Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Drivers Related Abstracts

5 Spatial Abilities, Memory, and Intellect of Drivers with Different Professional Experience

Authors: Khon Natalya, Kim Alla, Mukhitdinova Tansulu


The aim of the research was to reveal the link between mental variables, such as spatial abilities, memory, intellect and professional experience of drivers. Participants were allocated within 4 groups: no experience, inexperienced, skilled and professionals (total 85 participants). Level of ability for spatial navigation and indicator of nonverbal memory grow along the process of accumulation of driving experience. At high levels of driving experience this tendency is especially noticeable. The professionals having personal achievements in driving (racing) differ from skilled drivers in better feeling of direction which is specific for them not just in a short-term situation of an experimental task, but in life-size perspective. The level of ability of mental rotation does not grow with growth of driving experience which confirms the multiple intelligence theory according to which spatial abilities represent specific, other than logical intelligence type of intellect. The link between spatial abilities, memory, intellect, and professional experience of drivers seems to be different relating spatial navigation or mental rotation as different kinds of spatial abilities.

Keywords: Memory, Drivers, spatial ability, intellect

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4 An Evaluation of Drivers in Implementing Sustainable Manufacturing in India: Using DEMATEL Approach

Authors: S. Luthra, A. Haleem, D. Garg


Due to growing concern about environmental and social consequences throughout the world, a need has been felt to incorporate sustainability concepts in conventional manufacturing. This paper is an attempt to identify and evaluate drivers in implementing sustainable manufacturing in Indian context. Nine possible drivers for successful implementation of sustainable manufacturing have been identified from extensive review. Further, Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approach has been utilized to evaluate and categorize these identified drivers for implementing sustainable manufacturing in to the cause and effect groups. Five drivers (Societal Pressure and Public Concerns; Regulations and Government Policies; Top Management Involvement, Commitment and Support; Effective Strategies and Activities towards Socially Responsible Manufacturing and Market Trends) have been categorized into the cause group and four drivers (Holistic View in Manufacturing Systems; Supplier Participation; Building Sustainable culture in Organization; and Corporate Image and Benefits) have been categorized into the effect group. “Societal Pressure and Public Concerns” has been found the most critical driver and “Corporate Image and Benefits” as least critical or the most easily influenced driver to implementing sustainable manufacturing in Indian context. This paper may surely help practitioners in better understanding of these drivers and their priorities towards effective implementation of sustainable manufacturing.

Keywords: Sustainable Manufacturing, India, Drivers, decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)

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3 Oral Health of Tobacco Chewers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Warsi A. Ibrahim, Qureshi A. Ambrina, Younus M. Anjum


Introduction: Oral lesions related to commercially available Smokeless Tobacco (ST), such as, Pan, Gutka, Mahwa, Naswar is considered a serious challenge for dental health care providers in Pakistan. Majority of labored Pakistani population consume ST, where public transporters and drivers are no exception. It was necessary to identify individuals of this particular population group and screen their oral health and early signs of pre-cancerous lesions so that appropriate preventive measures could be taken to reduce the burden on health providers. Aim of Study: To estimate Prevalence of ST consumption and perception of use, and to evaluate Oral Health status among public drivers of Karachi. Material & methods: A cross-sectional study survey was conducted over duration of 2 months, through convenient sampling. Sample size (n=615) of public drivers (age > 18 years) all over Karachi was gathered. A structured proforma was used to record socio-demographics, addiction profile, perception of use and oral health status (oral lesions, oral sub-mucosal fibrosis and dental caries) of study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics only. Results: Prevalence of ST consumption among the study participants was figured to 92.5%. Out of these almost 70% suffered from one or the other form of oral lesion(s). Four major types of ST consumption were observed out of which 60 % of oral lesion were related to Gutka chewers showing early signs of oral cancer. In addition, occurrence of Oral sub-mucosal fibrosis (OSF) was found to be significantly high around 54.8%. Overall dental caries status was also high, showing on an average 5 teeth of an individual were decayed, missing or filled deviating from WHO normal criteria (mean < 3). It was thus proven from the study that public drivers relied on oral tobacco consumption because it helps them ‘Improve consciousness’ (p-value: < 0.01; using chi-square test). Multivariate analysis showed that there were higher prevalence of smokeless tobacco among highway drivers versus local drivers (A.O.R: 2.82 [0.83-9.61], p-value: < 0.01) Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has a direct effect on oral health. However, the type of ST, the duration of consumption are factors which are directly related to the severity. Moreover, Gutka may be considered as having most lethal effects on oral health which may lead to oral cancer and affect individual’s quality of life. Specific preventive programs must be undertaken to reduce the consumption of Gutka among public transporters and drivers.

