Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Drosophila Related Abstracts

3 Genetic Divergence of Life History Traits in Indian Populations of Drosophila bipectinata

Authors: Manvender Singh


Temperature is one of the most important climatic parameter for explaining the geographic distribution of ectothermic species. Empirical investigations on norms of the reaction according to developmental temperatures are helpful in analyzing the adapture capacity of a species which may be related to its ecological niche. In the present investigation, we have compared the effects of developmental temperatures on fecundity, hatchability, viability, and duration of development in five natural populations of Drosophila bipectinata along the latitudinal range. The clinal patterns for fecundity, as well as ovariole number, were observed which showed significant positive correlation (r=0.97). Similarly, hatchability and duration of development also revealed a positive correlation with latitude. Hence, suggesting the role of natural selection in maintaining the genetic divergence for life history traits along the north-south transect of the Indian Subcontinent.

Keywords: growth temperature, fecundity, hatchability, viability, duration of development, Drosophila

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2 Robustness Conditions for the Establishment of Stationary Patterns of Drosophila Segmentation Gene Expression

Authors: Ekaterina M. Myasnikova, Andrey A. Makashov, Alexander V. Spirov


First manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains (along with the main embryo axis) of genes belonging to the trunk gene class. Highly variable expression of genes from gap family in early Drosophila embryo is strongly reduced by the start of gastrulation due to the gene cross-regulation. The dynamics of gene expression is described by a gene circuit model for a system of four gap genes. It is shown that for the formation of a steep and stationary border by the model it is necessary that there existed a nucleus (modeling point) in which the gene expression level is constant in time and hence is described by a stationary equation. All the rest genes expressed in this nucleus are in a dynamic equilibrium. The mechanism of border formation associated with the existence of a stationary nucleus is also confirmed by the experiment. An important advantage of this approach is that properties of the system in a stationary nucleus are described by algebraic equations and can be easily handled analytically. Thus we explicitly characterize the cross-regulation properties necessary for the robustness and formulate the conditions providing this effect through the properties of the initial input data. It is shown that our formally derived conditions are satisfied for the previously published model solutions.

Keywords: Robustness, Drosophila, gap genes, reaction-diffusion model

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1 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal


Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: apoptosis, radio frequency, Electromagnetic Fields, DNA damage, cell death, Drosophila, EMF, comet assay, TUNEL assay

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