore, it can be concluded that the encapsulation of drugs into phage particles is efficient and mostly occurs by interaction of drugs with protein capsid.

Keywords: drug delivery, cytostatics, nanocarriers, phage capsid

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39 Application of Low Frequency Ac Magnetic Field for Controlled Delivery of Drugs by Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: K. Yu Vlasova, M. A. Abakumov, H. Wishwarsao, M. Sokolsky, N. V. Nukolova, A. G. Majouga, Y. I. Golovin, N. L. Klyachko, A. V. Kabanov


Introduction:Nowadays pharmaceutical medicine is aimed to create systems for combined therapy, diagnostic, drug delivery and controlled release of active molecules to target cells. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used to achieve this aim. MNPs can be applied in molecular diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging (T1/T2 contrast agents), drug delivery, hyperthermia and could improve therapeutic effect of drugs. The most common drug containers, containing MNPs, are liposomes, micelles and polymeric molecules bonded to the MNPs surface. Usually superparamagnetic nanoparticles are used (the general diameter is about 5-6 nm) and all effects of high frequency magnetic field (MF) application are based on Neel relaxation resulting in heating of surrounded media. In this work we try to develop a new method to improve drug release from MNPs under super low frequency MF. We suppose that under low frequency MF exposures the Brown’s relaxation dominates and MNPs rotation could occur leading to conformation changes and release of bioactive molecules immobilized on MNPs surface.The aim of this work was to synthesize different systems with active drug (biopolymers coated MNPs nanoclusters with immobilized enzymes and doxorubicin (Dox) loaded magnetic liposomes/micelles) and investigate the effect of super low frequency MF on these drug containers. Methods: We have synthesized MNPs of magnetite with magnetic core diameter 7-12 nm . The MNPs were coated with block-copolymer of polylysine and polyethylene glycol. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was electrostatically adsorbed on the surface of the clusters. Liposomes were prepared as follow: MNPs, phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were dispersed in chloroform, dried to get film and then dispersed in distillated water, sonicated. Dox was added to the solution, pH was adjusted to 7.4 and excess of drug was removed by centrifugation through 3 kDa filters. Results: Polylysine coated MNPs formed nanosized clusters (as observed by TEM) with intensity average diameter of 112±5 nm and zeta potential 12±3 mV. After low frequency AC MF exposure we observed change of immobilized enzyme activity and hydrodynamic size of clusters. We suppose that the biomolecules (enzymes) are released from the MNPs surface followed with additional aggregation of complexes at the MF in medium. Centrifugation of the nanosuspension after AC MF exposures resulted in increase of positive charge of clusters and change in enzyme concentration in comparison with control sample without MF, thus confirming desorption of negatively charged enzyme from the positively charged surface of MNPs. Dox loaded magnetic liposomes had average diameter of 160±8 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) 0.25±0.07. Liposomes were stable in DW and PBS at pH=7.4 at 370C during a week. After MF application (10 min of exposure, 50 Hz, 230 mT) diameter of liposomes raised to 190±10 nm and PDI was 0.38±0.05. We explain this by destroying and/or reorganization of lipid bilayer, that leads to changes in release of drug in comparison with control without MF exposure. Conclusion: A new application of low frequency AC MF for drug delivery and controlled drug release was shown. Investigation was supported by RSF-14-13-00731 grant, K1-2014-022 grant.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, low frequency magnetic field, controlled drug release

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38 Preparation and Size Control of Sub-100 Nm Pure Nanodrugs

Authors: Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee


Pure nanodrugs (PNDs) – nanoparticles consisting entirely of drug molecules, have been considered as promising candidates for the next-generation nanodrugs. However, the traditional preparation method via reprecipitation faces critical challenges including low production rates, relatively large particle sizes and batch-to-batch variations. Here, for the first time, we successfully developed a novel, versatile and controllable strategy for preparing PNDs via an anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) template-assisted method. With this approach, we prepared PNDs of an anti-cancer drug (VM-26) with precisely controlled sizes reaching the sub-20 nm range. This template-assisted approach has much higher feasibility for mass production comparing to the conventional reprecipitation method and is beneficial for future clinical translation. The present method is further demonstrated to be easily applicable for a wide range of hydrophobic biomolecules without the need of custom molecular modifications and can be extended for preparing all-in-one nanostructures with different functional agents.

