Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Dog Related Abstracts

16 Morphological Evaluation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue of Dog Treated with Different Concentrations of Nano-Hydroxy Apatite

Authors: C. Gallottini, A. Amaddeo, K. Barbaro, G. Barraco, S. Eramo, F. Di Egidio, G. Lupoli, D. Amaddeo

Abstract:

In this study, we wanted to evaluate the effects of nano-hydroxy apatite (NHA) on mesenchymal stem cells extracted from subcutaneous adipose tissue of the dog. The stem cells were divided into 6 experimental groups at different concentrations of NHA. The comparison was made with a control group of stem cell grown in standard conditions without NHA. After 1 week, the cells were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 1 hour at room temperature and stained with Giemsa, measured at the inverted optical microscope. The morphological evaluation of the control samples and those treated showed that stem cells adhere to the substrate and proliferate in the presence of nanohydroxy apatite at different concentrations showing no detectable toxic effects.

Keywords: Dog, nano-hydroxy apatite, adipose mesenchymal stem cells, morphological evaluation

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15 Gingival Myiasis of Dog Caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica, Garmsar, Iran

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi

Abstract:

Myiasis is defined as the infestation of living tissues of vertebrates by larvae of flies. Gingival myiasis is an uncommon type of myiasis. In oral inspection of a death dog (Garmsar, Iran) for routine training postmortem investigation, gingival myiasis was found. Only one larva was removed from the lesions and sent to a parasitology laboratory for identification. For histopathological studies, affected area of the gingiva was cut and placed in 10% formalin, and then sent to pathology laboratory. On parasitological examination the causative agent of this condition was found as larva of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Histopathological examination of the injured gingiva showed hyperplasia of squamous epithelial tissue and acanthosis in mucosal membrane, hyperemia and infiltration of mononuclear cells and eosinophils into lamina propria. The present report seems to be the first report of gingival myiasis in dog in Iran.

Keywords: Dog, Wohlfahrtia magnifica, gingiva, myiasis

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14 Crude Glycerol Affects Canine Spermatoa Motility: Computer Assister Semen Analysis in Vitro

Authors: P. Massanyi, L. Kichi, T. Slanina, E. Kolesar, J. Danko, N. Lukac, E. Tvrda, R. Stawarz, A. Kolesarova

Abstract:

Target of this study was the analysis of the impact of crude glycerol on canine spermatozoa motility, morphology, viability, and membrane integrity. Experiments were realized in vitro. In the study, semen from 5 large dog breeds was used. They were typical representatives of large breeds, coming from healthy rearing, regularly vaccinated and integrated to the further breeding. Semen collections were realized at the owners of animals and in the veterinary clinic. Subsequently the experiments were realized at the Department of Animal Physiology of the SUA in Nitra. The spermatozoa motility was evaluated using CASA analyzer (SpermVisionTM, Minitub, Germany) at the temperature 5 and 37°C for 5 hours. In the study, 13 motility parameters were evaluated. Generally, crude glycerol has generally negative effect on spermatozoa motility. Morphological analysis was realized using Hancock staining and the preparations were evaluated at magnification 1000x using classification tables of morphologically changed spermatozoa. Data clearly detected the highest number of morphologically changed spermatozoa in the experimental groups (know twisted tails, tail torso and tail coiling). For acrosome alterations swelled acrosomes, removed acrosomes and acrosomes with undulated membrane were detected. In this study also the effect of crude glycerol on spermatozoa membrane integrity were analyzed. The highest crude glycerol concentration significantly affects spermatozoa integrity. Results of this study show that crude glycerol has effect of spermatozoa motility, viability, and membrane integrity. Detected changes are related to crude glycerol concentration, temperature, as well as time of incubation.

