Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Drought Related Abstracts

30 Effects of Drought on Microbial Activity in Rhizosphere, Soil Hydrophobicity and Leaching of Mineral Nitrogen from Arable Soil Depending on Method of Fertilization

Authors: Jakub Elbl, Lukáš Plošek, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jaroslav Záhora, Soňa Javoreková, Ivana Charousová, Libor Kalhotka, Olga Urbánková


This work presents the first results from the long-term laboratory experiment dealing with impact of drought on soil properties. Three groups of the treatment (A, B and C) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. The soil water content was maintained at 70 % of soil water holding capacity in group A, at 40 % in group B. In group C, soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point. Each group of the experiment was divided into three variants (A1 = B1, C1; A2 = B2, C2 etc.) with three repetitions: Variants A1 (B1, C1) were controls without addition of another fertilizer. Variants A2 (B2, C2) were fertilized with mineral nitrogen fertilizer DAM 390 (0.140 Mg of N per ha) and variants A3 (B3, C3) contained 45 g of Cp per a pot. The significant differences (ANOVA, P<0.05) in the leaching of mineral nitrogen and values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) were found. The highest values of Ksat were found in variants (within each group) with addition of compost (A3, B3, C3). Conversely, the lowest values of Ksat were found in variants with addition of mineral nitrogen. Low values of Ksat indicate an increased level of hydrophobicity in individual groups of the experiment. Moreover, all variants with compost addition showed lower amount of mineral nitrogen leaching and high level of microbial activity than variants without. This decrease of mineral nitrogen leaching was about 200 % in comparison with the control variant and about 300 % with variant, where mineral nitrogen was added. Based on these results, we can conclude that changes of soil water content directly have impact on microbial activity, soil hydrophobicity and loss of mineral nitrogen from the soil.

Keywords: Drought, microbial activity, mineral nitrogen, soil hydrophobicity

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29 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz


Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: Salinity, GABA, Drought, gibberellic acid, Phaseolus vulgaris L

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28 Climatic and Human Impact on Karst Aquifer in Semi Arid Zone

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Fehdi Chemseddine, Chaffai Hicham


The study site is the plateau Cheria, a city in south eastern Algeria (Tebessa) thanks to its structure perched syncline is the region of Tebessa a real water tower. Special rates provided by some boreholes and wells around the city Cheria have long been led to believe that the reserves were virtually limitless. The investigations carried out in this region have located karstified limestone areas at depth of 100 meters of the carbonate formation. During the last two decades a rainfall deficit has increased the effect of drought has caused an increase in flow from this aquifer. The effect on water resources is a significant and progressive reduction of the static level of the karst aquifer. The qualitative aspect has also been marked by degradation. This climate variability marked by the decade of drought (1990/2000) has had the effect on the local population, a forced change of their activity primarily agricultural. Abandoning agro pastoral mode due to prolonged drought, populations chose agriculture maraichère consumer a lot of water, this increasing the depletion of water resources. This change in activity was accompanied by a rural exodus to urban areas. The result has led to an increase in population in the urban areas, this has resulted in an increase in water demand and an increase in emissions (waste water). Uncontrolled discharges contribute to pollute a little more groundwater. The second consequence is type Geotechnical, it is the appearance of sinkholes, results of the alternating periods of drought and violent floods. Sinkholes are a real concern for the management and urban development. An interdisciplinary contribution (geology, hydrology, climatology and management) is essential to reduce or avoid impacts in different sectors.

Keywords: resources, aquifer, Drought, Algeria, carbonate formation, exodus, chéria

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27 Impact of Short-Term Drought on Vegetation Health Condition in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using Space Data

Authors: E. Ghoneim, C. Narron, I. Iqbal, I. Hassan, E. Hammam


The scarcity of water is becoming a more prominent threat, especially in areas that are already arid in nature. Although the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is an arid country, its southwestern region offers a high variety of botanical landscapes, many of which are wooded forests, while the eastern and northern regions offer large areas of groundwater irrigated farmlands. At present, some parts of KSA, including forests and farmlands, have witnessed protracted and severe drought due to change in rainfall pattern as a result of global climate change. Such prolonged drought that last for several consecutive years is expected to cause deterioration of forested and pastured lands as well as cause crop failure in the KSA (e.g., wheat yield). An analysis to determine vegetation drought vulnerability and severity during the growing season (September-April) over a fourteen year period (2000-2014) in KSA was conducted using MODIS Terra imagery. The Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Temperature Condition Index (TCI), derived from the Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was extracted from MODIS Terra Images. The VCI and TCI were then combined to compute the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The VHI revealed the overall vegetation health for the area under investigation. A preliminary outcome of the modeled VHI over KSA, using averaged monthly vegetation data over a 14-year period, revealed that the vegetation health condition is deteriorating over time in both naturally vegetated areas and irrigated farmlands. The derived drought map for KSA indicates that both extreme and severe drought occurrences have considerably increased over the same study period. Moreover, based on the cumulative average of drought frequency in each governorate of KSA it was determined that Makkah and Jizan governorates to the east and southwest, witness the most frequency of extreme drought, whereas Tabuk to the northwest, exhibits the less extreme drought frequency. Areas where drought is extreme or severe would most likely have negative influences on agriculture, ecosystems, tourism, and even human welfare. With the drought risk map the kingdom could make informed land management decisions including were to continue with agricultural endeavors and protect forested areas and even where to develop new settlements.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Drought, vegetation health condition, TCI

