Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

driving Related Abstracts

6 Driving in a Short Arm Plaster Cast Steer a Patient off Course: A Randomised, Controlled, Crossover Study

Authors: B. W. Kenny, D.Mansour, K. G. Mansour, J. Attia, B. Meads

Abstract:

There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about safety while immobilized in a short arm cast. There is a paucity of published literature on this topic. The purpose of this study is to specifically evaluate short arm casts and their effect on driving abilities, particularly steering and avoidance of obstacles. The ability to drive safely is extrapolated from this data. In this study, a randomised, controlled, crossover design was used to assess 30 subjects randomised into 2 groups. A Logitech force feedback steering column and simulated driving program with a standardised road course was used. Objective outcome measures were the number of times subjects drove off the track, the number of crashes, time to lap completion and subjective assessment on whether wearing a short arm plaster cast impeded their steering. Recruited subjects had no upper limb pathology. The side of the applied plaster cast was randomised. The mean lap completion time reduced with repetition, the difference being statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean number of times subjects in casts drove off the track (3 with vs. 3.07 without casts), average number of crashes (1.27 vs 0.97). Steering ability was not reduced whilst a subject was immobilised in a short arm Plaster of Paris cast, despite subject’s own impressions that their steering was impeded. This may help guide doctors in their advice to patients regarding driving in these casts.

Keywords: Automobile, upper limb, arm injury, plaster cast, splint, driving, bone fracture

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5 The Effects of Using Telephone and Social Media Applications While Driving in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

Abstract:

Social media have totally converged with social life all around the globe. Using social media applications and mobile phones have become somewhat of an addiction to most people. Driving while using mobile applications falls under such addiction when usage is not of urgency. This study aims to investigate the impact of using such applications while driving in the small rich state of Kuwait, where most people juggle more than one phone for different purposes. Positive and negative effects will be explored in detail as well as causes for these effects and possible reasons. A full range of recommendations will be presented so as to give other countries a specific case study upon which to build solutions and remedies to this emerging and dangerous social phenomenon.

Keywords: Communication, Social Media, Mobile Applications, driving

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4 Social Media Effects on Driving: An Exploratory Study Applied to Drivers in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

Abstract:

Social media have totally converged with social life all around the globe. Using social media applications and mobile phones have become somewhat of an addiction to most people. Driving while using mobile applications falls under such addiction when usage is not of urgency. This study aims to investigate the impact of using such applications while driving in the small, rich state of Kuwait, where most people juggle more than one phone for different purposes. Positive and negative effects will be explored in detail as well as causes for these effects and possible reasons. A full range of recommendations will be presented so as to give other countries a specific case study upon which to build solutions and remedies to this emerging and dangerous social phenomenon.

Keywords: communications, Social Media, Mobile, driving

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3 Estimating the Efficiency of a Meta-Cognitive Intervention Program to Reduce the Risk Factors of Teenage Drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder While Driving

Authors: Navah Z. Ratzon, Talia Glick, Iris Manor

Abstract:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder that affects the sufferer’s functioning throughout life and in various spheres of activity, including driving. Difficulties in cognitive functioning and executive functions are often part and parcel of the ADHD diagnosis, and thus form a risk factor in driving. Studies examining the effectiveness of intervention programs for improving and rehabilitating driving in typical teenagers have been conducted in relatively small numbers; while studies on similar programs for teenagers with ADHD have been especially scarce. The aim of the present study has been to examine the effectiveness of a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention program for reducing risk factors in driving among teenagers with ADHD. The present study included 37 teenagers aged 17 to 19. They included 23 teenagers with ADHD divided into experimental (11) and control (12) groups; as well as 14 non-ADHD teenagers forming a second control group. All teenagers taking part in the study were examined in the Tel Aviv University driving lab, and underwent cognitive diagnoses and a driving simulator test. Every subject in the intervention group took part in 3 assessment meetings, and two metacognitive treatment meetings. The control groups took part in two assessment meetings with a follow-up meeting 3 months later. In all the study’s groups, the treatment’s effectiveness was tested by comparing monitoring results on the driving simulator at the first and second evaluations. In addition, the driving of 5 subjects from the intervention group was monitored continuously from a month prior to the start of the intervention, a month during the phase of the intervention and another month until the end of the intervention. In the ADHD control group, the driving of 4 subjects was monitored from the end of the first evaluation for a period of 3 months. The study’s findings were affected by the fact that the ADHD control group was different from the two other groups, and exhibited ADHD characteristics manifested by impaired executive functions and lower metacognitive abilities relative to their peers. The study found partial, moderate, non-significant correlations between driving skills and cognitive functions, executive functions, and perceptions and attitudes towards driving. According to the driving simulator test results and the limited sampling results of actual driving, it was found that a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention may be effective in reducing risk factors in driving among teenagers with ADHD relative to their peers with and without ADHD. In summary, the results of the present study indicate a positive direction that speaks to the viability of using a metacognitive occupational therapy intervention program for reducing risk factors in driving. A further study is required that will include a bigger number of subjects, add actual driving monitoring hours, and assign subjects randomly to the various groups.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, ADHD, simulator, teenagers, driving, driving monitoring, metacognitive intervention