Keywords: Dog, glycerol, viability, spermatozoa, semen, acrosome, CASA

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13 Seroepidemiology of Q Fever among Companion Dogs in Fars Province, South of Iran

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Mohammad Abbaszadeh Hasiri

Abstract:

Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes Q fever, a significant zoonotic disease. Sheep, cattle, and goats are the most commonly reported reservoirs for the bacteria, but infected cats and dogs have also been implicated in the transmission of the disease to human. The aim of present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii among companion dogs in Fars province, South of Iran. A total of 181 blood samples were collected from asymptomatic dogs, mostly referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shiraz University for regular vaccination. The IgG antibody detection against Coxiella burnetii was made by indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing phase I and II Coxiella burnetii antigens. A logistic regression model was developed to analyze multiple risk factors associated with seropositivity. An overall seropositivity of 7.7% (n=14) was observed. Prevalence was significantly higher in adult dogs above five years (18.18 %) compared with dogs between 1 and five years (7.86 %) and less than one year (6.17%) (P=0.043). Prevalence was also higher in male dogs (11.21 %) than in female (2.7 %) (P=0.035). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of positive cases and breed, type of housing, type of food and exposure to other farm animals (P>0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of Coxiella burnetii infection among the companion dogs population in Fars province. To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding Q fever in dogs carried out in Iran. In areas like Iran, where human cases of Q fever are not common or remain unreported, the public health implications of Q fever seroprevalence in dogs are quite significant.

Keywords: Dog, Iran, Coxiella burnetii, Q fever

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12 The Media, Language, and Political Stability in Nigeria: The Example of the Dog and the Baboon Politics

Authors: Attahiru Sifawa Ahmad

Abstract:

The media; electronic, print, and social, is playing very significant roles towards promoting political awareness and stability of any nation. However, for the media to play its role effectively, a clear and sound grasp of the language of communication is necessary. Otherwise, there is the tendency of the media spreading wrong and, or, misinterpreted information to the public, capable of generating rancour and political instability. One such clear misinterpretation or misrepresentation of information was the Hausa metaphorical expression, Kare Jinni Biri Jinni quoted from the statement made by Rtd. General Muhammadu Buhari, sometimes in April, 2013, while addressing his supporters from Niger State. In the political presentation of the term Kare - Jini Biri – Jini, quoted and translated by many print media in Nigeria, it was interpreted to mean; ‘The Dog and the Baboon will be soaked in blood’, denoting bloodshed and declaration of war. However, the term Kare - jini Biri - Jini, literally; the Dog with blood and the Baboon with blood, or, the Dog is bleeding the Baboon is bleeding, or, both the Dog and the Baboon sustained injuries. It is a metaphorical expression denoting a hot competition, and serious struggle, between two competing parties that are closer in strength and stamina. The expression got its origin among the hunting communities in traditional Hausa Societies. From experience, it was always not easy to wrestle and hunt Baboon by the Hunter’s Dog. In many instances, it ended a futile exercise, and even at instances whereby the latter hunted the former, it would be after a serious struggle with both two sustaining injuries. This paper seeks to highlight the poverty of vocabulary, and poor grasp of Nigerian languages among Journalists and young citizens in the country. The paper, therefore, advocated for the retention and effective teaching of the indigenous languages in primary and secondary school’s curriculums in Nigeria. The paper equally analysed the political origin of the print media in Nigeria, how since its first appearance, the print Media is being assigned very important political role by political elites in the country.

Keywords: Media, Politics, Dog, Baboon

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11 Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma

Authors: Awf A. Al-Khan, Michael J. Day, Judith Nimmo, Mourad Tayebi, Stewart D. Ryan, Samantha J. Richardson, Janine A. Danks

Abstract:

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P<0.05) compared to dogs with less PTHR1 protein. PTHrP levels did not correlate with survival time (P>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.