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26 Regional Hydrological Extremes Frequency Analysis Based on Statistical and Hydrological Models

Authors: Hadush Kidane Meresa


The hydrological extremes frequency analysis is the foundation for the hydraulic engineering design, flood protection, drought management and water resources management and planning to utilize the available water resource to meet the desired objectives of different organizations and sectors in a country. This spatial variation of the statistical characteristics of the extreme flood and drought events are key practice for regional flood and drought analysis and mitigation management. For different hydro-climate of the regions, where the data set is short, scarcity, poor quality and insufficient, the regionalization methods are applied to transfer at-site data to a region. This study aims in regional high and low flow frequency analysis for Poland River Basins. Due to high frequent occurring of hydrological extremes in the region and rapid water resources development in this basin have caused serious concerns over the flood and drought magnitude and frequencies of the river in Poland. The magnitude and frequency result of high and low flows in the basin is needed for flood and drought planning, management and protection at present and future. Hydrological homogeneous high and low flow regions are formed by the cluster analysis of site characteristics, using the hierarchical and C- mean clustering and PCA method. Statistical tests for regional homogeneity are utilized, by Discordancy and Heterogeneity measure tests. In compliance with results of the tests, the region river basin has been divided into ten homogeneous regions. In this study, frequency analysis of high and low flows using AM for high flow and 7-day minimum low flow series is conducted using six statistical distributions. The use of L-moment and LL-moment method showed a homogeneous region over entire province with Generalized logistic (GLOG), Generalized extreme value (GEV), Pearson type III (P-III), Generalized Pareto (GPAR), Weibull (WEI) and Power (PR) distributions as the regional drought and flood frequency distributions. The 95% percentile and Flow duration curves of 1, 7, 10, 30 days have been plotted for 10 stations. However, the cluster analysis performed two regions in west and east of the province where L-moment and LL-moment method demonstrated the homogeneity of the regions and GLOG and Pearson Type III (PIII) distributions as regional frequency distributions for each region, respectively. The spatial variation and regional frequency distribution of flood and drought characteristics for 10 best catchment from the whole region was selected and beside the main variable (streamflow: high and low) we used variables which are more related to physiographic and drainage characteristics for identify and delineate homogeneous pools and to derive best regression models for ungauged sites. Those are mean annual rainfall, seasonal flow, average slope, NDVI, aspect, flow length, flow direction, maximum soil moisture, elevation, and drainage order. The regional high-flow or low-flow relationship among one streamflow characteristics with (AM or 7-day mean annual low flows) some basin characteristics is developed using Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) and Generalized Least Square (GLS) regression model, providing a simple and effective method for estimation of flood and drought of desired return periods for ungauged catchments.

Keywords: Flood, stochastic, Regionalization, Frequency, Drought, Poland, magnitude, ungauged

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25 Water Productivity and Sensitivity Tolerance Stress Indices in Five Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max L.) at Different Levels of Water Deficit

Authors: Hassan Masoumi, Rashed Alavi, Mahmoud Reza Khorshidian


In order to measure the water deficit stress effects on seed yield and water productivity of soybean cultivars, a two field experiments wad conducted out via split plot in a randomized complete block design with four replications in 2011 and 2012. Irrigation treatments were three levels (S1; 50, S2; 62.5 and S3; 150 mm) that applied based on evaporation from the ‘class A’ pan. Cultivars were L17, Clean, T.M.S, Williams×Chippewa and M9, too. The results showed that, only extreme water deficit stresses (S3) was reduced number of pods per plants, dry weight, seed yield and also water productivity and water economic productivity, significantly. Among cultivars and at the first and second levels of irrigation (S1, S2) cultivar of L17 and at the third level (S3) cultivar of Wiiliams*Chippwea had the highest seed yield, water productivity and water economic productivity. There were observed a positive and significant correlation between seed yield with number of pods per plants and plants dry weight, too. Also, despite the reduction in water consumption at level of S2 than S1 and due to the lack of a significant reduction in seed yield, water productivity and water economic productivity was also increased, significantly (P < 0.01). All indices of sensitivity and tolerance (SSI, STI and GMP) investigated in this study showed that at the moderate and extreme water deficit stresses (S2, S3), the cultivars of L17 and Wiiliams * Chippwea had the highest tolerance and lowest sensitivity among the cultivars.

