Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

drag Related Abstracts

12 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo

Abstract:

As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: Aircraft, drag, head wind, tail wind

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11 Brinkman Flow Past an Impervious Spheroid under Stokesian Assumption

Authors: T. K. V. Iyengar, D. Satish Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Brinkman flow, under Stokesian assumption, past an impervious prolate spheroid and obtain the expressions for the velocity and pressure fields in terms of Legendre functions, Associated Legendre functions, prolate radial and angular spheroidal wave functions. We further obtain an expression for the drag experienced by the spheroid and numerically study its variation with respect to the flow parameters and display the results through graphs.

Keywords: Pressure, porous medium, velocity, drag, prolate spheoid, stokesian assumption, brinkman model

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10 Numerical Study on Parallel Rear-Spoiler on Super Cars

Authors: Anshul Ashu

Abstract:

Computers are applied to the vehicle aerodynamics in two ways. One of two is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and other is Computer Aided Flow Visualization (CAFV). Out of two CFD is chosen because it shows the result with computer graphics. The simulation of flow field around the vehicle is one of the important CFD applications. The flow field can be solved numerically using panel methods, k-ε method, and direct simulation methods. The spoiler is the tool in vehicle aerodynamics used to minimize unfavorable aerodynamic effects around the vehicle and the parallel spoiler is set of two spoilers which are designed in such a manner that it could effectively reduce the drag. In this study, the standard k-ε model of the simplified version of Bugatti Veyron, Audi R8 and Porsche 911 are used to simulate the external flow field. Flow simulation is done for variable Reynolds number. The flow simulation consists of three different levels, first over the model without a rear spoiler, second for over model with single rear spoiler, and third over the model with parallel rear-spoiler. The second and third level has following parameter: the shape of the spoiler, the angle of attack and attachment position. A thorough analysis of simulations results has been found. And a new parallel spoiler is designed. It shows a little improvement in vehicle aerodynamics with a decrease in vehicle aerodynamic drag and lift. Hence, it leads to good fuel economy and traction force of the model.

Keywords: spoiler, lift, drag, flow simulation

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9 Computational Analysis of Adaptable Winglets for Improved Morphing Aircraft Performance

Authors: Erdogan Kaygan, Alvin Gatto

Abstract:

An investigation of adaptable winglets for enhancing morphing aircraft performance is described in this paper. The concepts investigated consist of various winglet configurations fundamentally centered on a baseline swept wing. The impetus for the work was to identify and optimize winglets to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of a morphing aircraft. All computations were performed with Athena Vortex Lattice modelling with varying degrees of twist and cant angle considered. The results from this work indicate that if adaptable winglets were employed on aircraft’s improvements in aircraft performance could be achieved.

Keywords: Aircraft, winglet, drag, twist

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8 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Vivek Paul, Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan

Abstract:

The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: Endurance, CFD, mav, Airfoil, Flight Performance, lift, drag, climb

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7 Prediction of Finned Projectile Aerodynamics Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Method CFD Solution

Authors: Zaki Abiza, Miguel Chavez, David M. Holman, Ruddy Brionnaud

Abstract:

In this paper, the prediction of the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a Finned Projectile will be validated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution, XFlow, based on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM). XFlow is an innovative CFD software developed by Next Limit Dynamics. It is based on a state-of-the-art Lattice-Boltzmann Method which uses a proprietary particle-based kinetic solver and a LES turbulent model coupled with the generalized law of the wall (WMLES). The Lattice-Boltzmann method discretizes the continuous Boltzmann equation, a transport equation for the particle probability distribution function. From the Boltzmann transport equation, and by means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered. However to simulate compressible flows, this method has a Mach number limitation because of the lattice discretization. Thanks to this flexible particle-based approach the traditional meshing process is avoided, the discretization stage is strongly accelerated reducing engineering costs, and computations on complex geometries are affordable in a straightforward way. The projectile that will be used in this work is the Army-Navy Basic Finned Missile (ANF) with a caliber of 0.03 m. The analysis will consist in varying the Mach number from M=0.5 comparing the axial force coefficient, normal force slope coefficient and the pitch moment slope coefficient of the Finned Projectile obtained by XFlow with the experimental data. The slope coefficients will be obtained using finite difference techniques in the linear range of the polar curve. The aim of such an analysis is to find out the limiting Mach number value starting from which the effects of high fluid compressibility (related to transonic flow regime) lead the XFlow simulations to differ from the experimental results. This will allow identifying the critical Mach number which limits the validity of the isothermal formulation of XFlow and beyond which a fully compressible solver implementing a coupled momentum-energy equations would be required.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, Mach, Pitch, lift, drag, LBM, finned projectile, lattice-boltzmann method

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6 Simulation Study on Vehicle Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples

Authors: S. F. Wong, S. S. Dol

Abstract:

Automotive designers have been trying to use dimples to reduce drag in vehicles. In this work, a car model has been applied with dimple surface with a parameter called dimple ratio DR, the ratio between the depths of the half dimple over the print diameter of the dimple, has been introduced and numerically simulated via k-ε turbulence model to study the aerodynamics performance with the increasing depth of the dimples The Ahmed body car model with 25 degree slant angle is simulated with the DR of 0.05, 0.2, 0.3 0.4 and 0.5 at Reynolds number of 176387 based on the frontal area of the car model. The geometry of dimple changes the kinematics and dynamics of flow. Complex interaction between the turbulent fluctuating flow and the mean flow escalates the turbulence quantities. The maximum level of turbulent kinetic energy occurs at DR = 0.4. It can be concluded that the dimples have generated extra turbulence energy at the surface and as a result, the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model compared to the model with smooth surface.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Turbulence, Kinetic Energy, boundary layer, drag, dimple

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5 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Anshul Jain, P. K. S. Dikshit

Abstract:

To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: open channel, lift, drag, vanes

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4 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine

Abstract:

This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Wind Tunnel, turbulence model, lift, drag

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3 Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Aerodynamic Package of a Formula Student Car

Authors: Aniketh Ravukutam, Rajath Rao M., Pradyumna S. A.

Abstract:

In the past few decades there has been great advancement in use of aerodynamics in cars. Now its use has been evident from commercial cars to race cars for achieving higher speeds, stability and efficiency. This paper focusses on studying the effects of aerodynamics in Formula Student car. These cars weigh around 200kgs with an average speed of 60kmph. With increasing competition every year, developing a competitive car is a herculean task. The race track comprises mostly of tight corners and little or no straights thus testing the car’s cornering capabilities. Higher cornering speeds can be achieved by increasing traction at the tires. Studying the aerodynamics helps in achieving higher traction without much addition in overall weight of car. The main focus is to develop an aerodynamic package involving front wing, under tray and body to obtain an optimum value of down force. The initial process involves the detail study of geometrical constraints mentioned in the rule book and calculating the limiting value of drag as per the engine specifications. The successive steps involve conduction of various iterations in ANSYS for selection of airfoils, deciding the number of elements, designing the nose for low drag, channelizing the flow under the body and obtain an optimum value of down force within the limits defined in the initial process. The final step involves design of model using these results in Virtual environment called OptimumLap® for detailed study of performance with and without the presence of aerodynamics. The CFD analysis results showed an overall down force of 377.44N with a drag of 164.08N. The corresponding parameters of the last model were applied in OptimumLap® and an improvement of 3.5 seconds in lap times was observed.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, body, Virtual Environment, traction, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), down force, drag, formula student, front wing, undertray, rule book

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2 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Matthieu Mantilla

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Citation, model, coefficient, longitudinal, lift, drag, Cessna, Datcom, OpenVSP

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1 Performance of a Sailing Vessel with a Solid Wing Sail Compared to a Traditional Sail

Authors: William Waddington, M. Jahir Rizvi

Abstract:

Sail used to propel a vessel functions in a similar way to an aircraft wing. Traditionally, cloth and ropes were used to produce sails. However, there is one major problem with traditional sail design, the increase in turbulence and flow separation when compared to that of an aircraft wing with the same camber. This has led to the development of the solid wing sail focusing mainly on the sail shape. Traditional cloth sails are manufactured as a single element whereas solid wing sail is made of two segments. To the authors’ best knowledge, the phenomena behind the performances of this type of sail at various angles of wind direction with respect to a sailing vessel’s direction (known as the angle of attack) is still an area of mystery. Hence, in this study, the thrusts of a sailing vessel produced by wing sails constructed with various angles (22°, 24°, 26° and 28°) between the two segments have been compared to that of a traditional cloth sail made of carbon-fiber material. The reason for using carbon-fiber material is to achieve the correct and the exact shape of a commercially available mainsail. NACA 0024 and NACA 0016 foils have been used to generate two-segment wing sail shape which incorporates a flap between the first and the second segments. Both the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional sail models designed in commercial CAD software Solidworks have been analyzed through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques using Ansys CFX considering an apparent wind speed of 20.55 knots with an apparent wind angle of 31°. The results indicate that the thrust from traditional sail increases from 8.18 N to 8.26 N when the angle of attack is increased from 5° to 7°. However, the thrust value decreases if the angle of attack is further increased. A solid wing sail which possesses 20° angle between its two segments, produces thrusts from 7.61 N to 7.74 N with an increase in the angle of attack from 7° to 8°. The thrust remains steady up to 9° angle of attack and drops dramatically beyond 9°. The highest thrust values that can be obtained for the solid wing sails with 22°, 24°, 26° and 28° angle respectively between the two segments are 8.75 N, 9.10 N, 9.29 N and 9.19 N respectively. The optimum angle of attack for each of the solid wing sails is identified as 7° at which these thrust values are obtained. Therefore, it can be concluded that all the thrust values predicted for the solid wing sails of angles between the two segments above 20° are higher compared to the thrust predicted for the traditional sail. However, the best performance from a solid wing sail is expected when the sail is created with an angle between the two segments above 20° but below or equal to 26°. In addition, 1/29th scale models in the wind tunnel have been tested to observe the flow behaviors around the sails. The experimental results support the numerical observations as the flow behaviors are exactly the same.

Keywords: CFD, drag, thrust, sailing vessel, traditional sail, wing sail

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