Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

doxorubicin Related Abstracts

27 In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of Nanosize Zinc Oxide Composites of Doxorubicin

Authors: Emma R. Arakelova, Stepan G. Grigoryan, Flora G. Arsenyan, Nelli S. Babayan, Ruzanna M. Grigoryan, Natalia K. Sarkisyan


Novel nanosize zinc oxide composites of doxorubicin obtained by deposition of 180 nm thick zinc oxide film on the drug surface using DC-magnetron sputtering of a zinc target in the form of gels (PEO+Dox+ZnO and Starch+NaCMC+Dox+ZnO) were studied for drug delivery applications. The cancer specificity was revealed both in in vitro and in vivo models. The cytotoxicity of the test compounds was analyzed against human cancer (HeLa) and normal (MRC5) cell lines using MTT colorimetric cell viability assay. IC50 values were determined and compared to reveal the cancer specificity of the test samples. The mechanistic study of the most active compound was investigated using Flow cytometry analyzing of the DNA content after PI (propidium iodide) staining. Data were analyzed with Tree Star FlowJo software using cell cycle analysis Dean-Jett-Fox module. The in vivo anticancer activity estimation experiments were carried out on mice with inoculated ascitic Ehrlich’s carcinoma at intraperitoneal introduction of doxorubicin and its zinc oxide compositions. It was shown that the nanosize zinc oxide film deposition on the drug surface leads to the selective anticancer activity of composites at the cellular level with the range of selectivity index (SI) from 4 (Starch+NaCMC+Dox+ZnO) to 200 (PEO(gel)+Dox+ZnO) which is higher than that of free Dox (SI = 56). The significant increase in vivo antitumor activity (by a factor of 2-2.5) and decrease of general toxicity of zinc oxide compositions of doxorubicin in the form of the above mentioned gels compared to free doxorubicin were shown on the model of inoculated Ehrlich's ascitic carcinoma. Mechanistic studies of anticancer activity revealed the cytostatic effect based on the high level of DNA biosynthesis inhibition at considerable low concentrations of zinc oxide compositions of doxorubicin. The results of studies in vitro and in vivo behavior of PEO+Dox+ZnO and Starch+NaCMC+Dox+ZnO composites confirm the high potential of the nanosize zinc oxide composites as a vector delivery system for future application in cancer chemotherapy.

Keywords: Anticancer Activity, cancer specificity, doxorubicin, zinc oxide

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26 Doxorubicin and Cyclosporine Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles to Combat Multidrug Resistance

Authors: Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Shamala Nadaraju, Srinivasan Ramamurthy


Doxorubicin is the most widely used anticancer drugs in chemotherapy treatment. However, problems related to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) and acute cardiotoxicity have led researchers to investigate alternative forms of administering doxorubicin for cancer therapy. Several methods have been attempted to overcome MDR, including the co-administration of a chemosensitizer inhibiting the efflux caused by ATP binding cassette transporters with anticancer drugs, and the bypass of the efflux mechanism. Co encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) and cyclosporine A (CSA) into poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was emulsification-solvent evaporation method using polyvinyl alcohol as emulsion stabilizers. The Dox-CSA loaded nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential and PDI by light scattering analysis and thermal characterizations by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Loading efficiency (LE %) and in-vitro dissolution samples were evaluated by developed and validated HPLC method. The optimum particle size obtained is 298.6.8±39.4 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) is 0.098±0.092. Zeta potential is found to be -29.9±4.23. Optimum pH to increase Dox LE% was found 7.1 which gave 42.5% and 58.9% increase of LE% for pH 6.6 and pH 8.6 compared respectively. LE% achieved for Dox is 0.07±0.01 % and CSA is 0.09±0.03%. Increased volume of PVA and weight of PLGA shows increase in size of nanoparticles. DSC thermograms showed shift in the melting peak for the nanoparticles compared to Dox and CSA indicating encapsulation of drugs. In conclusion, these preliminary studies showed the feasibility of PLGA nanoparticles to entrap Dox and CSA and require future in-vivo studies to be performed to establish its potential.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, doxorubicin, cyclosporine, PLGA

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25 Genistein Suppresses Doxorubicin Associated Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Tanveer Beg, Yasir H. Siddique, Gulshan Ara, Asfar S. Azmi, Mohammad Afzal


Doxorubicin is a well-known DNA intercalating chemotherapy drug that is widely used for treatment of different cancers. Its clinical utility is limited due to the observed genotoxic side effects on healthy cells suggesting that newer combination and genoprotective regimens are urgently needed for the management of doxorubicin chemotherapy. Some dietary phytochemicals are well known for their protective mechanism of action and genistein from soy is recognized as an anti-oxidant with similar properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of genistein against the genotoxic doses of doxorubicin by assessing chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, cell cycle kinetics, cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage markers in cultured human lymphocytes. Our results reveal that genistein treatment significantly suppresses genotoxic damage induced by doxorubicin. It is concluded that genistein has the potential to reduce the genotoxicity induced by anti-cancer drugs, thereby reducing the chances of developing secondary tumors during the therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, Genotoxicity, doxorubicin, DNA damage markers, genistein, human lymphocyte culture