Keywords: Seed, Drought, yield components, sensitivity indices

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24 Re-Introduction of the Red-Necked Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus) in Fenced Protected Area of Central Semi-Arid Area in Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. Zafar-ul Islam


The Arabian Ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus is a distinct subspecies that became extinct in the wild during the mid-20th century, due to over-hunting and commercial exploitation. The extant of S. c. camelus, a red-necked form that occurs in Northeastern Africa and is considered the most closely related, and possibly the same subspecies as the extinct Arabian form has been chosen for the reintroduction in 1988-89 by obtaining red-necked ostrich from Sudan from a private collection. Few birds were translocated to Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in 25 ha fenced enclosure in 1994. Until now a total of 96 red-necked ostrich have been released in fenced Mahazat as-Sayd, and the estimated population is between 125 to 150 individuals. Since captive flock of ostriches were translocated to Mahazat, their survival rate increased (>41%) by the end of 2000. On an average 22-30 chicks are hatched annually. A total of 137 ostriches recorded dead over the period of 13 years during the drought period. One of the key questions is what proportion of birds makes use of the supplementary food and water provisions, and what happens to those birds that do not use it? Captive-bred and wild-born adult and young ostriches died of starvation and thirst, despite being provisioned with alfalfa and water in several years. The present population of ostrich in Mahazat is more than 300.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Drought, red-necked ostrich, Struthio camelus camelus, reintroduction

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23 Climatic Roots of Piracy in Red Sea

Authors: Nasser Karami


Piracy in the North West of Indian Ocean and the Red Sea has become a global crisis in recent years. Pirates of this area are often very poor people from the Horn of Africa and the western coast of the Red Sea. Climatic and geographical evidence suggests that poverty and destruction of social structures in the region have directly relation to prolonged-drought. Indeed, after the seventies (more than 40 years ago) due to the long-term drought in the region, all political, economic and social structures had declined. Spread of terrorism, violent extremism and of course piracy, are main effects of climate change and drought of this regression. It is disturbing to say the climatic documents say that because of global climate change, severe drought will continue in this region. This mean that the dangers worse than piracy threatens the future of this area. Forty-year data that has assessed in this study indicate that there is direct relationship between spread of drought and piracy in the Red Sea.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate, Poverty, Drought, piracy in red sea

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22 The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought

Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Irina Mikajlo, Jakub Elbl, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jaroslav Záhora, Olga Urbánková


Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1–V5) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1–V2 were fertilized by mineral nitrogen, V3–V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The significant differences were found only in plant production and mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect of biochar application on soil water retention.

Keywords: Biochar, Drought, mineral nitrogen, arable soil

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21 Increasing Soybean (Glycine Max L) Drought Resistance with Osmolit Sorbitol

Authors: Aminah Muchdar


Efforts to increase soybean production have been pursued for years in Indonesia through the process of intensification and extensification. Increased production through intensification of increasing grain yield per hectare, among others includes the improvement of cultivation system such as the use of cultivars that have superior resistance to drought. Increased soybean production has been through the expansion of planting areas utilizing available idle dry land. However, one of the constraints faced in dryland agriculture was the limited water supply due to low intensity of rainfall that leads to low crop production. In order to ensure that soybeans are cultivated on dry land remains capable of high production, it is necessary to physiologically engineer the soybean with open stomata. The study was conducted in the greenhouse of Balai Penelitian Tanaman Serealia (BALITSEREAL) Maros, Sulawesi, Indonesia with a completely randomized block design h factorial pattern. The first factor was the water stress stadia while the second was the amount of sorbitol osmolit concentration application. Results indicated that there was an interaction between the plant height growth and number of leaves between the water clamping time and concentration of the osmolit sorbitol. The vegetative stage especially during flowering and pod formation was inhibited when the water was clamped, but by spraying osmolit sorbitol, soybean growth in terms of its height and number of leaves was enhanced. This study implies that the application of osmolit sorbitol may enhance the drought resistance of soybean growth. Future research suggested that more work should be done on the application of osmolit sorbital to other agriculture crops to increase their drought resistance in the drylands.

Keywords: soybean, Drought, engineered physiology, osmolit sorbitol

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20 Demand for Index Based Micro-Insurance (IBMI) in Ethiopia

Authors: Ashenafi Sileshi Etefa, Bezawit Worku Yenealem


Micro-insurance is a relatively new concept that is just being introduced in Ethiopia. For an agrarian economy dominated by small holder farming and vulnerable to natural disasters, mainly drought, the need for an Index-Based Micro Insurance (IBMI) is crucial. Since IBMI solves moral hazard, adverse selection, and access issues to poor clients, it is preferable over traditional insurance products. IBMI is being piloted in drought prone areas of Ethiopia with the aim of learning and expanding the service across the country. This article analyses the demand of IBMI and the barriers to demand and finds that the demand for IBMI has so far been constrained by lack of awareness, trust issues, costliness, and the level of basis risk; and recommends reducing the basis risk and increasing the role of government and farmer cooperatives.

