Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Dopamine Related Abstracts

12 Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 Improves Animal Behavior and Monoamine Neurotransmission in Germ-Free Mice

Authors: Liu Wei-Hsien, Chuang Hsiao-Li, Huang Yen-Te, Wu Chien-Chen, Chou Geng-Ting, Tsai Ying-Chieh

Abstract:

Intestinal microflora play an important role in communication along the gut-brain axis. Probiotics, defined as live bacteria or bacterial products, confer a significant health benefit to the host. Here we administered Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) to the germ-free (GF) mouse to investigate the impact of the gut-brain axis on emotional behavior. Administration of live PS128 significantly increased the total distance traveled in the open field test; it decreased the time spent in the closed arm and increased the time spent and total entries into the open arm in the elevated plus maze. In contrast, heat-killed PS128 caused no significant changes in the GF mice. Treatment with live PS128 significantly increased levels of both serotonin and dopamine in the striatum, but not in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. However, live PS128 did not alter pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production by mitogen-stimulated splenocytes. The above data indicate that the normalization of emotional behavior correlated with monoamine neurotransmission, but not with immune activity. Our findings suggest that daily intake of the probiotic PS128 could ameliorate neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and excessive psychological stress.

Keywords: Serotonin, Dopamine, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, intestinal microflora

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11 Distribution of Putative Dopaminergic Neurons and Identification of D2 Receptors in the Brain of Fish

Authors: Shweta Dhindhwal

Abstract:

Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of all vertebrates and plays an important role in many processes such as motor function, learning and behavior, and sensory activity. One of the important functions of dopamine is release of pituitary hormones. It is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. Two types of dopamine receptors, D1-like and D2-like, have been reported in fish. The dopamine containing neurons are located in the olfactory bulbs, the ventral regions of the pre-optic area and tuberal hypothalamus. Distribution of the dopaminergic system has not been studied in the murrel, Channa punctatus. The present study deals with identification of D2 receptors in the brain of murrel. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using partial sequence of D2 receptor. Distribution of putative dopaminergic neurons in the brain has been investigated. Also, formalin induced hypertrophy of neurosecretory cells in murrel has been studied.

Keywords: Fish, Dopamine, pre-optic area, murrel

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10 Effects of Acute Exposure to WIFI Signals (2,45 GHz) on Heart Variability and Blood Pressure in Albinos Rabbit

Authors: Zihad Bouslama, Linda Saili, Amel Hanini, Chiraz Smirani, Iness Azzouz, Amina Azzouz, Hafedh Abdemelek

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+ 22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter the maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that WIFI alter catecholamines(dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radio frequency can act directly and/or indirectly on the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: Epinephrine, Dopamine, electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (PA), the efficacy of catecholamines

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9 Genome-Wide Significant SNPs Proximal to Nicotinic Receptor Genes Impact Cognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Mohammad Ahangari

Abstract:

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms that include cognitive deficits and nicotine has been suggested to have an effect on cognition. In recent years, the advents of Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWAS) has evolved our understanding about the genetic causes of complex disorders such as schizophrenia and studying the role of genome-wide significant genes could potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The current study identified six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) from schizophrenia and smoking GWAS that are located on or in close proximity to the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRN) and studied their association with cognition in an Irish sample of 1297 cases and controls using linear regression analysis. Further on, the interaction between CHRN gene cluster and Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) during working memory was investigated. The effect of these polymorphisms on nicotinic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, which is disrupted in schizophrenia, have been characterized in terms of their effects on memory, attention, social cognition and IQ as measured by a neuropsychological test battery and significant effects in two polymorphisms were found across global IQ domain of the test battery.

Keywords: Cognition, Schizophrenia, gwas, Dopamine, nicotine, SNPs

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8 Fluorescence-Based Biosensor for Dopamine Detection Using Quantum Dots

Authors: Sylwia Krawiec, Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha

Abstract:

Nowadays, progress in the field of the analytical methods is of great interest for reliable biological research and medical diagnostics. Classical techniques of chemical analysis, despite many advantages, do not permit to obtain immediate results or automatization of measurements. Chemical sensors have displaced the conventional analytical methods - sensors combine precision, sensitivity, fast response and the possibility of continuous-monitoring. Biosensor is a chemical sensor, which except of conventer also possess a biologically active material, which is the basis for the detection of specific chemicals in the sample. Each biosensor device mainly consists of two elements: a sensitive element, where is recognition of receptor-analyte, and a transducer element which receives the signal and converts it into a measurable signal. Through these two elements biosensors can be divided in two categories: due to the recognition element (e.g immunosensor) and due to the transducer (e.g optical sensor). Working of optical sensor is based on measurements of quantitative changes of parameters characterizing light radiation. The most often analyzed parameters include: amplitude (intensity), frequency or polarization. Changes in the optical properties one of the compound which reacts with biological material coated on the sensor is analyzed by a direct method, in an indirect method indicators are used, which changes the optical properties due to the transformation of the testing species. The most commonly used dyes in this method are: small molecules with an aromatic ring, like rhodamine, fluorescent proteins, for example green fluorescent protein (GFP), or nanoparticles such as quantum dots (QDs). Quantum dots have, in comparison with organic dyes, much better photoluminescent properties, better bioavailability and chemical inertness. These are semiconductor nanocrystals size of 2-10 nm. This very limited number of atoms and the ‘nano’-size gives QDs these highly fluorescent properties. Rapid and sensitive detection of dopamine is extremely important in modern medicine. Dopamine is very important neurotransmitter, which mainly occurs in the brain and central nervous system of mammals. Dopamine is responsible for the transmission information of moving through the nervous system and plays an important role in processes of learning or memory. Detection of dopamine is significant for diseases associated with the central nervous system such as Parkinson or schizophrenia. In developed optical biosensor for detection of dopamine, are used graphene quantum dots (GQDs). In such sensor dopamine molecules coats the GQD surface - in result occurs quenching of fluorescence due to Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Changes in fluorescence correspond to specific concentrations of the neurotransmitter in tested sample, so it is possible to accurately determine the concentration of dopamine in the sample.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Biosensor, Fluorescence, Dopamine

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7 Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Physiological Level Using Anodized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube–Poldimethylsiloxane Paste Electrode

Authors: Angelo Gabriel Buenaventura, Allan Christopher Yago

Abstract:

A carbon paste electrode (CPE) composed of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) conducting particle and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) binder was used for simultaneous detection of Dopamine (DA) and Uric Acid (UA) in the presence of Ascorbic Acid (AA) at physiological level. The MWCNT-PDMS CPE was initially activated via potentiodynamic cycling in a basic (NaOH) solution, which resulted in enhanced electrochemical properties. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements revealed a significantly lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) for the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 5.08kΩ) as compared to buffer (pH 7)-activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 25.9kΩ). Reversibility analysis of Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple of both Buffer-Activated CPE and OH--Activated CPE showed that the OH—Activated CPE have peak current ratio (Ia/Ic) of 1.11 at 100mV/s while 2.12 for the Buffer-Activated CPE; this showed an electrochemically reversible behavior for Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple even at relatively fast scan rate using the OH--activated CPE. Enhanced voltammetric signal for DA and significant peak separation between DA and UA was obtained using the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE in the presence of 50 μM AA via Differential Pulse Voltammetry technique. The anodic peak currents which appeared at 0.263V and 0.414 V were linearly increasing with increasing concentrations of DA and UA, respectively. The linear ranges were obtained at 25 μM – 100 μM for both DA and UA. The detection limit was determined to be 3.86 μM for DA and 5.61 μM for UA. These results indicate a practical approach in the simultaneous detection of important bio-organic molecules using a simple CPE composed of MWCNT and PDMS with base anodization as activation technique.

Keywords: Dopamine, ascorbic acid, uric acid, anodization, carbon paste electrodes

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6 Computational Analysis and Daily Application of the Key Neurotransmitters Involved in Happiness: Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

Abstract:

Happiness and pleasure are a result of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, and endorphin levels in the body. In order to increase the four neurochemical levels, it is important to associate daily activities with its corresponding neurochemical releases. This includes setting goals, maintaining social relationships, laughing frequently, and exercising regularly. The likelihood of experiencing happiness increases when all four neurochemicals are released at the optimal level. The achievement of happiness is important because it increases healthiness, productivity, and the ability to overcome adversity. To process emotions, electrical brain waves, brain structure, and neurochemicals must be analyzed. This research uses Chemcraft and Avogadro to determine the theoretical and chemical properties of the four neurochemical molecules. Each neurochemical molecule’s thermodynamic stability is calculated to observe the efficiency of the molecules. The study found that among dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin, beta-endorphin has the lowest optimized energy of 388.510 kJ/mol. Beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter involved in mitigating pain and stress, is the most thermodynamically stable and efficient molecule that is involved in the process of happiness. Through examining such properties of happiness neurotransmitters, the science of happiness is better understood.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Dopamine, Happiness, oxytocin, endorphins