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24 Functionalized DOX Nanocapsules by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Afsaneh Ghorbanzadeh, Zakieh Bayat


The drug capsulation was used for release and targeted delivery in determined time, place and temperature or pH. The DOX nanocapsules were used to reduce and to minimize the unwanted side effects of drug. In this paper, the encapsulation methods of doxorubicin (DOX) and the labeling it by the magnetic core of iron (Fe3O4) has been studied. The Fe3O4 was conjugated with DOX via hydrazine bond. The solution was capsuled by the sensitive polymer of heat or pH such as chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide), dextran-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and mPEG-G2.5 PAMAM by hydrazine bond. The drug release was very slow at temperatures lower than 380°C. There was a rapid and controlled drug release at temperatures higher than 380°C. According to experiments, the use mPEG-G2.5PAMAM is the best method of DOX nanocapsules synthesis, because in this method, the drug delivery time to certain place is lower than other methods and the percentage of released drug is higher. The synthesized magnetic carrier system has potential applications in magnetic drug-targeting delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: Drug Release, doxorubicin, drug carrier, iron oxide NPs

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23 Anticancer Effect of Doxorubicin Using Injectable Hydrogel

Authors: Moon Suk Kim, Prasamsha Panta, Da Yeon Kim, Ja Yong Jang, Min Jae Kim, Jae Ho Kim


Introduction: Among the many anticancer drugs used clinically, doxorubicin (Dox), was one of widely used drugs to treat many types of solid tumors such as liver, colon, breast, or lung. Intratumoral injection of chemotherapeutic agents is a potentially more effective alternative to systemic administration because direct delivery of the anticancer drug to the target may improve both the stability and efficacy of anticancer drugs. Injectable in situ-forming gels have attracted considerable attention because they can achieve site specific drug delivery, long term action periods, and improved patient compliance. Objective: Objective of present study is to confirm clinical benefit of intratumoral chemotherapy using injectable in situ-forming poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone diblock copolymer (MP) and Dox with increase in efficacy and reducing the toxicity in patients with cancer diseases. Methods and methodology: We prepared biodegradable MP hydrogel and measured viscosity for the evaluation of thermo-sensitive property. In vivo antitumor activity was performed with normal saline, MP only, single free Dox, repeat free Dox, and Dox-loaded MP gel. The remaining amount of Dox drug was measured using HPLC after the mouse was sacrified. For cytotoxicity studies WST-1 assay was performed. Histological analysis was done with H&E and TUNEL processes respectively. Results: The works in this experiment showed that Dox-loaded MP have biodegradable drug depot property. Dox-loaded MP gels showed remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity activities against cancer cells. Finally, this work indicates that injection of Dox-loaded MP allowed Dox to act effectively in the tumor and induced long-lasting supression of tumor growth. Conclusion: This work has examined the potential clinical utility of intratumorally injected Dox-loaded MP gel, which shows significant effect of higher local Dox retention compared with systemically administered Dox.

Keywords: doxorubicin, anticancer, injectable in-situ forming hydrogel, intratumoral injection

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22 Effects of Purslane Shoot and Seed Ethanolic Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Osama M. Ahmed, Haidy T. Abo Sree


The clinical usefulness of anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic, doxorubicin (DOX) is restricted since it has several acute and chronic side effects. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w/week) without or with oral administration of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot ethanolic extract (50mg/kg b.w./day) and purslane seed ethanolic extract (50mg/kg b.w./day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum testosterone luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level were assayed. Testis lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) levels in testis were assessed. The data revealed a significant decrease in serum levels concentration of testosterone, LH and FSH levels in doxorubicin-injected rats. In addition, testis glutathione, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD and CAT levels were decreased while lipid peroxidation concentration in the testis was increased as a result of doxorubicin injection. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts potentially improved the adverse changes in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels with an increase in testis antioxidants levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be suggested that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX testicular toxicity without harmful side effects.

Keywords: Antioxidants, doxorubicin, purslane, testis function

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21 Comparative in silico and in vitro Study of N-(1-Methyl-2-Oxo-2-N-Methyl Anilino-Ethyl) Benzene Sulfonamide and Its Analogues as an Anticancer Agent

Authors: Pamita Awasthi, Kirna, Shilpa Dogra, Manu Vatsal, Ritu Barthwal


Doxorubicin, also known as adriamycin, is an anthracycline class of drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute leukemias, breast cancer, lung cancer, endometrium cancer and ovary cancers. It functions via intercalating DNA and ultimately killing cancer cells. The major side effects of doxorubicin are hair loss, myelosuppression, nausea & vomiting, oesophagitis, diarrhoea, heart damage and liver dysfunction. The minor modifications in the structure of compound exhibit large variation in the biological activity, has prompted us to carry out the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives. Sulfonamide is an important feature with broad spectrum of biological activity such as antiviral, antifungal, diuretics, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer activities. Structure of the synthesized compound N-(1-methyl-2-oxo-2-N-methyl anilino-ethyl)benzene sulfonamide confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR),13C NMR, Mass and FTIR spectroscopic tools to assure the position of all protons and hence stereochemistry of the molecule. Further we have reported the binding potential of synthesized sulfonamide analogues in comparison to doxorubicin drug using Auto Dock 4.2 software. Computational binding energy (B.E.) and inhibitory constant (Ki) has been evaluated for the synthesized compound in comparison of doxorubicin against Poly (dA-dT).Poly (dA-dT) and Poly (dG-dC).Poly (dG-dC) sequences. The in vitro cytotoxic study against human breast cancer cell lines confirms the better anticancer activity of the synthesized compound over currently in use anticancer drug doxorubicin. The IC50 value of the synthesized compound is 7.12 µM where as for doxorubicin is 7.2 µ.