Keywords: Agriculture, Drought, index based micro-insurance (IBMI), micro-finance institution (MFI)

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19 Comprehensive Regional Drought Assessment Index

Authors: A. Zeynolabedin, M. A. Olyaei, B. Ghiasi


Drought is an inevitable part of the earth’s climate. It occurs regularly with no clear warning and without recognizing borders. In addition, its impact is cumulative and not immediately discernible. Iran is located in a semi-arid region where droughts occur periodically as natural hazard. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI), and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) are three well-known indices which describe drought severity; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. These indices take into account some factors such as precipitation, reservoir storage and discharge, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration in determining drought severity. In this paper, first all three indices are calculated in Aharchay river watershed located in northwestern part of Iran in East Azarbaijan province. Next, based on two other important parameters which are groundwater level and solar radiation, two new indices are defined. Finally, considering all five aforementioned indices, a combined drought index (CDI) is presented and calculated for the region. This combined index is based on all the meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural features of the region. The results show that the most severe drought condition in Aharchay watershed happened in Jun, 2004. The result of this study can be used for monitoring drought and prepare for the drought mitigation planning.

Keywords: GIS, Drought, intensity index, regional assessment, variation maps

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18 Impact of Drought on Agriculture in the Upper Middle Gangetic Plain in India

Authors: Reshmita Nath


In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in India and its impact on agriculture during the summer season (April to September). For our analysis, we have used Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) datasets between 1982 and 2012 at six-month timescale. Based on the criteria SPEI<-1 we obtain the vulnerability map and have found that the Humid subtropical Upper Middle Gangetic Plain (UMGP) region is highly drought prone with an occurrence frequency of 40-45%. This UMGP region contributes at least 18-20% of India’s annual cereal production. Not only the probability, but the region becomes more and more drought-prone in the recent decades. Moreover, the cereal production in the UMGP has experienced a gradual declining trend from 2000 onwards and this feature is consistent with the increase in drought affected areas from 20-25% to 50-60%, before and after 2000, respectively. The higher correlation coefficient (-0.69) between the changes in cereal production and drought affected areas confirms that at least 50% of the agricultural (cereal) losses is associated with drought. While analyzing the individual impact of precipitation and surface temperature anomalies on SPEI (6), we have found that in the UMGP region surface temperature plays the primary role in lowering of SPEI. The linkage is further confirmed by the correlation analysis between the SPEI (6) and surface temperature rise, which exhibits strong negative values in the UMGP region. Higher temperature might have caused more evaporation and drying, which therefore increases the area affected by drought in the recent decade.

Keywords: Agriculture, Drought, Indo-Gangetic plain, SPEI

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17 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim


Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: Drought, Triticum aestivum, bread wheat, molecular marker

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16 Yield, Biochemical Responses and Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Two Barley Accessions 'Ardhaoui' under Deficit Drip Irrigation Using Saline Water in Southern Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Bagues, Ikbel Souli, Feiza Boussora, Kamel Nagaz


In southern Tunisia, two local barley accessions CV. Ardhaoui; 'Bengardeni' and 'Karkeni' were cultivated in the field under deficit drip irrigation with saline water. Three treatments were used: control or full irrigation T0 (100%ETc) and stressed T1 (75%ETc), T2 (50%ETc). Proline and soluble sugars contents increase significantly under drought between accessions compared to control and varies between growth stages. Moreover, the increasing of Ca2+ concentration enhances the absorption of Na+ ion, consequently K+/Na+ decrease significantly between accessions, these results suggest that a high tolerance of Bengardeni accession to drought stress. Therefore, drought tolerance indices (STI, SSI, MP, GMP, YSI and TOL) were used to identify high yielding and drought tolerant between accessions. MP explained the variation of GYi. GMP and STI explained the variation of GYs. The high values of MP, STI and GMP were associated with higher yielding accession. Higher TOL value is associated with significant grain yield reduction in stressed environment suggesting higher stress responses of accessions. Significant positive correlations between MP, STI and GMP and negative between YSI and SSI. MP, STI, GMP and YSI, TOL, SSI are not correlated with each other.