Keywords: drug delivery, Size Control, template, pure nanodrugs

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37 Self-Carried Theranostic Nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo Cancer Therapy with Real-Time Monitoring of Drug Release

Authors: Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee


The use of different nanocarriers for delivering hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents to tumor sites has garnered major attention. Despite the merits of these nanocarriers, further studies are needed for improving their drug loading capacities (typically less than 10%) and reducing their potential systemic toxicity. So development of alternative self-carried nanodrug delivery strategies without using any inert carriers is highly desirable. In this study, we developed a self-carried theranostic curcumin (Cur) nanodrug for highly effective cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo with real-time monitoring of drug release. With a biocompatible C18PMH-PEG functionalization, the Cur nanoparticles (NPs) showed excellent dispersibility and outstanding stability in physiological environment, with drug loading capacity higher than 78 wt.%. Both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed the cellular fluorescent “OFF-ON” activation and real-time monitoring of Cur molecule release, showing its potential for cancer diagnosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments clearly show that therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated Cur NPs is much better than that of free Cur. This self-carried theranostic strategy with real-time monitoring of drug release may open a new way for simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnosis.

Keywords: drug delivery, Real-Time Monitoring, in vitro and in vivo cancer therapy, self-carried

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36 Nanoscale Metal-Organic Framework Coated Carbon Nitride Nanosheet for Combination Cancer Therapy

Authors: Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee, Rui Chen


In the past couple of decades, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have been highlighted as promising delivery platforms for biomedical applications, which combine many potent features such as high loading capacity, progressive biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. While NMOF has been extensively used as carriers for drugs of different modalities, so far there is no report on exploiting the advantages of NMOF for combination therapy. Herein, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles, where each nanoparticle contains a single graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet encapsulated by a zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) shell. The g-C3N4 nanosheets are effective visible-light photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). When hosting DOX (doxorubicin), the as-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles could realize combinational photo-chemo therapy and provide dual-color fluorescence imaging. Therefore, we expect NMOFs-based core-shell nanoparticles could provide a new way to achieve much-enhanced cancer therapy.

Keywords: drug delivery, Carbon Nitride, combination therapy, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks

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35 Control of Doxorubicin Release Rate from Magnetic PLGA Nanoparticles Using a Non-Permanent Magnetic Field

Authors: Inês N. Peça, A. Bicho, Rui Gardner, M. Margarida Cardoso


Inorganic/organic nanocomplexes offer tremendous scope for future biomedical applications, including imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The combination of Fe3O4 with biocompatible polymers to produce smart drug delivery systems for use in pharmaceutical formulation present a powerful tool to target anti-cancer drugs to specific tumor sites through the application of an external magnetic field. In the present study, we focused on the evaluation of the effect of the magnetic field application time on the rate of drug release from iron oxide polymeric nanoparticles. Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, was selected as the model drug loaded into the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles composed of poly(d-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a biocompatible polymer already approved by FDA, containing iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) for magnetic targeting and doxorubicin (DOX) were synthesized by the o/w solvent extraction/evaporation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by dynamic light scattering (DLS), by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The produced particles yielded smooth surfaces and spherical shapes exhibiting a size between 400 and 600 nm. The effect of the magnetic doxorubicin loaded PLGA nanoparticles produced on cell viability was investigated in mammalian CHO cell cultures. The results showed that unloaded magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were nontoxic while the magnetic particles without polymeric coating show a high level of toxicity. Concerning the therapeutic activity doxorubicin loaded magnetic particles cause a remarkable enhancement of the cell inhibition rates compared to their non-magnetic counterpart. In vitro drug release studies performed under a non-permanent magnetic field show that the application time and the on/off cycle duration have a great influence with respect to the final amount and to the rate of drug release. In order to determine the mechanism of drug release, the data obtained from the release curves were fitted to the semi-empirical equation of the the Korsmeyer-Peppas model that may be used to describe the Fickian and non-Fickian release behaviour. Doxorubicin release mechanism has shown to be governed mainly by Fickian diffusion. The results obtained show that the rate of drug release from the produced magnetic nanoparticles can be modulated through the magnetic field time application.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, PLGA nanoparticles, controlled release rate

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34 Synthesis and Characterization of PH Sensitive Hydrogel and Its Application in Controlled Drug Release of Tramadol