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2 Referrals to Occupational Therapy Driving Assessors: A Qualitative Study of General Practitioners

Authors: Mary Butler

Abstract:

Background: Screening programmes for older drivers in Europe (though not the UK), and in many states in the US and in Australia are based on medical assessment of fitness to drive. These programmes require physicians (including general practitioners) to carry out an assessment of fitness to drive in their offices. In 2006, New Zealand changed from doing on-road driving tests with all older drivers from the age of 80, to a screening programme that uses medical assessment of fitness to drive only. Aim: This study set out to understand the experience of New Zealand GPs as they manage the process of medical assessment of fitness to drive assessments for older people. In particular, it aimed to establish how GPs understand the role of specialist driving assessment and rehabilitation carried out by occupational therapists. Design and setting: The study used an interpretive descriptive approach to analyze data from ten interviews with GPs in New Zealand. Results: The results indicated that GPs lack understanding about how occupational therapists can assist their patients, and tend to refer only when there is a disagreement with the patient. Conclusion: There are problems with the medical assessment of fitness to drive carried out by GPs, and there is a need for a more comprehensive community approach to driving cessation. Patients, families and the multidisciplinary team all have a role in deciding when driving cessation should occur. Occupational therapists have a particular responsibility for strategic leadership in this area of practice.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Assessment, Older People, driving

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1 Effects of Cannabis and Cocaine on Driving Related Tasks of Perception, Cognition, and Action

Authors: Michelle V. Tomczak, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Aaron Granley, Anthony Singhal

Abstract:

Objective: Cannabis and cocaine are associated with a range of mental and physical effects that can impair aspects of human behavior. Driving is a complex cognitive behavior that is an essential part of everyday life and can be broken down into many subcomponents, each of which can uniquely impact road safety. With the growing movement of jurisdictions to legalize cannabis, there is an increased focus on impairment and driving. The purpose of this study was to identify driving-related cognitive-performance deficits that are impacted by recreational drug use. Design and Methods: With the assistance of law enforcement agencies, we recruited over 300 participants under the influence of various drugs including cannabis and cocaine. These individuals performed a battery of computer-based tasks scientifically proven to be re-lated to on-road driving performance and designed to test response-speed, memory processes, perceptual-motor skills, and decision making. Data from a control group with healthy non-drug using adults was collected as well. Results: Compared to controls, the drug group showed def-icits in all tasks. The data also showed clear differences between the cannabis and cocaine groups where cannabis users were faster, and performed better on some aspects of the decision-making and perceptual-motor tasks. Memory performance was better in the cocaine group for simple tasks but not more complex tasks. Finally, the participants who consumed both drugs performed most similarly to the cannabis group. Conclusions: Our results show distinct and combined effects of cannabis and cocaine on human performance relating to driving. These dif-ferential effects are likely related to the unique effects of each drug on the human brain and how they distinctly contribute to mental states. Our results have important implications for road safety associated with driver impairment.

Keywords: Recreational Drug Use, Cognitive Impairment, driving, cannabis and cocaine

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