Keywords: Minerals, Yield, Drought, proline, barley, soluble sugars, drought tolerance indices

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15 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul


Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Drought, freshwater lens, Atoll islands, El-Nino, groundwater observation

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14 Impacts of Climate Elements on the Annual Periodic Behavior of the Shallow Groundwater Level: Case Study from Central-Eastern Europe

Authors: Tamas Garamhegyi, Jozsef Kovacs, Rita Pongracz, Peter Tanos, Balazs Trasy, Norbert Magyar, Istvan G. Hatvani


Like most environmental processes, shallow groundwater fluctuation under natural circumstances also behaves periodically. With the statistical tools at hand, it can easily be determined if a period exists in the data or not. Thus, the question may be raised: Does the estimated average period time characterize the whole time period, or not? This is especially important in the case of such complex phenomena as shallow groundwater fluctuation, driven by numerous factors. Because of the continuous changes in the oscillating components of shallow groundwater time series, the most appropriate method should be used to investigate its periodicity, this is wavelet spectrum analysis. The aims of the research were to investigate the periodic behavior of the shallow groundwater time series of an agriculturally important and drought sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe and its relationship to the European pressure action centers. During the research ~216 shallow groundwater observation wells located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain with a temporal coverage of 50 years were scanned for periodicity. By taking the full-time interval as 100%, the presence of any period could be determined in percentages. With the complex hydrogeological/meteorological model developed in this study, non-periodic time intervals were found in the shallow groundwater levels. On the local scale, this phenomenon linked to drought conditions, and on a regional scale linked to the maxima of the regional air pressures in the Gulf of Genoa. The study documented an important link between shallow groundwater levels and climate variables/indices facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, which have to take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.

Keywords: Climate Change, Drought, groundwater periodicity, wavelet spectrum and coherence analyses

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13 Community Adaptation of Drought Disaster in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Chatarina Muryani, Sarwono, Sugiyanto Heribentus


Major part of Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia, always suffers from drought every year. The drought has implications toward almost all of the community activities, both domestic, agriculture, livestock, and industrial. The aim of this study was to determine (1) the drought distribution area in Grobogan District in 2015; (2) the impact of drought; and (3) the community adaptation toward the drought. The subject of the research was people who were impacted by the drought, purposive sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The data collection method was using field observation and in-depth interview while the data analysis was using descriptive analysis. The results showed that (1) in 2015, there were 14 districts which were affected by the drought and only 5 districts which do not suffer from drought, (2) the drought impacted to the reduction of water for domestic compliance, reduction of agricultural production, reduction of public revenue, (3) community adaptation to meet domestic water need was by making collective deep-wells and building water storages, adaptation in agriculture was done by setting the cropping pattern, while adaptation on economics was by allocating certain amount of funds for the family in anticipation of drought, which was mostly to purchase water.

Keywords: Distribution, Impacts, Adaptation, Drought

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12 Problems of Drought and Its Management in Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: David Oloke, Michael A. Fullen, Hassan Gana Abdullahi


Drought poses an enormous global threat to sustainable development and is expected to increase with global climate change. Drought and desertification are major problems in Yobe State (north-east Nigeria). This investigation aims to develop a workable framework and management tool for drought mitigation in Yobe State. Mixed methods were employed during the study and additional qualitative information was gathered through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Data on socio-economic impacts of drought were thus collected via both questionnaire surveys and FGD. In all, 1,040 questionnaires were distributed to farmers in the State and 721 were completed, representing a return rate of 69.3%. Data analysis showed that 97.9% of respondents considered themselves to be drought victims, whilst 69.3% of the respondents were unemployed and had no other means of income, except through rain-fed farming. Developing a viable and holistic approach to drought mitigation is crucial, to arrest and hopefully reverse environment degradation. Analysed data will be used to develop an integrated framework for drought mitigation and management in Yobe State. This paper introduces the socio-economic and environmental effects of drought in Yobe State.

Keywords: Climate Change, Management, Mitigation, Drought, Yobe State

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11 The Effects of Above-Average Precipitation after Extended Drought on Phytoplankton in Southern California Surface Water Reservoirs