Keywords: In vitro, doxorubicin, auto dock, in silco

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20 Functionalized SPIO Conjugated with Doxorubicin for Tumor Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Enhanced by Applying Magnetic Fields

Authors: Wen-Yuan Hsieh, Po-Chin Liang, Yung-Chu Chen, Chi-Feng Chiang, Yun-Ping Lin, Win-Li Lin


The aim of this study was to develop super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nano-particles comprised of a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a shell of aqueous stable self-doped polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a high loading of doxorubicin (SPIO-PEG-D) for tumor theranostics. The in-vivo MRI study showed that there was a stronger T2-weighted signal enhancement for the group under a magnetic field, and hence it indicated that this group had a better accumulation of SPIO-PEG than the group without a magnetic field. In the anticancer evaluation of SPIO-PEG-D, the group with a magnetic field displayed a significantly smaller tumor size than the group without. The overall results show that SPIO-PEG-D nanoparticles have the potential for the application of MRI/monitoring chemotherapy and the therapy can be locally enhanced by applying an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, MRI, Magnetic Fields, doxorubicin, super paramagnetic iron oxide nano particles

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19 Cardioprotective Effect of Oleanolic Acid and Urosolic Acid against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Sameer N. Goyal, Chandragauda R. Patil


Oleanolic acid (3/3-hydroxy-olea-12-en-28-oic acid) and its isomer, Ursolic acid (38-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are triterpenoids compounds which exist widely in plant kingdom in the free acid form or as glycosidic triterpenoids saponins. The aim of the study is to evaluate intravenously administered oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in albino wistar rat with single intravenous injection of doxorubicin at dose of 67.75mg/kg i.v for 48 hrs at 12 hrs interval following doxorubicin administration in the same model cardioprotective effect of amifostine (90 mg/kg i.v, single dose prior 30 min before doxorubicin administration) was evaluated as standard treatment. Induction of cardiotoxicity was confirmed by rise in cardiac markers in serum such as CK–MB, LDH and also by electrocardiographically. The doxorubicin treated group significantly increased in QT interval, serum CK-MB, serum LDH, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant parameter. Both the treatment group showed significant protective effect on Hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters. The oleanolic acid showed slight protective effect in histological lesions in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, the results indicate that Oleanolic acid has more cardioprotective potential than ursolic acid against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: doxorubicin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, cardioprotection

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18 The Toxicity of Doxorubicin Connected with Nanotransporters

Authors: Iva Blazkova, Pavel Kopel, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova, Amitava Moulick, Vedran Milosavljevic


Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used and the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This antracycline drug isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peuceticus var. caesius is sold under the trade name Adriamycin (hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydaunorubicin). Doxorubicin is used in single therapy to treat hematological malignancies (blood cancers, leukaemia, lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It has many serious side effects like nausea and vomiting, hair lost, myelosupression, oral mucositis, skin reactions and redness, but the most serious one is the cardiotoxicity. Because of the risk of heart attack and congestive heart failure, the total dose administered to patients has to be accurately monitored. With the aim to lower the side effects and to targeted delivery of doxorubicin into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles are studied. The drug can be bound on a surface of nanoparticle, encapsulated in the inner cavity, or incorporated into the structure of nanoparticle. Among others, carbon nanoparticles (graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes) are highly studied. Besides the number of inorganic nanoparticles, a great potential exhibit also organic ones mainly lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticle. The aim of this work was to perform a toxicity study of free doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin conjugated with various nanotransporters. The effect of liposomes, fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes on the toxicity was analyzed. As a first step, the binding efficacy of between doxorubicin and the nanotransporter was determined. The highest efficacy was detected in case of liposomes (85% of applied drug was encapsulated) followed by graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. For the toxicological studies, the chicken embryos incubated under controlled conditions (37.5 °C, 45% rH, rotation every 2 hours) were used. In 7th developmental day of chicken embryos doxorubicin or doxorubicin-nanotransporter complex was applied on the chorioallantoic membrane of the eggs and the viability was analyzed every day till the 17th developmental day. Then the embryos were extracted from the shell and the distribution of doxorubicin in the body was analyzed by measurement of organs extracts using laser induce fluorescence detection. The chicken embryo mortality caused by free doxorubicin (30%) was significantly lowered by using the conjugation with nanomaterials. The highest accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicin nanotransporter complexes was observed in the liver tissue

Keywords: Toxicity, doxorubicin, chicken embryos, nanotransporters

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17 Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Pavel Kopel, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova


Protein apoferritin seems to be a very promising structure for use as a nanocarrier. It is prepared from intracellular ferritin protein naturally found in most organisms. The role of ferritin proteins is to store and transport ferrous ions. Apoferritin is a hollow protein cage without ferrous ions that can be prepared from ferritin by reduction with thioglycolic acid or dithionite. The structure of apoferritin is composed of 24 protein subunits, creating a sphere with 12 nm in diameter. The inner cavity has a diameter of 8 nm. The drug encapsulation process is based on the response of apoferritin structure to the pH changes of surrounding solution. In low pH, apoferritin is disassembled into individual subunits and its structure is “opened”. It can then be mixed with any desired cytotoxic drug and after adjustment of pH back to neutral the subunits are reconnected again and the drug is encapsulated within the apoferritin particles. Excess drug molecules can be removed by dialysis. The receptors for apoferritin, SCARA5 and TfR1 can be found in the membrane of both healthy and cancer cells. To enhance the specific targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier, it is possible to modify its surface with targeting moieties, such as antibodies. To ensure sterically correct complex, we used a a peptide linker based on a protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies. To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (ApoDox) was coated either with gold nanoparticles (ApoDox-Nano) or gold (III) chloride hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (ApoDox-HAu). The applied amount of gold in form of gold (III) chloride hydrate was 10 times higher than in the case of gold nanoparticles. However, after removal of the excess unbound ions by electrophoretic separation, the concentration of gold on the surface of apoferritin was only 6 times higher for ApoDox-HAu in comparison with ApoDox-Nano. Moreover, the reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin fluorescent properties (excitation maximum at 480 nm with emission maximum at 600 nm) and thus its biological activity. Fluorescent properties of ApoDox-Nano were similar to the unmodified ApoDox, therefore it was more suited for the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified with antibodies, we used ELISA-like method with the surface of microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG antibodies). To these wells, we applied ApoDox without targeting antibodies and ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies (human IgG antibodies). The amount of unmodified ApoDox on antigen after incubation and subsequent rinsing with water was 5 times lower than in the case of ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies. The modification of non-gold ApoDox with antibodies caused no change in its targeting properties. It can therefore be concluded that the demonstrated procedure allows us to create nanocarrier with enhanced targeting properties, suitable for nanomedicine.

Keywords: doxorubicin, nanocarrier, apoferritin, targeting antibodies

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16 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh


Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Silver Nanoparticles, doxorubicin, nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy

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15 The Effect of Combined Doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta on Apoptosis Induction in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Dina Fatmawati, Sofia Mubarika, Mae Sri Wahyuningsih


Chemotherapy for breast cancer is largely ineffective, but innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. In our previous study, the combination of Doxorubicin (Dox) and ethanolic extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber ((EED) was found to have a synergistic effect on T47D human breast cancer cell line. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of the combination on T47D human breast cancer cells and normal fibroblasts cell line and its effects on the expression of Caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (cPARP-1) protein. T47D cell lines and fibroblasts cells were treated with the combination of Dox and EED. Apoptotic effect of the combination was determined using flow cytrometry assay. Protein expressions were determined by immunocytochemistry staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in T47D cell lines (75%) than that of in fibroblast cells (23%). The expression of Caspase 3 (84.53%) and cPARP-1 (83.36%) were significantly higher in the cancer cell lines than those of normal cells. These results indicate that the combination of doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta is a promising candidate for the treatment of breast cancer cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, Immunocytochemistry, cancer cells, doxorubicin, Dioscorea esculenta

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14 Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Jo-Chi Jao, Po-Chou Chen, Ren-Jy Ben, Chiu-Ya Liao, Ya-Ru Tsai, Lain-Chyr Hwang


Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the study of pathogenesis, biological characteristics and therapeutic effects. Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites. Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin liposomal, LipoDox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox) anti-tumor drugs using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at left thigh were classified into three groups: control group (untreated), Dox-treated group and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer scan was performed, Three-Dimensional (3D) Fast Spin Echo (FSE) T2-Weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric quantification. And Two-Dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA injection through the ear vein of rabbits. Afterwards, a series of 32 images were acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally. The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first week immediately after VX2 tumor implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor model.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, doxorubicin, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, lipodox, VX2 tumor model

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13 Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Osama M. Ahmed, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree


Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, which is commonly used in the treatment of uterine, ovarian, breast and lung cancers, Hodgkin's disease and soft tissue sarcomas as well as in several other cancer types. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w. day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, total protein, and albumin levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT were assessed. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be supposed that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX hepatopathy without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

Keywords: Antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

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12 Protective Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Osama M. Ahmed, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree


The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

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11 Delivery of Doxorubicin to Glioblastoma Multiforme Using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles with Surface Aprotinin and Melanotransferrin Antibody for Enhanced Chemotherapy

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, I-Hsuan Lee


Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) conjugated with aprotinin (Apr) and melanotransferrin antibody (Anti-MTf) were used to carry doxorubicin (Dox) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) chemotherapy. Dox-entrapped SLNs with grafted Apr and Anti-MTf (Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs) were applied to a cultured monolayer comprising human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) with regulation of human astrocyte (HAs) and to a proliferated colony of U87MG cells. Based on the average particle diameter, zeta potential, entrapping efficiency of Dox, and grafting efficiency of Apr and Anti-MTf, we found that 40% (w/w) 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in lipids were appropriate for fabricating Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs. In addition, Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs could prevent Dox from fast dissolution and did not induce a serious cytotoxicity to HBMECs and HAs when compared with free Dox. Moreover, the treatments with Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs enhanced the ability of Dox to infuse the BBB and to inhibit the growth of GBM. The current Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs can be a promising pharmacotherapeutic preparation to penetrate the BBB for malignant brain tumor treatment.