Authors: Naima Bouslah, Leila Bounabi, Farid Ouazib, Nabila Haddadine


Conventional release dosage forms are known to provide an immediate release of the drug. Controlling the rate of drug release from polymeric matrices is very important for a number of applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical area. Hydrogels are polymers in three-dimensional network arrangement, which can absorb and retain large amounts of water without dissolution. They have been frequently used to develop controlled released formulations for oral administration because they can extend the duration of drug release and thus reduce dose to be administrated improving patient compliance. Tramadol is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. When taken as an immediate-release oral formulation, the onset of pain relief usually occurs within about an hour. In the present work, we synthesized pH-responsive hydrogels of (hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid), (HEMA-AA) for control drug delivery of tramadol in the gastro-intestinal tractus. The hydrogels with different acrylic acid content, were synthesized by free radical polymerization and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectroscopy has shown specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the carbonyl groups of the hydrogels and hydroxyl groups of tramadol. Both the XRD and DSC studies revealed that the introduction of tramadol in the hydrogel network induced the amorphization of the drug. The swelling behaviour, absorptive kinetics and the release kinetics of tramadol in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) were also investigated. The hydrogels exhibited pH-responsive behavior in the swelling study. The (HEMA-AA) hydrogel swelling was much higher in pH =7.4 medium. The tramadol release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). Using suitable mathematical models, the apparent diffusional coefficients and the corresponding kinetic parameters have been calculated.

Keywords: Hydrogels, drug delivery, tramadol, biopolymres

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33 Chitosan Functionalized [email protected] Core-Shell Nanomaterials for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: S. S. Pati, L. Herojit Singh, A. C. Oliveira, V. K. Garg


Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4-Au core shell nanoparticles have been prepared using a two step wet chemical approach using NaBH4 as reducing agent for formation of Au inethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction studies shows individual phases of Fe3O4 and Au in the as prepared samples with crystallite size of 5.9 and 11.4 nm respectively. The functionalization of the core-shell nanostructure with Chitosan has been confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with signatures of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of Fe3O4 below 600cm-1. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows decrease in particle-particle interaction in presence of Au shell (72% sextet) than pure oleic coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (88% sextet) at room temperature. At 80K, oleic acid coated Fe3O4 shows only sextets whereas the Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4 and Chitosan functionalized [email protected] core shell show presence of 5 and 11% doublet, respectively.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, core shell

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32 Green Synthesis (Using Environment Friendly Bacteria) of Silver-Nanoparticles and Their Application as Drug Delivery Agents

Authors: Suban K. Sahoo, Sutapa Mondal Roy


The primary aim of this work is to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through environmentally benign routes to avoid any chemical toxicity related undesired side effects. The nanoparticles were stabilized with drug ciprofloxacin (Cp) and were studied for their effectiveness as drug delivery agent. Targeted drug delivery improves the therapeutic potential of drugs at the diseased site as well as lowers the overall dose and undesired side effects. The small size of nanoparticles greatly facilitates the transport of active agents (drugs) across biological membranes and allows them to pass through the smallest capillaries in the body that are 5-6 μm in diameter, and can minimize possible undesired side effects. AgNPs are non-toxic, inert, stable, and has a high binding capacity and thus can be considered as biomaterials. AgNPs were synthesized from the nutrient broth supernatant after the culture of environment-friendly bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The AgNPs were found to show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 425 nm. The Cp capped Ag nanoparticles formation was complete within 30 minutes, which was confirmed from absorbance spectroscopy. Physico-chemical nature of the AgNPs-Cp system was confirmed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) etc. The AgNPs-Cp system size was found to be in the range of 30-40 nm. To monitor the kinetics of drug release from the surface of nanoparticles, the release of Cp was carried out by careful dialysis keeping AgNPs-Cp system inside the dialysis bag at pH 7.4 over time. The drug release was almost complete after 30 hrs. During the drug delivery process, to understand the AgNPs-Cp system in a better way, the sincere theoretical investigation is been performed employing Density Functional Theory. Electronic charge transfer, electron density, binding energy as well as thermodynamic properties like enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy etc. has been predicted. The electronic and thermodynamic properties, governed by the AgNPs-Cp interactions, indicate that the formation of AgNPs-Cp system is exothermic i.e. thermodynamically favorable process. The binding energy and charge transfer analysis implies the optimum stability of the AgNPs-Cp system. Thus, the synthesized Cp-Ag nanoparticles can be effectively used for biological purposes due to its environmentally benign routes of synthesis procedures, which is clean, biocompatible, non-toxic, safe, cost-effective, sustainable and eco-friendly. The Cp-AgNPs as biomaterials can be successfully used for drug delivery procedures due to slow release of drug from nanoparticles over a considerable period of time. The kinetics of the drug release show that this drug-nanoparticle assembly can be effectively used as potential tools for therapeutic applications. The ease of synthetic procedure, lack of possible chemical toxicity and their biological activity along with excellent application as drug delivery agent will open up vista of using nanoparticles as effective and successful drug delivery agent to be used in modern days.