Authors: Margaret K. Spoo-Chupka


The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) manages surface water reservoirs that are a source of drinking water for more than 19 million people in Southern California. These reservoirs experience periodic planktonic cyanobacteria blooms that can impact water quality. MWDSC imports water from two sources – the Colorado River (CR) and the State Water Project (SWP). The SWP brings supplies from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that are characterized as having higher nutrients than CR water. Above average precipitation in 2017 after five years of drought allowed the majority of the reservoirs to fill. Phytoplankton was analyzed during the drought and after the drought at three reservoirs: Diamond Valley Lake (DVL), which receives SWP water exclusively, Lake Skinner, which can receive a blend of SWP and CR water, and Lake Mathews, which generally receives only CR water. DVL experienced a significant increase in water elevation in 2017 due to large SWP inflows, and there were no significant changes to total phytoplankton biomass, Shannon-Wiener diversity of the phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years despite the higher nutrient loads. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact DVL water quality (Microcystis spp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Dolichospermum spp., and Limnoraphis birgei) did not differ significantly between the heavy precipitation year and drought years. Compared to the other reservoirs, DVL generally has the highest concentration of cyanobacteria due to the water supply having greater nutrients. Lake Mathews’ water levels were similar in drought and wet years due to a reliable supply of CR water and there were no significant changes in the total phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton diversity, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Lake Mathews (L. birgei and Microcystis spp.) did not differ significantly between 2017 and previous drought years. Lake Mathews generally had the lowest cyanobacteria biomass due to the water supply having lower nutrients. The CR supplied most of the water to Lake Skinner during drought years, while the SWP was the primary source during 2017. This change in water source resulted in a significant increase in phytoplankton biomass in 2017, no significant change in diversity, and a significant increase in cyanobacteria biomass. Cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Skinner included: Microcystis spp., Dolichospermum spp., and A.flos-aquae. There was no significant difference in Microcystis spp. biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years, but biomass of Dolichospermum spp. and A.flos-aquae were significantly greater in 2017 compared to previous drought years. Dolichospermum sp. and A. flos-aquae are two cyanobacteria that are more sensitive to nutrients than Microcystis spp., which are more sensitive to temperature. Patterns in problem cyanobacteria abundance among Southern California reservoirs as a result of above-average precipitation after more than five years of drought were most closely related to nutrient loading.

Keywords: Reservoirs, Cyanobacteria, Drought, and phytoplankton ecology

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10 Improvement in Drought Stress Tolerance in Wheat by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Seema Sangwan, Ekta Narwal, Kannepalli Annapurna


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on drought stress tolerance in 3 genotypes of wheat subjected to moderate water stress, i.e. HD 3043 (drought tolerant), HD 2987 (drought tolerant), and HD 2967 (drought sensitive). Various growth parameters were studied, e.g. total dry weight, total shoot and root length, root volume, root surface area, grain weight and number, leaf area, chlorophyll content in leaves, relative water content, number of spores and percent colonisation of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Total dry weight, root surface area and chlorophyll content were found to be significantly high in AMF inoculated plants as compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones and also higher in drought-tolerant varieties of wheat as compared to the sensitive variety HD 2967, in moderate water stress treatments. Leakage of electrolytes was lower in case of AMF inoculated stressed plants. Under continuous water stress, leaf water content and leaf area were significantly increased in AMF inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated stressed plants. Overall, the increased colonisation of roots of wheat by AMF in inoculated plants weather drought tolerant or sensitive could have a beneficial effect in alleviating the harmful effects of water stress in wheat and delaying its senescence.

Keywords: Wheat, stress, Drought, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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9 Computation of Flood and Drought Years over the North-West Himalayan Region Using Indian Meteorological Department Rainfall Data

Authors: Sudip Kumar Kundu, Charu Singh


The climatic condition over Indian region is highly dependent on monsoon. India receives maximum amount of rainfall during southwest monsoon. Indian economy is highly dependent on agriculture. The presence of flood and drought years influenced the total cultivation system as well as the economy of the country as Indian agricultural systems is still highly dependent on the monsoon rainfall. The present study has been planned to investigate the flood and drought years for the north-west Himalayan region from 1951 to 2014 by using area average Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) rainfall data. For this investigation the Normalized index (NI) has been utilized to find out whether the particular year is drought or flood. The data have been extracted for the north-west Himalayan (NWH) region states namely Uttarakhand (UK), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) to find out the rainy season average rainfall for each year, climatological mean and the standard deviation. After calculation it has been plotted by the diagrams (or graphs) to show the results- some of the years associated with drought years, some are flood years and rest are neutral. The flood and drought years can also relate with the large-scale phenomena El-Nino and La-Lina.

Keywords: Flood, Rainfall, Drought, NWH, IMD, normalized index

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8 Variation of Litter Chemistry under Intensified Drought: Consequences on Flammability

Authors: E. Ormeno, C. Gutigny, J. Ruffault, J. Madrigal, M. Guijarro, C. Lecareux, C. Ballini


