Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Dogs Related Abstracts

9 Therapeutic Management of Toxocara canis Induced Hepatitis in Dogs

Authors: Milind D. Meshram

Abstract:

Ascarids are the most frequent worm parasite of dogs and cats. There are two species that commonly infect dogs: Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina. Adult roundworms live in the stomach and intestines and can grow to 7 inches (18 cm) long. A female may lay 200,000 eggs in a day. The eggs are protected by a hard shell. They are extremely hardy and can live for months or years in the soil. A dog aged about 6 years, from Satara was referred to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC) with a complaint of abdominal pain, anorexia, loss of condition and dull body coat with mucous pale membrane. The clinical examination revealed Anaemia, palpation of abdomen revealed enlargement of liver, slimy feel of the intestine loop, diarrhea.

Keywords: Dogs, therapeutic management, Toxocara canis, induced hepatitis

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8 Synthesis of New Analogs of IPS-339, and Study of Their Cardiovascular in Dogs

Authors: Elham Zarenezhad, Ali Zarenezhad, Mehdi Mardkhoshnood

Abstract:

We described the synthesis and biological study of O-oxime ethers having a-amino acid residues as new analogs of IPS-339. In this synthesis, the reaction of fluorene O-oxime with epichlorohydrin or epibromohydrin afforded the corresponding O-oxime ether adducts. The N-alkylation of valine amino acid with O-oxime ether adducts led to the synthesis of new analogs of IPS-339. The cardiovascular properties of the compound have been studied. In this regard, six clinically healthy same sex mongrel dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of two members. 1 groups received 2 mg kg-1 body weight of compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) intravenously, whereas group 2 and 3 received only DMSO–water (distil.) and propranolol (Inderal) (2 mg kg-1), respectively. The electrocardiograph (ECG) was recorded with lead II. The recording was run successively by 5 min time interval on each dog before, simultaneously, and after compound infusion. Data after administration were taken from normal sinus beats that were closely related to the arrhythmias whenever they occurred. In general, no detectable arrhythmia was observed in all ECG records regardless of increasing the heart rate that likely caused by stress origin from invasive procedure just after infusion. Compound diminished the heart rate during study especially at 20th minute compared to propranolol as a reference drug. Compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) was the most effective compound with remarkable ability in declining of the heart rate.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Dogs, electrocardiograph (ECG), IPS-339

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7 Endoscopic Depiction and Treatment Evaluation of Spirocerca lupi in Dogs

Authors: ELdessouky Sheta, Sayed Elzomor, Haithem Farghali, Kawkab A. Ahmed, Naglaa A. Abd Elkader

Abstract:

The present investigation has been dealt with Spirocerca (S.) lupi infested mongrel dogs. This parasitic disease is highly infective to human beings and carnivores. The diagnosis march has been comprised the lateral contrast thoracic radiographs, fecal examination, blood profile, endoscopic examination and histopathological sections of deep seated pinch biopsies. These infested dogs have been put under an adopted treatment with Ivermectin injection combined with oral prednisolone. The obtained results reveal an absence of the pessimistic recognitions particularly after 3 weeks from the onset of treatment. Endoscopically the presented esophageal nodules are marked out in the distal third of infested dogs' esophagus as masses assigned into the esophageal lumen and fundus of stomach. The endoscopic outlook of Spirocerca lupi lesions has been considered an integral procedure of the diagnostic march and for evaluation of treatment follow up. The diagnostic procedures and the recommended treatment are the vet's guidance to care for Spirocerca lupi in dogs, hoping in future to prevent this disease from being spread among human beings and other carnivores.

Keywords: Endoscopy, Esophagus, Dogs, stomach spirocercosis

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6 Gastric Foreign Bodies in Dogs

Authors: Naglaa A. Abd Elkader, Haithem A. Farghali

Abstract:

The present study carried out on fifteen clinical cases of different species of dogs which admitted to surgical clinic of veterinary medicine with different symptoms (Acute vomiting, hematemesis and anorexia). There was diagnostic march which including plain radiograph and endoscopic examination. Treatment was including surgical interference and endoscopic retrieval followed by medicinal treatment. This study was aimed the detection of different foreign bodies by the most suitable method according to the type of the foreign bodies.