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5 Pre-Administration of Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. Prevent the Increase of Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens in Ethanol Addicted Rats

Authors: Maneekarn Namsa-Aid, Watchareewan Thongsaard, Ratirat Sangpayap

Abstract:

Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. (TL) is a herbal medicine which has been used as an antidote for several poisonous agents including insecticides and as a component of a mixture of crude extracts to treat drug addicted patients. The aim of this study is to examine the level of dopamine in nucleus accumbens after chronic pre-administration of TL in ethanol addicted rats. Male Wistar rats weigh 200-250 g received TL methanol extract (200mg/kg, orally) 60 minutes before 20% ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) for 30 days. The nucleus accumbens was removed and tested for dopamine by HPLC-ECD. The level of dopamine was significantly increased by chronic ethanol administration, whereas the chronic TL extract administration did not cause a difference in dopamine level when compared to control. Moreover, the pre-treatment of TL extract before ethanol significantly reduced the dopamine level in nucleus accumbens to normal level when compared with chronic ethanol administration alone. These results suggested that the increase in dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens by chronic ethanol administration is the cause of ethanol addiction, and this effect is prevented by chronic TL pre-administration. Furthermore, chronic TL extract administration alone did not cause the changes in dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens, indicating that TL itself did not cause addiction.

Keywords: Dopamine, Alcohol Addiction, Thunbergia laurifolia Linn, nucleus accumbens

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4 Rapid and Sensitive Detection: Biosensors as an Innovative Analytical Tools

Authors: Karol Malecha, Sylwia Baluta, Joanna Cabaj

Abstract:

The evolution of biosensors was driven by the need for faster and more versatile analytical methods for application in important areas including clinical, diagnostics, food analysis or environmental monitoring, with minimum sample pretreatment. Rapid and sensitive neurotransmitters detection is extremely important in modern medicine. These compounds mainly occur in the brain and central nervous system of mammals. Any changes in the neurotransmitters concentration may lead to many diseases, such as Parkinson’s or schizophrenia. Classical techniques of chemical analysis, despite many advantages, do not permit to obtain immediate results or automatization of measurements.

Keywords: Biosensor, Dopamine, laccase, adrenaline, tyrosinase

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3 Dopamine and Serotonin Levels in Blood Samples of Jordanian Children Who Stutter

Authors: Mazin Alqhazo, Ayat Bani Rashaid

Abstract:

This study examines the levels of dopamine and serotonin in blood samples of children who stutter compared with normal fluent speakers. Blood specimens from 50 children who stutter (6 females, 44 males) and 50 normal children matched age and gender were collected for the purpose of the current study. The concentrations of dopamine and serotonin were measured using the 1100 series high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector instrument (HPLC-UV). It was revealed that dopamine level in the blood samples of stuttering group and fluent group was not significant (P = 0.769), whereas the level of serotonin was significantly higher in the blood samples of stuttering group than the blood samples of fluent normal group (P = 0.015). It is concluded that serotonin blockers could be used in future studies to evaluate its role as a medication for the treatment of stuttering.

Keywords: Stuttering, Serotonin, Dopamine, fluent speakers

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2 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad

Abstract:

A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: Self-Assembly, Electrocatalysis, Dopamine, Electroanalysis, ascorbic acid, gold electrode, monolayers, cysteine

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1 Fabrication of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes Paper Electrode for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Aung Than, Tze-Sian Pui, Song-Wei Loo, Yuan-Li Hoe

Abstract:

A paper-based electrode devised from an array of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The PDDA/MWNTs electrodes were fabricated by allowing PDDA to absorb onto the surface of carboxylated MWNTs, followed by drop-casting the resulting mixture onto a paper. Cyclic voltammetry performed using 5 mM [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ as the redox marker showed that the PDDA/MWNTs electrode has higher redox activity compared to non-functionalized carboxylated MWNT electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was conducted with DA concentration ranging from 2 µM to 500 µM in the presence of 1 mM AA. The distinctive potential of 0.156 and -0.068 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) measured on the surface of the PDDA/MWNTs electrode revealed that both DA and AA were oxidized. The detection limit of DA was estimated to be 0.8 µM. This nanocomposite paper-based electrode has great potential for future applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

Keywords: Dopamine, Carbon Nanotube, differential pulse voltammetry, paper sensor

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