Mediterranean plant species feature numerous metabolic and morpho-physiological responses crucial to survive under both, typical Mediterranean drought conditions and future aggravated drought expected by climate change. Whether these adaptive responses will, in turn, increase the ecosystem perturbation in terms of fire hazard, is an issue that needs to be addressed. The aim of this study was to test whether recurrent and aggravated drought in the Mediterranean area favors the accumulation of waxes in leaf litter, with an eventual increase of litter flammability. The study was conducted in 2017 in a garrigue in Southern France dominated by Quercus coccifera, where two drought treatments were used: a treatment with recurrent aggravated drought consisting of ten rain exclusion structures which withdraw part of the annual precipitation since January 2012, and a natural drought treatment where Q. coccifera stands are free of such structures and thus grow under natural precipitation. Waxes were extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS and litter flammability was assessed through measurements of the ignition delay, flame residence time and flame intensity (flame height) using an epiradiator as well as the heat of combustion using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Results show that after 5 years of rain restriction, wax content in the cuticle of leaf litter increases significantly compared to shrubs growing under natural precipitation, in accordance with the theoretical knowledge which expects increases of cuticle waxes in green leaves in order to limit water evapotranspiration. Wax concentrations were also linearly and positively correlated to litter flammability, a correlation that lies on the high flammability own to the long-chain alkanes (C25-C31) found in leaf litter waxes. This innovative investigation shows that climate change is likely to favor ecosystem fire hazard through accumulation of highly flammable waxes in litter. It also adds valuable information about the types of metabolites that are associated with increasing litter flammability, since so far, within the leaf metabolic profile, only terpene-like compounds had been related to plant flammability.

Keywords: Drought, litter, flammability, cuticular waxes

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7 Economic Impact of Drought on Agricultural Society: Evidence Based on a Village Study in Maharashtra, India

Authors: Harshan Tee Pee


Climate elements include surface temperatures, rainfall patterns, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, air pressure and wind speed and direction. Change in one element can have an impact on the regional climate. The scientific predictions indicate that global climate change will increase the number of extreme events, leading to more frequent natural hazards. Global warming is likely to intensify the risk of drought in certain parts and also leading to increased rainfall in some other parts. Drought is a slow advancing disaster and creeping phenomenon– which accumulate slowly over a long period of time. Droughts are naturally linked with aridity. But droughts occur over most parts of the world (both wet and humid regions) and create severe impacts on agriculture, basic household welfare and ecosystems. Drought condition occurs at least every three years in India. India is one among the most vulnerable drought prone countries in the world. The economic impacts resulting from extreme environmental events and disasters are huge as a result of disruption in many economic activities. The focus of this paper is to develop a comprehensive understanding about the distributional impacts of disaster, especially impact of drought on agricultural production and income through a panel study (drought year and one year after the drought) in Raikhel village, Maharashtra, India. The major findings of the study indicate that cultivating area as well as the number of cultivating households reduced after the drought, indicating a shift in the livelihood- households moved from agriculture to non-agriculture. Decline in the gross cropped area and production of various crops depended on the negative income from these crops in the previous agriculture season. All the landholding categories of households except landlords had negative income in the drought year and also the income disparities between the households were higher in that year. In the drought year, the cost of cultivation was higher for all the landholding categories due to the increased cost for irrigation and input cost. In the drought year, agriculture products (50 per cent of the total products) were used for household consumption rather than selling in the market. It is evident from the study that livelihood which was based on natural resources became less attractive to the people to due to the risk involved in it and people were moving to less risk livelihood for their sustenance.

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture Economics, Drought, disaster impact

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6 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Deniz Eki̇nci̇, Hakan Arslan, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun


Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Drought, antioxidant enzyme, carrot, irrigation interval

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5 RNA-Seq Based Transcriptomic Analysis of Wheat Cultivars for Unveiling of Genomic Variations and Isolation of Drought Tolerant Genes for Genome Editing

Authors: Ghulam Muhammad ALI


Unveiling of genes involved in drought and root architecture using transcriptomic analyses remained fragmented for further improvement of wheat through genome editing. The purpose of this research endeavor was to unveil the variations in different genes implicated in drought tolerance and root architecture in wheat through RNA-seq data analysis. In this study seedlings of 8 days old, 6 cultivars of wheat namely, Batis, Blue Silver, Local White, UZ888, Chakwal 50 and Synthetic wheat S22 were subjected to transcriptomic analysis for root and shoot genes. Total of 12 RNA samples was sequenced by Illumina. Using updated wheat transcripts from Ensembl and IWGC references with 54,175 gene models, we found that 49,621 out of 54,175 (91.5%) genes are expressed at an RPKM of 0.1 or more (in at least 1 sample). The number of genes expressed was higher in Local White than Batis. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) were higher in Chakwal 50. Expression-based clustering indicated conserved function of DRO1and RPK1 between Arabidopsis and wheat. Dendrogram showed that Local White is sister to Chakwal 50 while Batis is closely related to Blue Silver. This study flaunts transcriptomic sequence variations in different cultivars that showed mutations in genes associated with drought that may directly contribute to drought tolerance. DRO1 and RPK1 genes were fetched/isolated for genome editing. These genes are being edited in wheat through CRISPR-Cas9 for yield enhancement.