Keywords: Expression, Dog, osteosarcoma, Survival, parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)

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10 Contesting Blind Obedience in Islam within the Malay-Language Media: Case Study of 'I Want to Touch a Dog' Event

Authors: Aisya Zaharin

Abstract:

The reporting of Islam in the Malaysian government-controlled press is complicated and occurs almost daily. This is due to the Islamisation process that has been heavily politicized in recent years. This article analyses media representations of Islam in the Malaysian media through the social responsibility theory. A provocative case study of media reporting on the “I want to touch a dog” event was analysed since dog’s saliva is ritually considered unhygienic by Muslims. This paper will not question the Islamic ruling on the dog’s issue. Instead, it calls for discussions in relation to openness and maturity in religious discourse with respect to the dog’s saliva dialogue in 1937. It applies Hage’s “minor and major reality” to explain the increasing percentage of Muslim who define their own understandings of Islam vs the government’s dogmatic versions. This paper employs Alatas’s method of “sociological investigation in Southeast Asia” by using ethnographic examination on selected mass media. Through Asiacentricity approach, this paper revisited the local framework of Alatas’s New Man encouraging Muslims to engage in knowledge and to appreciate diversities in Islamic jurisprudences. Despite government’s control, findings showed that non-Malay languages and online media are more comprehensive in reporting the news about Islam. Clearly, there has to be a re-conceptualization of Islamic discourses in the Malay-language media.

Keywords: Social Responsibility, Dog, Fiqh, Islamic Jurisprudence, Malaysian media, New Man

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9 Comparison of Selected Behavioural Patterns of German Shepherd Puppies in Open-Field Test by Practical Assessment Report

Authors: Igor Miňo, Lenka Lešková

Abstract:

Over the past 80 years, open-field method has evolved as a commonly used tool for the analysis of animal behaviour. The study was carried out using 50 kennel-reared purebred puppies of the German Shepherd dog breed. All dogs were tested in 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. For the purpose of behavioural analysis, an open-field evaluation report was designed prior to testing to ensure the most convenient, rapid, and suitable way to assess selected behavioural patterns in field conditions. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity, response to sound, and overall behaviour was monitored in the study. Correlations between measures of height, weight and chest circumference, and behavioural characteristics in the 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age were not statistically significant. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity and response to sound differed on statistically significant level between 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. Results suggest that our practical assessment report may be used as an applicable method to evaluate the suitability of service dog puppies for future working roles.

Keywords: Behaviour, Testing, Dog, open-field

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8 Evaluation of Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor A (TNF-A) Changes in Synovial Fluid and Serum in Dogs with Osteoarthritis; An Experimental Study

Authors: Behrooz Nikahval, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari-Khafi, Sakineh Behroozpoor, Saeed Nazifi

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative condition of the articular cartilage and other joints’ structures. It is essential to diagnose this condition as early as possible. The present research was performed to measure the Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in synovial fluid and blood serum of dogs with surgically transected cruciate ligament as a model of OA, to evaluate if measuring of these parameters can be used as a way of early diagnosis of OA. In the present study, four mature, clinically healthy dogs were selected to investigate the effect of experimental OA, on OPG and TNF-α as a way of early detection of OA. OPG and TNF-α were measured in synovial fluid and blood serum on days 0, 14, 28, 90 and 180 after surgical transaction of cranial cruciate ligament in one stifle joint. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was a significant increase in TNF-α in both synovial fluid and blood serum. OPG showed a decrease two weeks after OA induction. However, it fluctuated afterward. In conclusion, TNF-α could be used in both synovial fluid and blood serum as a way of early detection of OA; however, further research still needs to be conducted on OPG values in OA detection.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Dog, serum, tumor necrosis factor α, synovial fluid, osteoprotegrin

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7 Comparative Evaluation of Pentazocine and Tramadol as Pre-Emptive Analgesics for Ovariohysterectomy in Female Dogs

Authors: Venkatgiri, Ranganath, L. Nagaraja, B. N. Sagar Pandav, S. M. Usturge, D. Dilipkumar, B. V. Shivprakash, B. Bhagwanthappa, D. Jahangir

Abstract:

A comparative evaluation of Tramadol and Pentazocine as a pre-emptive analgesic in clinical cases of female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy was undertaken during this study. During the study, the following parameters were assessed viz., Rectal temperature (ᵒF), Respiratory rate (breaths/min) and Heart rate (beats/min). Hematological and biochemical parameters viz., total erythrocyte count (TEC) (millions/cmm), hemoglobin (g %), otal leucocytes count (TLC) (thousands/cmm), differential leucocytes count (DLC) (%), serum creatinine (mg/dl), plasma protein (mg/dl), blood glucose (mg/dl) was estimated before the surgery and after administration of general anaesthesia and immediate postoperative periods of 0, 12 and 24 hr respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) includes measurement of parameters like posture, vocalization, activity level, response to palpation and agitation at different intervals was calculated before surgery and after administration of general anesthesia and post-operative periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, 12hrs and 24 hrs respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) was given for each parameter (Posture, Vocalization, Activity Level, Response to Palpation and Agitation) like 0,1,2,3. (maximum score will be given was 4.). Results were revealed in all three groups including control group. There were significant minor alterations in physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters. MTPS (mean total pain score) were revealed and found a significant alteration when compared with control group. In conclusion, Tramadol found to be a better analgesic and had up to 8hrs of analgesic effect and Pentazocine is superior in post-operative pain management when compared to Tramadol because this group of dogs experienced less surgical stress, consumed less anesthetic dose, they recovered early, and they had less MTPS score.

Keywords: Dog, tramadol, pentazocine, ovariohysterectomy

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6 Investigation of Norovirus Genogroups (GI, GII and GIV) in Stool of Pet Dogs with Diarrhea

Authors: S. Sokel, M. Kale

Abstract:

Norovirus (NoV) infection is effective and contagious in humans and many animals such as calves, pigs, dogs, cats, monkeys. There is not enough evidence about the zoonotic transmission of NoV between humans and animals. However, the fact that contamination of foods and environment by animal/human waste happens in indirect way leads to consideration of the agent as a zoonotic character. In our study, we aim to search the presence of NoV infection, which is a major public health problem, in possessed dogs showing diarrhea symptoms, to detect its genotype and to study nutrition and life conditions. We searched the existence of human NoV GI, GII and GIV in the stool of 128 pet dogs in Burdur Province with diarrhoea in various sex, age and breed by using Real-Time PCR method. Human NoV GII was found in only 5 of the 128 dog stool samples (3.91%). In the study, it was determined that the owners of the dogs with NoV GII are middle aged or elderly people most of whom are male and that there were no children in their houses. As these dogs are treated like the owner’s child, it is assumed that they could be transmitted with NoV GII as a result of close interaction with their owner.

Keywords: Human, Dog, real-time PCR, norovirus, stool

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5 Production of Recombinant VP2 Protein of Canine Parvovirus 2a Using Baculovirus Expression System

Authors: Seyeon Park, In-Soo Cho, Soo Dong Cho, In-Ohk Ouh, Byeong Sul Kang, Jae Young Song

Abstract:

An VP2 gene from the current prevalent CPV (Canine Parvovirus) strain (new CPV-2a) in the Republic of Korea was expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolate strain CPV-2a. The recombinant baculovirus, containing the coding sequences of VP2 with the histidine tag at the N-terminus, were generated by using the Bac-to-Bac system. For production of the recombinant VP2 proteins, SF9 cells were transfection into 6 wells. Propagation of recombinant baculoviruses and expression of the VP2 protein were performed in the Sf9 cell line maintained. The proteins were detected to Western blot anlaysis. CPV-2a VP2 was detected by Western blotting the monoclonal antibodies recognized 6x His and the band had a molecular weight of 65 KDa. We demonstrated that recombinant CPV-2a VP2 expression in baculovirus. The recombinant CPV-2a VP2 may able to development of specific diagnostic test and vaccination of against CPV2. This study provides a foundation for application of CPV2 on the development of new CPV2 subunit vaccine.