Keywords: Drivers, smokeless tobacco, oral lesions, public transporters

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2 Decision-Making in the Internationalization Process of Small and Medium Sized Companies: Experience from Managers in a Small Economy

Authors: Gunnar Oskarsson, Gudjon Helgi Egilsson


Due to globalization, small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) increasingly offer their products and services in foreign markets. The main reasons are either to compensate for a decreased market share in their home market or to exploit opportunities in foreign markets, which are becoming less distant and better accessible than before. International markets are particularly important for companies located in a small economy and offering specialized products. Although more accessible, entering international markets is both expensive and difficult. In order to select the most appropriate markets, it is, therefore, important to gain an insight into the factors that have an impact on success, or potential failure. Although there has been a reasonable volume of research into the theory of internationalization, there is still a need to gain further understanding of the decision-making process of SMEs in small economies and the most important characteristics that distinguish between success and failure. The main objective of this research is to enhance knowledge on the internationalization of SMEs, including the drivers for the decision to internationalize, and the most important factors contributing to success in their internationalization activities. A qualitative approach was found to be most appropriate for this kind of research, with the objective of gaining a deeper understanding and discovering factors which impact a company’s decision-making and potential success. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 companies in different industries located in Iceland, a country extensively dependent on export revenues. The interviews revealed several factors as drivers of internationalization and, not surprisingly, the most frequently mentioned source of motivation was that the local market is inadequate to maintain a sustainable operation. Good networking relationships were seen as a particular priority for potential success, searching for new markets was mainly carried out through the internet, although sales exhibitions and sales trips were also considered important. When it comes to the final decision as to whether a market should be considered for further analysis, economy, labor cost, legal environment, and cultural barriers were the most common factors to be weighted. The ultimate answer to successful internationalization, however, is largely dependent on a coordinated and experienced management team. The main contribution of this research is offering an insight into factors affecting decision-making in the internationalization process of SMEs, based on the opinion and experience of managers of SMEs in a small economy.

Keywords: Decision Making, Internationalization, Drivers, success factors, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

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1 Change in Food Choice Behavior: Trend and Challenges

Authors: Gargi S. Kumar, Mrinmoyi Kulkarni


Food choice behavior is complex and determined by biological, psychological, socio-cultural, and economic factors. The past two decades, have seen dramatic changes in food consumption patterns among urban Indian consumers. The objective of the current study was to evaluate perceptions about changes with respect to food choice behavior. Ten participants [urban men and women] ranging in age from 40 to 65 were selected and in-depth interviews were conducted with a set of open ended questions. The recorded interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed using inductive, open and axial coding. The results identified themes that act as drivers and consequences of change in food choice behavior. Drivers such as globalization [sub themes of urbanization, education, income, and work environment], media and advertising, changing gender roles, women in the workforce, and change in family structure have influenced food choice, both at an individual and national level. The consequences of changes in food choice were health implications, processed food consumption, food decisions driven by children and eating out among others. The study reveals that, over time, food choices change and evolve. However it is interesting to note how market forces and culture interact to influence individual behavior and the overall food environment which subsequently affects food choice and the health of the people.

Keywords: Change, Globalization, Food choice, Drivers, consequences

Procedia PDF Downloads 83