Keywords: drug delivery, Density Functional Theory, Silver Nanoparticles, ciprofloxacin

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31 Solid Dosages Form Tablet: A Summary on the Article by Shashank Tiwari

Authors: Shashank Tiwari


The most common method of drug delivery is the oral solid dosage form, of which tablets and capsules are predominant. The tablet is more widely accepted and used compared to capsules for a number of reasons, such as cost/price, tamper resistance, ease of handling and packaging, ease of identification, and manufacturing efficiency. Over the past several years, the issue of tamper resistance has resulted in the conversion of most over-the-counter (OTC) drugs from capsules to predominantly all tablets.

Keywords: drug delivery, Solid, tablet, capsule, dosages

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30 Drug Delivery of Cyclophosphamide Functionalized Zigzag (8,0) CNT, Armchair (4,4) CNT, and Nanocone Complexes in Water

Authors: Morteza Keshavarz


In this work, using density functional theory (DFT) thermodynamic stability and quantum molecular descriptors of cyclophoshphamide (an anticancer drug)-functionalized zigzag (8,0) CNT, armchair (4,4) CNT and nanocone complexes in water, for two attachment namely the sidewall and tip, is considered. Calculation of the total electronic energy (Et) and binding energy (Eb) of all complexes indicates that the most thermodynamic stability belongs to the sidewall-attachment of cyclophosphamide into functional nanocone. On the other hand, results from chemical hardness show that drug-functionalized zigzag (8,0) and armchair (4,4) complexes in the tip-attachment configuration possess the smallest and greatest chemical hardness, respectively. By computing the solvation energy, it is found that the solution of the drug and all complexes are spontaneous in water. Furthermore, chirality, type of nanovector (nanotube or nanocone), or attachment configuration have no effects on solvation energy of complexes.

Keywords: drug delivery, Carbon Nanotube, density functional theory (DFT), cyclophosphamide drug

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29 Effect of Different Porous Media Models on Drug Delivery to Solid Tumors: Mathematical Approach

Authors: Hossein Bazmara, Mostafa Sefidgar, Madjid Soltani, Sohrab Zendehboudi


Based on findings from clinical applications, most drug treatments fail to eliminate malignant tumors completely even though drug delivery through systemic administration may inhibit their growth. Therefore, better understanding of tumor formation is crucial in developing more effective therapeutics. For this purpose, nowadays, solid tumor modeling and simulation results are used to predict how therapeutic drugs are transported to tumor cells by blood flow through capillaries and tissues. A solid tumor is investigated as a porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multi scale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. In this work, the mathematical model in our previous studies is developed by considering two model of momentum equation for porous media: Darcy and Brinkman. The mathematical method involves processes such as fluid flow through solid tumor as porous media, extravasation of blood flow from vessels, blood flow through vessels and solute diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model does.

Keywords: drug delivery, Porous Media, Darcy model, brinkman model, solid Tumor

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28 PNIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for Curcumin Against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: H. Tayefih, F. farajzade ahari, F. Zarghami, V. Zeighamian, N. Zarghami, Y. Pilehvar-soltanahmadi


Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women throughout the world. Natural compounds such as curcumin hold promise to treat a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, curcumin's therapeutic application is limited, due to its rapid degradation and poor aqueous solubility. On the other hand, previous studies have stated that drug delivery using nanoparticles might improve the therapeutic response to anticancer drugs. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (PNIPAAm–MAA) is one of the hydrogel copolymers utilized in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic potential of curcumin encapsulated within the NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticle, on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In this work, polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized through the free radical mechanism, and curcumin was encapsulated into NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles. Then, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was measured by MTT assays. The evaluation of the results showed that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA has more cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cell line and efficiently inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell population, compared with free curcumin. In conclusion, this study indicates that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA suppresses the growth of the MCF-7 cell line. Overall, it is concluded that encapsulating curcumin into the NIPAAm-MAA copolymer could open up new avenues for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: drug delivery, Breast Cancer, Curcumin, PNIPAAm-MAA