Keywords: Dog, Korea, baculovirus, canine parvovirus 2a

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4 Production of Recombinant VP2 Protein of Canine Parvovirus Type 2c Using Baculovirus Expression System

Authors: Seyeon Park, In-Soo Cho, Soo Dong Cho, In-Ohk Ouh, Byeong Sul Kang, Jae Young Song

Abstract:

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a major pathogen of diarrhea disease in dogs. CPV type 2 has three of antigenic variants such as 2a, 2b, and 2c. CPV constructs a small non-enveloped, icosahedral capsid that contains single-stranded DNA. It has capsids that two largely overlapping virion proteins (VP), VP1 (82 kDa), and VP2 (65 kDa). Baculoviruses are insect pathogens that regulate insect populations in nature and are being successfully used to control insect pests. The proteins produced in the baculovirus-expression system are used for instance for functional studies, vaccine preparations, or diagnostics. The vaccines produced by baculovirus-expression system showed elicitation of antibodies. The recombinant baculovirus infected SF9 cells showed broken shape. The recombinant VP2 proteins from cell pellet or supernatant were confirmed by western blotting. The result showed that the recombinant VP2 protein bands were appeared at 65 kDa molecular weight in both cell pellet and supernatant of infected SF9 cell. These results indicated that the recombinant baculovirus infected SF9 cell express the recombinant VP2 protein successfully. In addition, the expressed recombinant VP2 protein is secreted from cell to supernatant. The baculovirus expression system can be used to produce the VP2 protein of CPV 2c. In addition, the secretion property of the expression of VP2 protein may decrease the cost of production, because it can be skipped the cell breaking step. The produced VP2 protein could be used for vaccine and the agent of diagnostic tests. This study provides the foundation of the production of CPV 2c vaccine and the diagnostic agent.

Keywords: Dog, Korea, baculovirus, canine parvovirus 2c

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3 Clinical, Bacteriological and Histopathological Aspects of First-Time Pyoderma in a Population of Iranian Domestic Dogs: A Retrospective Study (2012-2017)

Authors: Mehrnaz Rad, Shaghayegh Rafatpanah, Ahmad Reza Movassaghi, Javad Khoshnegah

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility and ERIC-PCR typing of staphylococci species from dogs with pyoderma. The study animals were 61 clinical cases of Iranian domestic dogs with the first-time pyoderma. The prevalence of pyoderma was significantly higher amongst adult (odds Ratio: 0.21; p=0.001) large breed (odds Ratio: 2.42; p=0.002)dogs. There was no difference in prevalence of pyoderma in male and females (odds Ratio: 1.27; p= 0.337). The 'head, face and pinna' and 'trunk' were the most affected lesion regions, each with 19 cases (26.76%). An identifiable underlying disease was present in 52 (85.24%) of the dogs. Bacterial species were recovered from 43 of the 61 (70.49%) studied animals. No isolates were recovered from 18 studied dogs. The most frequently recovered bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (32/43 isolates, 74.41%) including S. epidermidis (22/43 isolates, 51.16%), S. aureus (7/43 isolates, 16.27%) and S. pseudintermedius (3/43 isolates, 6.97%). Staphylococci species resistance was most commonly seen against amoxicillin (94.11%), penicillin (83.35%), and ampicillin (76.47%). Resistant to cephalexin and cefoxitin was 5.88% and 2.94%, respectively. A total of 27 of the staphylococci isolated (84.37 %) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 19 isolates (59.37%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial drugs. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of resistance between the staphylococci isolated from cases of superficial and deep pyoderma. ERIC-PCR results revealed 19 different patterns among 22 isolates of S. epidermidis and 7 isolates of S. aureus.