Keywords: Endoscopy, Foreign bodies, Stomach, Dogs

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5 Effect of Low Level Laser on Healing of Congenital Septal Defects on Dogs

Authors: Hady Atef, Zinab Helmy, Heba Abdeen, Mostafa Fadel

Abstract:

Background and purpose: After the success of the first trials of this experiment which were done on rabbits, a new study were conducted on dogs to ensure the past results; in a step forward to use low-level LASER therapy in the treatment of congenital septal defects in infants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level LASER irradiation on congenital septal defects in dogs. Subjects and Methodology: six male dogs who have congenital septal defects in their hearts -with age ranged 6-10 months- enrolled in this study for one and half months. They were assigned into two groups: Group (A): The study group consisted of 3 canine hearts who received routine animal care associated with LASER irradiation. Group (B): The control group consisted of 3 canine hearts who received only routine animal care. Sizes of the septal defects were measured for both groups at the beginning and after the end of the study. Results: There was a significant decrease in the size of the diameter of the congenital septal defect with the study group (percentage of improvement was 42.19%) when compared with control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that low-level LASER therapy can be considered as a promising therapy for congenital heart defects in animals and to be examined on children with similar congenital lesions after then.

Keywords: laser, Dogs, infants, congenital septal defects

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4 Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis In Brazil

Authors: Elisangela Sobreira, Denise Teixeira

Abstract:

Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem in Brazil, it is the main reservoir dog. In the period 2012-2016 78 diagnoses were performed in dogs suspected. Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein obtaining serum used for the indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while it collected a drop of blood for the rapid chromatographic immunoassay. Obtained in 32 dogs positive. The test is important for the control of this disease and is used routinely in the Zoonoses Control Center.

Keywords: Dogs, Brazil, Leismaniasis, Zoonoses center

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3 Insulin-Producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control Chemically-Induced Diabetes in Dogs

Authors: Maha Azzam, Mahmoud Gabr, Mahmoud Zakaria, Ayman Refaie, Amani Ismail, Sherry Khater, Sylvia Ashamallah, Mohamed Ghoniem

Abstract:

Evidence was provided that human bone marrow-derived mesenhymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs) could be differentiated to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Transplantation of these cells was able to cure chemically-induced diabetes in nude mice. The efficacy of these cells to control diabetes in large animals was carried out to evaluate the sufficient number of cells needed/Kg body weight and to determine the functional longevity in vivo. Materials/Methods: Ten male mongrel dogs weighing 15-20 Kg were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically-induced in 7 dogs by a mixture of alloxan and streptozotocin. Three non-diabetic served as normal controls. Differentiated HBM-MSCs (5 million/Kg) were encapsulated in theracyte capsules and transplanted beneath the rectus sheath. Each dog received 2 capsules. One dog died 4 days postoperative from inhalation pneumonia. The remaining 6 dogs were followed up for 6-18 months. Results: Four dogs became normoglycemic within 6-8 weeks with normal glucose tolerance curves providing evidence that the transplanted cells were glucose-sensitive and insulin-responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, fasting blood glucose was reduced but did not reach euglycemic levels. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and c-peptide but negligible levels of canine insulin. When the HBM-MSCs loaded capsules were removed, rapid return of diabetic state was noted. The harvested capsules were examined by immunofluorescence. IPCs were seen and co-expression of with c-peptide was confirmed. Furthermore, all the pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed by the transplanted cells. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that theracyte capsules could protect the xenogenic HBM-MSCs from the host immune response. This is an important issue when clinical stem cell therapy is considered for definitive treatment for T1DM.