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27 Quantum Dot – DNA Conjugates for Biological Applications

Authors: A. Banerjee, C. Grazon, B. Nadal, T. Pons, Y. Krishnan, B. Dubertret


Quantum Dots (QDs) have emerged as novel fluorescent probes for biomedical applications. The photophysical properties of QDs such as broad absorption, narrow emission spectrum, reduced blinking, and enhanced photostability make them advantageous over organic fluorophores. However, for some biological applications, QDs need to be first targeted to specific intracellular locations. It parallel, base pairing properties and biocompatibility of DNA has been extensively used for biosensing, targetting and intracellular delivery of numerous bioactive agents. The combination of the photophysical properties of QDs and targettability of DNA has yielded fluorescent, stable and targetable nanosensors. QD-DNA conjugates have used in drug delivery, siRNA, intracellular pH sensing and several other applications; and continue to be an active area of research. In this project, a novel method to synthesise QD-DNA conjugates and their applications in bioimaging are investigated. QDs are first solubilized in water using a thiol based amphiphilic co-polymer and, then conjugated to amine functionalized DNA using a heterobifunctional linker. The conjugates are purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and microscopy. Parameters that influence the conjugation yield such as reducing agents, the excess of salt and pH have been investigated in detail. In optimized reaction conditions, up to 12 single-stranded DNA (15 mer length) can be conjugated per QD. After conjugation, the QDs retain their colloidal stability and high quantum yield; and the DNA is available for hybridization. The reaction has also been successfully tested on QDs emitting different colors and on Gold nanoparticles and therefore highly generalizable. After extensive characterization and robust synthesis of QD-DNA conjugates in vitro, the physical properties of these conjugates in cellular milieu are being invistigated. Modification of QD surface with DNA appears to remarkably alter the fate of QD inside cells and can have potential implications in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: drug delivery, Bioimaging, cellular targeting, photostability

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26 The Bloom of 3D Printing in the Health Care Industry

Authors: Mihika Shivkumar, Krishna Kumar, C. Perisamy


3D printing is a method of manufacturing wherein materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited in layers one on top of the other to produce a three dimensional object. 3D printing is most commonly associated with creating engineering prototypes. However, its applications in the field of human health care have been frequently disregarded. Medical applications for 3D printing are expanding rapidly and are envisaged to revolutionize health care. Medical applications for 3D printing, both present and its potential, can be categorized broadly, including: creation of customized prosthetics tissue and organ fabrication; creation of implants, and anatomical models and pharmaceutical research regarding drug dosage forms. This piece breaks down bioprinting in the healthcare sector. It focuses on the better subtle elements of every particular point, including how 3D printing functions in the present, its impediments, and future applications in the health care sector.

Keywords: drug delivery, prototype, bio-printing, organ regeneration

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25 Quince Seed Mucilage (QSD)/ Multiwall Carbonano Tube Hybrid Hydrogels as Novel Controlled Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: Raouf Alizadeh, Kadijeh Hemmati


The aim of this study is to synthesize several series of hydrogels from combination of a natural based polymer (Quince seed mucilage QSD), a synthetic copolymer contained methoxy poly ethylene glycol -polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) in the presence of different amount of multi-walled carbon nanotube (f-MWNT). Mono epoxide functionalized mPEG (mP EG-EP) was synthesized and reacted with sodium azide in the presence of NH4Cl to afford mPEG- N3(-OH). Then ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε–caprolactone (CL) in the presence of mPEG- N3(-OH) as initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as catalyst led to preparation of mPEG-PCL- N3(-OH ) which was grafted onto propagylated f-MWNT by the click reaction to obtain mPEG-PCL- f-MWNT (-OH ). In the presence of mPEG- N3(-Br) and mixture of NHS/DCC/ QSD, hybrid hydrogels were successfully synthesized. The copolymers and hydrogels were characterized using different techniques such as, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The gel content of hydrogels showed dependence on the weight ratio of QSD:mPEG-PCL:f-MWNT. The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was also studied under variation of pH, immersion time, and temperature. According to the results, the swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels showed significant dependence in the gel content, pH, immersion time and temperature. The highest swelling was observed at room temperature, in 60 min and at pH 8. The loading and in-vitro release of quercetin as a model drug were investigated at pH of 2.2 and 7.4, and the results showed that release rate at pH 7.4 was faster than that at pH 2.2. The total loading and release showed dependence on the network structure of hydrogels and were in the range of 65- 91%. In addition, the cytotoxicity and release kinetics of the prepared hydrogels were also investigated.