Keywords: Blood–Brain Barrier, doxorubicin, solid lipid nanoparticle, glioblastoma multiforme

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10 Sphingosomes: Potential Anti-Cancer Vectors for the Delivery of Doxorubicin

Authors: Brajesh Tiwari, Abhishek Jain, Yuvraj Dangi, Ashok Jain


The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the potential of sphingosomes as nanoscale drug delivery units for site-specific delivery of anti-cancer agents. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (DOX) was selected as a model anti-cancer agent. Sphingosomes were prepared and loaded with DOX and optimized for size and drug loading. The formulations were characterized by Malvern zeta-seizer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies. Sphingosomal formulations were further evaluated for in-vitro drug release study under various pH profiles. The in-vitro drug release study showed an initial rapid release of the drug followed by a slow controlled release. In vivo studies of optimized formulations and free drug were performed on albino rats for comparison of drug plasma concentration. The in- vivo study revealed that the prepared system enabled DOX to have had enhanced circulation time, longer half-life and lower elimination rate kinetics as compared to free drug. Further, it can be interpreted that the formulation would selectively enter highly porous mass of tumor cells and at the same time spare normal tissues. To summarize, the use of sphingosomes as carriers of anti-cancer drugs may prove to be a fascinating approach that would selectively localize in the tumor mass, increasing the therapeutic margin of safety while reducing the side effects associated with anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: Formulation, doxorubicin, anti-cancer, sphingosomes

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9 Giant Cancer Cell Formation: A Link between Cell Survival and Morphological Changes in Cancer Cells

Authors: Rostyslav Horbay, Nick Korolis, Vahid Anvari, Rostyslav Stoika


Introduction: Giant cancer cells (GCC) are common in all types of cancer, especially after poor therapy. Some specific features of such cells include ~10-fold enlargement, drug resistance, and the ability to propagate similar daughter cells. We used murine NK/Ly lymphoma, an aggressive and fast growing lymphoma model that has already shown drastic changes in GCC comparing to parental cells (chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, tighter OXPHOS/cellular respiration coupling, multidrug resistance). Materials and methods: In this study, we compared morpho-functional changes of GCC that predominantly show either a cytostatic or a cytotoxic effect after treatment with drugs. We studied the effect of a combined cytostatic/cytotoxic drug treatment to determine the correlation of drug efficiency and GCC formation. Doses of G1/S-specific drug paclitaxel/PTX (G2/M-specific, 50 mg/mouse), vinblastine/VBL (50 mg/mouse), and DNA-targeting agents doxorubicin/DOX (125 ng/mouse) and cisplatin/CP (225 ng/mouse) on C57 black mice. Several tests were chosen to estimate morphological and physiological state (propidium iodide, Rhodamine-123, DAPI, JC-1, Janus Green, Giemsa staining and other), which included cell integrity, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation, mitochondrial activity, and others. A single and double factor ANOVA analysis were performed to determine correlation between the criteria of applied drugs and cytomorphological changes. Results: In all cases of treatment, several morphological changes were observed (intracellular vacuolization, membrane blebbing, and interconnected mitochondrial network). A lower gain in ascites (49.97% comparing to control group) and longest lifespan (22+9 days) after tumor injection was obtained with single VBL and single DOX injections. Such ascites contained the highest number of GCC (83.7%+9.2%), lowest cell count number (72.7+31.0 mln/ml), and a strong correlation coefficient between increased mitochondrial activity and percentage of giant NK/Ly cells. A high number of viable GCC (82.1+9.2%) was observed compared to the parental forms (15.4+11.9%) indicating that GCC are more drug resistant than the parental cells. All this indicates that the giant cell formation and its ability to obtain drug resistance is an expanding field in cancer research.

Keywords: Drug Resistance, doxorubicin, ANOVA, paclitaxel, cisplatin, giant cancer cells, NK/Ly lymphoma, vinblastine

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8 The Influence of Polysaccharide Isolated from Morinda citrifolia Fruit to the Growth of Vero, He-La and T47D Cell Lines against Doxorubicin in vitro

Authors: Ediati Budi Cahyono, Triana Hertiani, Nauval Arrazy Asawimanda, Wahyu Puji Pratomo