Keywords: Dog, Iran, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus, pyoderma

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2 Report of Glucagonoma in a Dog: Ultrasonographic Morphologic Imaging and Histopathologic Diagnosis

Authors: Javad Khoshnegah, Hossein Nourani, Ali Mirshahi

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A 12-year-old female Terrier presented with lethargy, decreased appetite, melena, polyuria and polydipsia. On physical examination skin lesions including crusting, erythema and pupolopustular lesions, were observed mainly on the abdomen. Based on blood examinations, ultrasonography, necropsy and histopathological findings, the condition was diagnosed as superficial necrolytic dermatitis. Gross necropsy revealed hepatomegaly (severe vacuolar change of the hepatocytes) and a 5×5 mass adjusent to mesenteric lymph nodes which is finally diagnosed as tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the neoplastic cells revealed that the tumor was a glucagonoma.

Keywords: Tumor, Dog, immunohistochemistry, glucagonoma

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1 Anesthesia for Spinal Stabilization Using Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Dog: Case Report

Authors: Agata Migdalska, Joanna Berczynska, Ewa Bieniek, Jacek Sterna

Abstract:

Muscle relaxation is considered important during general anesthesia for spine stabilization. In a presented case peripherally acting muscle relaxant was applied during general anesthesia for spine stabilization surgery. The patient was a dog, 11-years old, 26 kg, male, mix breed. Spine fracture was situated between Th13-L1-L2, probably due to the car accident. Preanesthetic physical examination revealed no sign underlying health issues. The dog was premedicated with midazolam 0.2 mg IM and butorphanol 2.4 mg IM. General anesthesia was induced with propofol IV. After the induction, the dog was intubated with an endotracheal tube and connected to an open-ended rebreathing system and maintained with the use of inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. 0,5 mg/ kg of rocuronium was given IV. Use of muscle relaxant was accompanied by an assessment of the degree of neuromuscular blockade by peripheral nerve stimulator. Electrodes were attached to the skin overlying at the peroneal nerve at the lateral cranial tibia. Four electrical pulses were applied to the nerve over a 2 second period. When satisfying nerve block was detected dog was prepared for the surgery. No further monitoring of the effectiveness of blockade was performed during surgery. Mechanical ventilation was kept during anesthesia. During surgery dog maintain stable, and no anesthesiological complication occur. Intraoperatively surgeon claimed that neuromuscular blockade results in a better approach to the spine and easier muscle manipulation which was helpful in order to see the fracture and replace bone fragments. Finally, euthanasia was performed intraoperatively as a result of vast myelomalacia process of the spinal cord. This prevented examination of the recovering process. Neuromuscular blocking agents act at the neuromuscular junction to provide profound muscle relaxation throughout the body. Muscle blocking agents are neither anesthetic nor analgesic; therefore inappropriately used may cause paralysis in fully conscious and feeling pain patient. They cause paralysis of all skeletal muscles, also diaphragm and intercostal muscles when given in higher doses. Intraoperative management includes maintaining stable physiological conditions, which involves adjusting hemodynamic parameters, ensuring proper ventilation, avoiding variations in temperature, maintain normal blood flow to promote proper oxygen exchange. Neuromuscular blocking agent can cause many side effects like residual paralysis, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, delayed recovery from anesthesia, histamine release, recurarization. Therefore reverse drug like neostigmine (with glikopyrolat) or edrofonium (with atropine) should be used in case of a life-threatening situation. Another useful drug is sugammadex, although the cost of this drug strongly limits its use. Muscle relaxant improves surgical conditions during spinal surgery, especially in heavily muscled individuals. They are also used to facilitate the replacement of dislocated joints as they improve conditions during fracture reduction. It is important to emphasize that in a patient with muscle weakness neuromuscular blocking agents may result in intraoperative and early postoperative cardiovascular and respiratory complications, as well as prolonged recovery from anesthesia. This should not appear in patients with recent spine fracture or luxation. Therefore it is believed that neuromuscular blockers could be useful during spine stabilization procedures.

Keywords: Anesthesia, Spine Surgery, Dog, neuromuscular block

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