Keywords: drug delivery, antioxidant, swelling behavior, Quince Seed Mucilage(QSD)

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24 Nanoparticles Made from PNIPAM-G-PEO Double Hydrophilic Copolymers for Temperature-Controlled Drug Delivery

Authors: Victoria I. Michailova, Denitsa B. Momekova, Hristiana A. Velichkova, Evgeni H. Ivanov


The aim of this work is to design and develop thermo-responsive nanosized drug delivery systems based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-g-poly(ethylene oxide) (PNIPAM-g-PEO) double hydrophilic graft copolymers. The PNIPAM-g-PEO copolymers are able to self-assemble in water into nanoparticles above the LCST of the thermo-responsive PNIPAM backbone and to disassemble and rapidly release the entrapped drugs upon cooling. However, their drug delivery applications are often hindered by their low loading capacity as the drugs to be encapsulated do not dissolve in water. In order to overcome this limitation, here we applied a low-temperature procedure with ethanol as an alternative route to the formation and loading a model hydrophobic drug, Indomethacin (IMC), into PNIPAM-g-PEO nanoparticles. The rationale for this approach was that ethanol dissolves both IMC and the copolymer and its mixing with water may induce micellization of PNIPAM-g-PEO at temperatures lower than the LCST. The influence of the volume fraction of ethanol and the temperature on the aggregation characteristics of PNIPAM-g-PEO copolymers (2.7 mol% PEO) was investigated by means of DLS, TEM and rheological dynamic oscillatory tests. The studies showed rich phase behavior at T < LCST, incl. the formation of highly solvated 500-1000 nm complex structures, 30-70 nm micelles and polymersomes as well as giant polymersomes, as the fraction of added ethanol increased. We believe that the PNIPAM-g-PEO self-assembly is favored due to the different solvation of its constituting blocks in ethanol-water mixtures. The incorporation of IMC led to alteration of the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the blank nanoparticles. In this case, only monodisperse polymersomes and micelles were observed in the solutions with an average diameter less than 65 nm and substantial drug loading (DLC ~117 – 146 wt%). Indomethacin release from the nanoparticles was responsive to temperature changes, being much faster at a temperature of 42oC compared to that of 37oC under otherwise the same conditions. The results obtained suggest that these PNIPAM-g-PEO nanoparticles could be potential in mild hyper-thermic delivery of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, drug delivery, poly(N-isopropylacryl amide)-g-poly(ethylene oxide), thermo-responsive

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23 Preparation of Bead-On-String Alginate/Soy Protein Isolated Nanofibers via Water-Based Electrospinning and Its Application for Drug Loading

Authors: Patcharakamon Nooeaid, Piyachat Chuysrinuan


Electrospun natural polymers-based nanofibers are one of the most interesting materials used in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Bead-on-string nanofibers have gained considerable interest for sustained drug release. Vancomycin was used as the model drug and sodium alginate (SA)/soy protein isolated (SPI) as the polymer blend to fabricate the bead-on-string nanofibers by aqueous-based electrospinning. The bead-on-string SA/SPI nanofibers were successfully fabricated by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a co-blending polymer. SA-PEO with mass ratio of 70/30 showed the best spinnability with continuous nanofibers without the occurrence of beads. Bead structure formed with the addition of SPI and bead number increased with increasing SPI content. The electrospinning of 80/20 SA-PEO/SPI was obtained as a great promising bead-on-string nanofibers for drug loading, while the solution of 50/50 was not able to obtain continuous fibers. In vitro release tests showed that a more sustainable release profile up to 14 days with less initial burst release on day 1 could be obtained from the bead-on-string fibers than from smooth fibers with uniform diameter. In addition, vancomycin-loaded beaded fibers inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. Therefore, the SA-PEO/SPI nanofibers showed the potential to be used as biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

Keywords: drug delivery, Tissue Engineering, Electrospinning, bead-on-string fibers

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22 Effect of Swelling Pressure on Drug Release from Polyelectrolyte Micro-Hydrogel Particles

Authors: Javad Tavakoli, Mina Boroujerdi


Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of drugs. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. In this contribution, an electronic device for swelling pressure measurement during drug release from hydrogel network was developed. Also, poly acrylic acid micro particles were prepared for prolonged and sustained controlled acetaminophen release. Effect of swelling pressure on drug release from micro particles studied under different environment pH in order to predict release profile in gastro-intestine medium. Swelling ratio and swelling pressure were measured in different pH.