Keywords: Genome editing, Wheat, Drought, transcriptomic, CRISPR-Cas9, yield enhancement

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4 Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Response of Rice Leaves to Chitosan under Drought Stress

Authors: Sittiruk Roytrakul, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Wasinee Pongprayoon


Chitosan has been proposed as a natural polymer, and it is derived from chitin. The objective of this research was to determine the growth promoting responses induced by chitosan at the molecular physiology level in Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under drought stress by adding of 2% polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000) to the nutrient solution and after removal of the drought stress (re-water). Oligomeric chitosan at 40 ppm could enhance shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight during drought stress and re-water. After 7 days of drought stress and re-water, significant increases in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents in KDML 105 cultivar were observed. The 749 phosphoproteins in rice leaf treated with chitosan could be resolved by phosphoprotein enrichment, tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. They can be classified into 10 groups. Proteins involved in the metabolic process and biological regulation were upregulated in response to chitosan during drought stress. This work will help us to understand protein phosphorylation relating to chitosan response during drought stress in aromatic rice seedlings.

Keywords: Rice, Drought, chitosan, phosphoproteome

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3 Screening of the Sunflower Genotypes for Drought Stress at Seedling Stage by Polyethylene Glycol under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Sanam Bashir, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Fareed Khan, Uzma Ayaz


Drought stress directly affects growth along with the productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to characterize the genetic variability for seedling and morpho-physiological parameters in different sunflower genotypes under water-stressed conditions. A total of twenty-seven genotypes, including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested against drought stress at Seedling stages by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). Significant means were calculated among traits using analysis of variance (ANOVA) whereas, correlation and principal component analysis also confirmed that germination percentage, root length, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency are positively linked with each other hence, these traits were responsible for most of the variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-3, line-2, and 17578, line-1, line-7, line-6 and 17562 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of drought-tolerant inbreed lines which could be subsequently used in future heterosis breeding programs.

Keywords: Screening, stress, Sunflower, Drought, polyethylene- glycol

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2 Drought Risk Analysis Using Neural Networks for Agri-Businesses and Projects in Lejweleputswa District Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Bernard Moeketsi Hlalele


Drought is a complicated natural phenomenon that creates significant economic, social, and environmental problems. An analysis of paleoclimatic data indicates that severe and extended droughts are inevitable part of natural climatic circle. This study characterised drought in Lejweleputswa using both Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and neural networks (NN) to quantify and predict respectively. Monthly 37-year long time series precipitation data were obtained from online NASA database. Prior to the final analysis, this dataset was checked for outliers using SPSS. Outliers were removed and replaced by Expectation Maximum algorithm from SPSS. This was followed by both homogeneity and stationarity tests to ensure non-spurious results. A non-parametric Mann Kendall's test was used to detect monotonic trends present in the dataset. Two temporal scales SPI-3 and SPI-12 corresponding to agricultural and hydrological drought events showed statistically decreasing trends with p-value = 0.0006 and 4.9 x 10⁻⁷, respectively. The study area has been plagued with severe drought events on SPI-3, while on SPI-12, it showed approximately a 20-year circle. The concluded the analyses with a seasonal analysis that showed no significant trend patterns, and as such NN was used to predict possible SPI-3 for the last season of 2018/2019 and four seasons for 2020. The predicted drought intensities ranged from mild to extreme drought events to come. It is therefore recommended that farmers, agri-business owners, and other relevant stakeholders' resort to drought resistant crops as means of adaption.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Risk, Project, Drought, agri-businesses, Lejweleputswa

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1 Drought Detection and Water Stress Impact on Vegetation Cover Sustainability Using Radar Data

Authors: E. Farg, M. M. El-Sharkawy, M. S. Mostafa, S. M. Arafat


Mapping water stress provides important baseline data for sustainable agriculture. Recent developments in the new Sentinel-1 data which allow the acquisition of high resolution images and varied polarization capabilities. This study was conducted to detect and quantify vegetation water content from canopy backscatter for extracting spatial information to encourage drought mapping activities throughout new reclaimed sandy soils in western Nile delta, Egypt. The performance of radar imagery in agriculture strongly depends on the sensor polarization capability. The dual mode capabilities of Sentinel-1 improve the ability to detect water stress and the backscatter from the structure components improves the identification and separation of vegetation types with various canopy structures from other features. The fieldwork data allowed identifying of water stress zones based on land cover structure; those classes were used for producing harmonious water stress map. The used analysis techniques and results show high capability of active sensors data in water stress mapping and monitoring especially when integrated with multi-spectral medium resolution images. Also sub soil drip irrigation systems cropped areas have lower drought and water stress than center pivot sprinkler irrigation systems. That refers to high level of evaporation from soil surface in initial growth stages. Results show that high relationship between vegetation indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI the observed radar backscattering. In addition to observational evidence showed that the radar backscatter is highly sensitive to vegetation water stress, and essentially potential to monitor and detect vegetative cover drought.

Keywords: Drought, Polarization, NDVI, canopy backscatter

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