Keywords: Diabetes, mesenchymal stem cells, Dogs, Insulin-producing cells

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2 Devising a Paradigm for the Assessment of Guilt across Species

Authors: Trisha S. Malhotra

Abstract:

While there exist frameworks to study the induction, manifestation, duration and general nature of emotions like shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride in humans, the same cannot be said for other species. This is because such 'complex' emotions have situational inductions and manifestations that supposedly vary due to differences between and within different species' ethology. This paper looks at the socio-adaptive functions of guilt to posit why this emotion might be observed across varying species. Primarily, the experimental paradigm of guilt-assessment in domesticated dogs is critiqued for lack of ethological consideration in its measurement and analysis. It is argued that a paradigm for guilt-assessment should measure the species-specific prosocial approach behavior instead of the immediate feedback of the 'guilty'. Finally, it is asserted that the origin of guilt is subjective and if it must be studied across a plethora of species, its definition must be tailored to fit accordingly.

Keywords: Assessment, Ethology, Empathy, Guilt, Species, Dogs, prosocial approach behavior

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1 Impact of Transgenic Adipose Derived Stem Cells in the Healing of Spinal Cord Injury of Dogs

Authors: Imdad Ullah Khan, Yongseok Yoon, Kyeung Uk Choi, Kwang Rae Jo, Namyul Kim, Eunbee Lee, Wan Hee Kim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon

Abstract:

The primary spinal cord injury (SCI) causes mechanical damage to the neurons and blood vessels. It leads to secondary SCI, which activates multiple pathological pathways, which expand neuronal damage at the injury site. It is characterized by vascular disruption, ischemia, excitotoxicity, oxidation, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. It causes nerve demyelination and disruption of axons, which perpetuate a loss of impulse conduction through the injured spinal cord. It also leads to the production of myelin inhibitory molecules, which with a concomitant formation of an astroglial scar, impede axonal regeneration. The pivotal role regarding the neuronal necrosis is played by oxidation and inflammation. During an early stage of spinal cord injury, there occurs an abundant expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to defective mitochondrial metabolism and abundant migration of phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils). ROS cause lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane, and cell death. Abundant migration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes collectively produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidases which synergize neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, it is crucial to control inflammation and oxidation injury to minimize the nerve cell death during secondary spinal cord injury. Therefore, in response to oxidation and inflammation, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced by the resident cells to ameliorate the milieu. In the meanwhile, neurotrophic factors are induced to promote neuroregeneration. However, it seems that anti-stress enzyme (HO-1) and neurotrophic factor (BDNF) do not significantly combat the pathological events during secondary spinal cord injury. Therefore, optimum healing can be induced if anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are administered in a higher amount through an exogenous source. During the first experiment, the inflammation and neuroregeneration were selectively targeted. HO-1 expressing MSCs (HO-1 MSCs) and BDNF expressing MSCs (BDNF MSC) were co-transplanted in one group (combination group) of dogs with subacute spinal cord injury to selectively control the expression of inflammatory cytokines by HO-1 and induce neuroregeneration by BDNF. We compared the combination group with the HO-1 MSCs group, BDNF MSCs group, and GFP MSCs group. We found that the combination group showed significant improvement in functional recovery. It showed increased expression of neural markers and growth-associated proteins (GAP-43) than in other groups, which depicts enhanced neuroregeneration/neural sparing due to reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-6 and COX-2; and increased expression of anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-10 and HO-1. Histopathological study revealed reduced intra-parenchymal fibrosis in the injured spinal cord segment in the combination group than in other groups. Thus it was concluded that selectively targeting the inflammation and neuronal growth with the combined use of HO-1 MSCs and BDNF MSCs more favorably promote healing of the SCI. HO-1 MSCs play a role in controlling the inflammation, which favors the BDNF induced neuroregeneration at the injured spinal cord segment of dogs.

Keywords: Inflammation, Spinal Cord Injury, Dogs, anti-inflammation, neuroregeneration, HO-1 MSCs, BDNF MSCs

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