Keywords: drug delivery, Hydrogel, polyelectrolyte, swelling pressure

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21 Poly-ε-Caprolactone Nanofibers with Synthetic Growth Factor Enriched Liposomes as Controlled Drug Delivery System

Authors: Eva Filová, Věra Sovková, Andrea Mickova, Matej Buzgo, Karolina Vocetkova, Evzen Amler


PCL (poly-ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds with adhered liposomes were prepared and tested as a possible drug delivery system for various synthetic growth factors. TGFβ, bFGF, and IGF-I have been shown to increase hMSC (human mesenchymal stem cells) proliferation and to induce hMSC differentiation. Functionalized PCL nanofibers were prepared with synthetic growth factors encapsulated in liposomes adhered to them in three different concentrations. Other samples contained PCL nanofibers with adhered, free synthetic growth factors. The synthetic growth factors free medium served as a control. The interaction of liposomes with the PCL nanofibers was visualized by SEM, and the release kinetics were determined by ELISA testing. The potential of liposomes, immobilized on the biodegradable scaffolds, as a delivery system for synthetic growth factors, and as a suitable system for MSCs adhesion, proliferation and differentiation in vitro was evaluated by MTS assay, dsDNA amount determination, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and real-time PCR. The results showed that the growth factors adhered to the PCL nanofibers stimulated cell proliferation mainly up to day 11 and that subsequently their effect was lower. By contrast, the release of the lowest concentration of growth factors from liposomes resulted in gradual proliferation of MSCs throughout the experiment. Moreover, liposomes, as well as free growth factors, stimulated type II collagen production, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody against type II collagen. The results of this study indicate that growth factors enriched liposomes adhered to surface of PCL nanofibers could be useful as a drug delivery instrument for application in short timescales, be combined with nanofiber scaffolds to promote local and persistent delivery while mimicking the local microenvironment. This work was supported by project LO1508 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic

Keywords: drug delivery, Liposomes, Nanofibres, Growth Factors, hMSC

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20 Hybrid Materials on the Basis of Magnetite and Magnetite-Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application

Authors: Mariia V. Efremova, Iana O. Tcareva, Anastasia D. Blokhina, Ivan S. Grebennikov, Anastasia S. Garanina, Maxim A. Abakumov, Yury I. Golovin, Alexander G. Savchenko, Alexander G. Majouga, Natalya L. Klyachko


During last decades magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) attract a deep interest of scientists due to their potential application in therapy and diagnostics. However, magnetite nanoparticles are toxic and non-stable in physiological conditions. To solve these problems, we decided to create two types of hybrid systems based on magnetite and gold which is inert and biocompatible: gold as a shell material (first type) and gold as separate NPs interfacially bond to magnetite NPs (second type). The synthesis of the first type hybrid nanoparticles was carried out as follows: Magnetite nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9±2 nm were obtained by co-precipitation of iron (II, III) chlorides then they were covered with gold shell by iterative reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. According to the TEM, ICP MS and EDX data, final nanoparticles had an average diameter of 31±4 nm and contained iron even after hydrochloric acid treatment. However, iron signals (K-line, 7,1 keV) were not localized so we can’t speak about one single magnetic core. Described nanoparticles covered with mercapto-PEG acid were non-toxic for human prostate cancer PC-3/ LNCaP cell lines (more than 90% survived cells as compared to control) and had high R2-relaxivity rates (>190 mМ-1s-1) that exceed the transverse relaxation rate of commercial MRI-contrasting agents. These nanoparticles were also used for chymotrypsin enzyme immobilization. The effect of alternating magnetic field on catalytic properties of chymotrypsin immobilized on magnetite nanoparticles, notably the slowdown of catalyzed reaction at the level of 35-40 % was found. The synthesis of the second type hybrid nanoparticles also involved two steps. Firstly, spherical gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 9±2 nm were synthesized by the reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with oleylamine; secondly, they were used as seeds during magnetite synthesis by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in octadecene. As a result, so-called dumbbell-like structures were obtained where magnetite (cubes with 25±6 nm diagonal) and gold nanoparticles were connected together pairwise. By HRTEM method (first time for this type of structure) an epitaxial growth of magnetite nanoparticles on gold surface with co-orientation of (111) planes was discovered. These nanoparticles were transferred into water by means of block-copolymer Pluronic F127 then loaded with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin and also PSMA-vector specific for LNCaP cell line. Obtained nanoparticles were found to have moderate toxicity for human prostate cancer cells and got into the intracellular space after 45 minutes of incubation (according to fluorescence microscopy data). These materials are also perspective from MRI point of view (R2-relaxivity rates >70 mМ-1s-1). Thereby, in this work magnetite-gold hybrid nanoparticles, which have a strong potential for biomedical application, particularly in targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging, were synthesized and characterized. That paves the way to the development of special medicine types – theranostics. The authors knowledge financial support from Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (14.607.21.0132, RFMEFI60715X0132). This work was also supported by Grant of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation К1-2014-022, Grant of Russian Scientific Foundation 14-13-00731 and MSU development program 5.13.