Background: Doxorubicin is widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug despite having many side effects. It may cause macrophage dysfunction and decreasing proliferation of lymphocyte. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit which has rich of polysaccharide content has potential as antitumor and immunostimulant effect. The isolation of polysaccharide from Noni fruit has been optimized according to four different methods based on macrophage and lymphocyte activities. We found the highest polysaccharide content from one of the four methods isolation. A method of polysaccharide isolation which has the highest immunostimulant effect was used for further observation as co-chemotherapy. The aim of the study: was to evaluate the isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice as co-chemotherapy of doxorubicin for the growth of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines in vitro. The method: in vitro growth assay of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines was done using MTT-reduction method, and apoptosis test was done by double staining method to evaluate the induction apoptotic effect of the combination. Every group was treated with doxorubicin and isolated polysaccharide from method of choice with 4 variances of concentrations (25 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml and 200 µg/ml) a long with negative control (doxorubicin only) and normal control (without doxorubicin or polysaccharide administration). Results: The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin against He-La and T47D cell lines influenced the highest cytotoxic effect by suppressing cell viability comparing with doxorubicin only. The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin-induced apoptotic effect the He-La cell line comparing with doxorubicin only. The result of the study: it can be concluded that the combination of polysaccharide fraction and doxorubicin effect more selective toward He-La and T47D cell lines than to Vero cell line. It can be suggested isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice has co-chemotherapy activity against doxorubicin.

Keywords: doxorubicin, noni fruit, polysaccharide, cancer cell lines, vero cell line

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7 Cationic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Conjugated with Anti-Melantransferrin and Apolipoprotein E for Delivering Doxorubicin to U87MG Cells

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, Yung-I Lou


Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (CSLNs) with anti-melanotransferrin (AMT) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) were used to carry antimitotic doxorubicin (Dox) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. Dox-loaded CSLNs were prepared in microemulsion, grafted covalently with AMT and ApoE, and applied to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), human astrocytes, and U87MG cells. Experimental results revealed that an increase in the weight percentage of stearyl amine (SA) from 0% to 20% increased the size of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. In addition, an increase in the stirring rate from 150 rpm to 450 rpm decreased the size of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. An increase in the weight percentage of SA from 0% to 20% enhanced the zeta potential of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. Moreover, an increase in the stirring rate from 150 rpm to 450 rpm reduced the zeta potential of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs. AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs exhibited a spheroid-like geometry, a minor irregular boundary deviating from spheroid, and a somewhat distorted surface with a few zigzags and sharp angles. The encapsulation efficiency of Dox in CSLNs decreased with increasing weight percentage of Dox and the order in the encapsulation efficiency of Dox was 10% SA > 20% SA > 0% SA. However, the reverse order was true for the release rate of Dox, suggesting that AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs containing 10% SA had better-sustained release characteristics. An increase in the concentration of AMT from 2.5 to 7.5 μg/mL slightly decreased the grafting efficiency of AMT and an increase in that from 7.5 to 10 μg/mL significantly decreased the grafting efficiency. Furthermore, an increase in the concentration of ApoE from 2.5 to 5 μg/mL slightly reduced the grafting efficiency of ApoE and an increase in that from 5 to 10 μg/mL significantly reduced the grafting efficiency. Also, AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs at 10 μg/mL of ApoE could slightly reduce the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increase the permeability of propidium iodide (PI). An incorporation of 10 μg/mL of ApoE could reduce the TEER and increase the permeability of PI. AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs at 10 μg/mL of AMT and 5-10 μg/mL of ApoE could significantly enhance the permeability of Dox across the BBB. AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs did not induce serious cytotoxicity to HBMECs. The viability of HBMECs was in the following order: AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs = AMT-Dox-CSLNs = Dox-CSLNs > Dox. The order in the efficacy of inhibiting U87MG cells was AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs > AMT-Dox-CSLNs > Dox-CSLNs > Dox. A surface modification of AMT and ApoE could promote the delivery of AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs to cross the BBB via melanotransferrin and low density lipoprotein receptor. Thus, AMT-ApoE-Dox-CSLNs have appropriate physicochemical properties and can be a potential colloidal delivery system for brain tumor chemotherapy.

Keywords: doxorubicin, Apolipoprotein E, anti-melanotransferrin, cationic catanionic solid lipid nanoparticle, U87MG cells

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6 Protective Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bark Extract against Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity: A Preliminary Study

Authors: R. P. Hewawasam, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa, J. A. N. Sandamali