Keywords: Toxicity, Nanoparticles, drug delivery, magnetite-gold, MRI contrast agents

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19 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Hydrocortisone Nanoshell for Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Suyeon Kwon, Ik Joong Kang, Wang Bingjie


Chitosan is a polymer that is usually produced from N-deacetylation of chitin. It is emerging as a promising biocompatible polymer that is harmless to humans. For the reason that many merits such as good adsorptive, biodegradability, many researches are being done on the chitosan for drug delivery system. Drug delivery system (DDS) has been developed for the control of drug. It makes the drug can be delivered effectively and safely into the targeted human body. The drug used in this work is hydrocortisone that is used in Rheumatism, skin diseases, allergy treatment. In this work, hydrocortisone was used to make allergic rhinitis medicine. Our study focuses on drug delivery through the nasal mucosa by using hydrocortisone impregnated chitosan nanoshells. This study has performed an investigation in order to establish the optimal conditions, changing concentration, quantity of hydrocortisone. DLS, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, UV spectrum were used to analyze the manufactured chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell and silver nanoshell, whose function as drug carriers. This study has performed an investigation on new drug carriers and delivery routes for hydrocortisone. Various methods of manufacturing chitosan-hydrocortisone nanoshells were attempted in order to establish the optimal condition. As a result, the average size of chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is about 80 nm. So, chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is suitable as drug carriers because optimal size of drug carrier in human body is less than 120 nm. UV spectrum of Chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell shows the characteristic peak of silver nanoshell at 420 nm. Likewise, the average size of chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is about 100nm. It is also suitable for drug carrier in human body. Also, multi-layered silver shell over chitosan nanoshells induced the red-shift of absorption peak and increased the intensity of absorption peak. The resultant chitosan–silver nanocomposites (or nanoshells) exhibited the absorption peak around 430nm attributed to silvershell formation. i.e. the absorption peak was red-shifted by ca. 40 nm in reference to 390 nm of silver nanoshells.

Keywords: drug delivery, Rhinitis, chitosan, hydrocortisone, nanoshell

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18 Cytotoxicological Evaluation of a Folate Receptor Targeting Drug Delivery System Based on Cyclodextrins

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe


For chemotherapy, a drug delivery system should be able to specifically target cancer cells and deliver the therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. Folate receptors (FR) can be considered key targets since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells and they are the molecular marker used in this study. Here, cyclodextrin (CD) has being studied as a vehicle for delivering the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within the CD cavity. In this study, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR molecular marker. Thus, the system studied here for drug delivery consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 9.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 10.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 8.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 12.1 and 288.1 µM ± 16.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug.

Keywords: Cancer Treatment, drug delivery, Cyclodextrins, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

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17 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of a Cyclodextrin-Based Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe


Drug delivery systems are proposed for use in cancer treatment to specifically target cancer cells and deliver a therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. For that purpose, the use of folate receptors (FR) can be considered a key strategy, since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells. In this study, cyclodextrins (CD) have being used as vehicles to target FR and deliver the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within their cavities. Here, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR. Thus, this drug delivery system consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 15.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 16.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 10.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 16.1 and 288.1 µM ± 26.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that free MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug. The use of cell imaging by confocal microscopy has allowed visualisation of FR targeting in cancer cells, as well as the identification of the interlisation pathway of the drug. Hence, the cellular uptake and internalisation process of this drug delivery system is being addressed.

Keywords: Cancer Treatment, drug delivery, Cyclodextrins, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

Procedia PDF Downloads 187