Introduction: Doxorubicin is widely used in the treatment of solid organ tumors and hematological malignancies, but the dose-dependent cardiotoxicity due to free radical formation compromises its clinical utility. Therapeutic strategies which enhance cellular endogenous defense systems have been identified as promising approaches to combat oxidative stress-associated conditions. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) has a number antioxidant compounds, which can effectively scavenge reactive oxygen including superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals and as well as other free radicals. Therefore, the objective of the study was to elucidate the most effective dose of Cinnamomum bark extract which ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 animals in each. Group 1: normal control (distilled water, orally, for 14 days, 10 mL/kg saline, ip, after 16 hours fast on the 11th day); Group 2: doxorubicin control (distilled water, orally, for 14 days, 18 mg/kg doxorubicin, ip, after 16 hour fast on the 11th day); Groups 3-7: five doses of freeze dried aqueous bark extracts (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0g/kg, orally, daily for 14 days, 18 mg/kg doxorubicin, ip, after 16 hours fast on the 11th day). Animals were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood was collected for the estimation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), AST and LDH concentrations and myocardial tissues were collected for histopathological assessment of myocardial damage and irreversible changes were graded by developing a score. Results: cTnI concentration of groups 1-7 were 0, 161.9, 128.6, 95.9, 38, 19.41 & 12.36 pg/mL showing significant differences (p<0.05) between group 2 and groups 4-7. In groups 1-7, serum AST concentration were 26.82, 68.1, 37.18, 36.23, 26.8, 26.62 & 22.43U/L and LDH concentrations were 1166.13, 2428.84, 1658.35, 1474.34, 1277.58, 1110.21 & 974.40U/L and a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between group 2 and groups 3-7. The maximum score for myocardial necrosis was observed in group 2. Parallel to the increase of the dosage of plant extract, a gradual reduction of the score for myocardial necrosis was observed in groups 3-7. Reversible histological changes such as vacuolation, congestion were observed in group 2 and all plant treated groups. Haemorrhages, inflammatory cell infiltrations, and interstitial oedema were observed in group 2, but absent in groups treated with higher doses of the plant extract. Discussion & Conclusion: According to the in vitro antioxidant assays performed, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) bark possesses high amounts of polyphenolic substances and high antioxidant activity. The present study showed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract at 2.0 g/kg possesses the most significant cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. It can be postulated that pretreatment with Cinnamomum bark extract may replenish the cardiomyocytes with antioxidants that are needed for the defense against oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin.

Keywords: Free Radicals, doxorubicin, cardioprotection, Cinnamomum zeylanicum

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5 Co-Precipitation Method for the Fabrication of Charge-Transfer Molecular Crystal Nanocapsules

Authors: Rabih Al-Kaysi


When quasi-stable solutions of 9-methylanthracene (pi-electron donor, 0.0005 M) and 1,2,4,5-Tetracyanobenzene (pi-electron acceptor, 0.0005 M) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 0.025 M) were gently mixed, uniform-shaped rectangular charge-transfer nanocrystals precipitated out. These red colored charge-transfer (CT) crystals were composed of a 1:1-mole ratio of acceptor/ donor and are highly insoluble in water/SDS solution. The rectangular crystals morphology is semi hollow with symmetrical twin pockets reminiscent of nanocapsules. For a typical crop of nanocapsules, the dimensions are 21 x 6 x 0.5 microns with an approximate hollow volume of 1.5 x 105 nm3. By varying the concentration of aqueous SDS, mixing duration and incubation temperature, we can control the size and volume of the nanocapsules. The initial number of CT seed nanoparticles, formed by mixing the D and A solutions, determined the number and dimensions of the obtained nanocapsules formed after several hours of incubation under still conditions. Prolonged mixing of the donor and acceptor solutions resulted in plenty of initial seeds hence smaller nanocapsules. Short mixing times yields less seed formation and larger micron-sized capsules. The addition of Doxorubicin in situ with the quasi-stable solutions while mixing leads to the formation of CT nanocapsules with Doxorubicin sealed inside. The Doxorubicin can be liberated from the nanocapsules by cracking them using ultrasonication. This method can be extended to other binary CT complex crystals as well.

Keywords: Nanocrystals, Nanocapsules, doxorubicin, charge-transfer

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4 Effects of Starvation, Glucose Treatment and Metformin on Resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells

Authors: Nehir Nebioglu


Chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cancer. Doxorubicin is an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug that is classified as an anthracycline antibiotic. Antitumor antibiotics consist of natural products produced by species of the soil fungus Streptomyces. These drugs act in multiple phases of the cell cycle and are known cell-cycle specific. Although DOX is a precious clinical antineoplastic agent, resistance is also a problem that limits its utility besides cardiotoxicity problem. The drug resistance of cancer cells results from multiple factors including individual variation, genetic heterogeneity within a tumor, and cellular evolution. The mechanism of resistance is thought to involve, in particular, ABCB1 (MDR1, Pgp) and ABCC1 (MRP1) as well as other transporters. Several studies on DOX-resistant cell lines have shown that resistance can be overcome by an inhibition of ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCC2. This study attempts to understand the effects of different concentration levels of glucose treatment and starvation on the proliferation of Doxorubicin resistant cancer cells lines. To understand the effect of starvation, K562/Dox and K562 cell lines were treated with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM Dox concentrations in both starvation and normal medium conditions. In addition to this, to interpret the effect of glucose treatment, different concentrations (0, 1 mM, 5 mM, 25 mM) of glucose were applied to Dox-treated (with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM) K562/Dox and K652 cell lines. All results show significant decreasing in the cell count of K562/Dox, when cells were starved. However, while proliferation of K562/Dox lines decrease is associated with the increasingly applied Dox concentration, K562/Dox starved ones remain at the same proliferation level. Thus, the results imply that an amount of K562/Dox lines gain starvation resistance and remain resistant. Furthermore, for K562/Dox, there is no clear effect of glucose treatment in terms of cell proliferation. In the presence of a moderate level of glucose (5 mM), proliferation increases compared to other concentration of glucose for each different Dox application. On the other hand, a significant increase in cell proliferation in moderate level of glucose is only observed in 5 uM Dox concentration. The moderate concentration level of Dox can be examined in further studies. For the high amount of glucose (25 mM), cell proliferation levels are lower than moderate glucose application. The reason could be high amount of glucose may not be absorbable by cells. Also, in the presence of low amount of glucose, proliferation is decreasing in an orderly manner of increase in Dox concentration. This situation can be explained by the glucose depletion -Warburg effect- in the literature.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Drug Resistance, cancer cells, doxorubicin

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3 Protective Role of CoQ10 or L-Carnitine on the Integrity of the Myocardium in Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan, Gehan A. Hegazy, Hesham N. Mustafa, Marawan AbdelBaset


Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of different cancers and its clinical usage is hindered by the oxidative injury-related cardiotoxicity. This work aims to declare if the harmful effects of DOX on the heart can be alleviated with the use of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or L-carnitine. The study was performed on seventy-two female Wistar albino rats divided into six groups, 12 animals each: Control group; DOX group (10 mg/kg); CoQ10 group (200 mg/kg); L-carnitine group (100 mg/kg); DOX + CoQ10 group; DOX + L-carnitine group. CoQ10 and L-carnitine treatment orally started five days before a single dose of 10 mg/kg DOX that injected intraperitoneally (IP) then the treatment continued for ten days. At the end of the study, serum biochemical parameters of cardiac damage, oxidative stress indices, and histopathological changes were investigated. CoQ10 or L-carnitine showed noticeable effects in improving cardiac functions evidenced reducing serum enzymes as serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), leptin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiotrophin-1, Troponin-I and Troponin-T. Also, alleviate oxidative stress, decrease of cardiac Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) and restoring cardiac reduced glutathione levels to normal levels. Both corrected the cardiac alterations histologically and ultrastructurally. With visible improvements in -SMA, vimentin and eNOS immunohistochemical markers. CoQ10 or L-carnitine supplementation improves the functional and structural integrity of the myocardium.

Keywords: doxorubicin, l-carnitine, cardiotoxicity, CoQ10

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2 Cellular Uptake and Endocytosis of Doxorubicin Loaded Methoxy Poly (Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly (Glutamic Acid) [DOX/mPEG-b-PLG] Nanoparticles against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Zaheer Ahmad, Afzal Shah


pH responsive block copolymers consist of mPEG and glutamic acid units were syntheiszed in different formulations. The synthesized polymers were structurally investigated. Doxorubicin Hydrocholide (DOX-HCl) as a chemotherapy medication for the treatment of cancer was selected. DOX-HCl was loaded and their drug loading content and drug loading efficiency were determined. The nanocarriers were obtained in small size, well shaped and slightly negative surface charge. The release study was carried out both at pH 7.4 and 5.5 and it was revealed that the release was sustained and in controlled manner and there was no initial burst release. The in vitro release study was further carried out for different formulations with different glutamic acid moieties. Time dependent cell proliferation inhibition of the free drug and drug loaded nanoparticles against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and Zr-75-30 was observed. Cellular uptakes and endocytosis were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometery. The biocompatibility, optimum size, shape and surface charge of the developed nanoparticles make the nanoparticles an efficient drug delivery carrier.

Keywords: doxorubicin, glutamic acid, cell proliferation inhibition, breast cancer cell

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1 Assessment of Cardioprotective Effect of Deferiprone on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in a Rat Model

Authors: Sadaf Kalhori


Introduction: Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity is widely known as the most severe complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients with cancer. It is unknown whether Deferiprone (DFP), could reduce the severity of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting free radical reactions. Thus, this study was performed to assess the protective effect of Deferiprone on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in a rat model. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups. Group one was a control group. Group 2 was DOX (2 mg/kg/day, every other day for 12 days), and Group three to five which receiving DOX as in group 2 and DFP 75,100 and 150 mg/kg/day, for 19 days, respectively. DFP was starting 5 days prior to the first DOX injection and two days after the last DOX injection throughout the study. Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic studies, along with histopathological examination, were conducted. In addition, serum sample was taken and total cholesterol, Malone dialdehyde, triglyceride, albumin, AST, ALT, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, total anti-oxidant and creatine kinase were assessed. Result: Our results showed the normal structure of endocardial, myocardial and pericardial in the control group. Pathologic data such as edema, hyperemia, bleeding, endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis, hyaline degeneration, cardiomyocyte necrosis, myofilament degeneration and nuclear chromatin changes were assessed in all groups. In the DOX group, all pathologic data was seen with mean grade of 2±1.25. In the DFP group with a dose of 75 and 100 mg, the mean grade was 1.41± 0.31 and 1±.23, respectively. In DFP group with a dose of 150, the pathologic data showed a milder change in comparison with other groups with e mean grade of 0.45 ±0.19. Most pathologic data in DFP groups showed significant changes in comparison with the DOX group (p < 0.001). Discussion: The results also showed that DFP treatment significantly improved DOX-induced heart damage, structural changes in the myocardium, and ventricular function. Our data confirm that DFP is protective against cardiovascular-related disorders induced by DOX. Clinical studies are needed to be involved to examine these findings in humans.

Keywords: Cardiomyopathy, doxorubicin, rat, deferiprone

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