Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

docking Related Abstracts

30 Molecular Docking of Marrubiin in Candida Rugosa Lipase

Authors: Benarous Khedidja, Yousfi Mohamed


Infections caused by Candida species manifest in a number of diseases, including candidemia, vulvovaginal candidiasis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. These Candida species have been reported to have lipolytic activity by secretion of lipolytic enzymes such as esterases, lipases and phospholipases. These Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes seem to play an important role in Candida overgrowth. Candidiasis is commonly treated with antimycotics such as clotrimazole and nystatin, which bind to a major component of the fungal cell membrane (ergosterol). This binding forms pores in the membrane that lead to death of the fungus. Due to their secondary effects, scientists have thought of another treatment basing on lipase inhibition but we haven’t found any lipase inhibitors used as candidiasis treatment. In this work, we are interested to lipases inhibitors such as alkaloids as another candidiasis treatment. In the first part, we have proceeded to optimize the alkaloid structures and protein 3D structure using Hyperchem software. Secondly, we have docked inhibitors using Genetic algorithm with GOLD software. The results have shown ten possibilities of binding inhibitor to Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) but only one possibility has been accepted depending on the weakest binding energy.

Keywords: Gold, marrubiin, candida rugosa lipase, docking

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29 In silico Analysis of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: A. Nusrath Unissa, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna


Altered drug binding may be an important factor in isoniazid (INH) resistance, rather than major changes in the enzyme’s activity as a catalase or peroxidase (KatG). The identification of structural or functional defects in the mutant KatGs responsible for INH resistance remains as an area to be explored. In this connection, the differences in the binding affinity between wild-type (WT) and mutants of KatG were investigated, through the generation of three mutants of KatG, Ser315Thr [S315T], Ser315Asn [S315N], Ser315Arg [S315R] and a WT [S315]) with the help of software-MODELLER. The mutants were docked with INH using the software-GOLD. The affinity is lower for WT than mutant, suggesting the tight binding of INH with the mutant protein compared to WT type. These models provide the in silico evidence for the binding interaction of KatG with INH and implicate the basis for rationalization of INH resistance in naturally occurring KatG mutant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Keywords: Modelling, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, docking, KatG, INH resistance, mutants

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28 Design and Preliminary Evaluation of Benzoxazolone-Based Agents for Targeting Mitochondrial-Located Translocator Protein

Authors: Nidhi Chadha, A. K. Tiwari, Marilyn D. Milton, Anil K. Mishra


Translocator protein (18 kDa) TSPO is highly expressed during microglia activation in neuroinflammation. Although a number of PET ligands have been developed for the visualization of activated microglia, one of the advantageous approaches is to develop potential optical imaging (OI) probe. Our study involves computational screening, synthesis and evaluation of TSPO ligand through various imaging modalities namely PET/SPECT/Optical. The initial computational screening involves pharmacophore modeling from the library designing having oxo-benzooxazol-3-yl-N-phenyl-acetamide groups and synthesis for visualization of efficacy of these compounds as multimodal imaging probes. Structure modeling of monomer, Ala147Thr mutated, parallel and anti-parallel TSPO dimers was performed and docking analysis was performed for distinct binding sites. Computational analysis showed pattern of variable binding profile of known diagnostic ligands and NBMP via interactions with conserved residues along with TSPO’s natural polymorphism of Ala147→Thr, which showed alteration in the binding affinity due to considerable changes in tertiary structure. Preliminary in vitro binding studies shows binding affinity in the range of 1-5 nm and selectivity was also certified by blocking studies. In summary, this skeleton was found to be potential probe for TSPO imaging due to ease in synthesis, appropriate lipophilicity and reach to specific region of brain.

Keywords: Imaging, Molecular Modeling, docking, TSPO

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27 Insight into the Binding Theme of CA-074Me to Cathepsin B: Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Scaffold Hopping to Identify Potential Analogues as Anti-Neurodegenerative Diseases

Authors: Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson, Mahmoud E. S. Soliman


To date, the cause of neurodegeneration is not well understood and diseases that stem from neurodegeneration currently have no known cures. Cathepsin B (CB) enzyme is known to be involved in the production of peptide neurotransmitters and toxic peptides in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). CA-074Me is a membrane-permeable irreversible selective cathepsin B (CB) inhibitor as confirmed by in vivo studies. Due to the lack of the crystal structure, the binding mode of CA-074Me with the human CB at molecular level has not been previously reported. The main aim of this study is to gain an insight into the binding mode of CB CA-074Me to human CB using various computational tools. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations, binding free energy calculations and per-residue energy decomposition analysis were employed to accomplish the aim of the study. Another objective was to identify novel CB inhibitors based on the structure of CA-074Me using fragment based drug design using scaffold hoping drug design approach. Results showed that two of the designed ligands (hit 1 and hit 2) were found to have better binding affinities than the prototype inhibitor, CA-074Me, by ~2-3 kcal/mol. Per-residue energy decomposition showed that amino acid residues Cys29, Gly196, His197 and Val174 contributed the most towards the binding. The Van der Waals binding forces were found to be the major component of the binding interactions. The findings of this study should assist medicinal chemist towards the design of potential irreversible CB inhibitors.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, docking, cathepsin B, scaffold hopping, binding-free energy, neurodegerative diseases

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26 Design and Synthesis of Novel Benzamides as Non-Ulcerogenic Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Khadse Saurabh, Talele Gokul, Surana Sanjay


In an endeavor to find a new class of anti-inflammatory agents, a series of novel benzamides (ab1-ab16) were synthesized by utilizing some arylideneoxazolones (az1-az4) having 2-acetyloxyphenyl substitution on their second position. Structures of these synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. Among the tested benzamide compounds 3ab1, 3ab2, 3ab11, and 3ab16 showed promising anti-inflammatory activity with lessened propensity to cause gastro-intestinal hypermotility and ulceration when compared with standard Indomethacin. Virtual screening was performed by docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of COX-2 receptor to predict if these compounds have analogous binding mode to the COX-2 inhibitor.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory, docking, benzamides, gastro-intestinal hypermotility, ulcerogenic activity

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25 Searching for Novel Scaffolds of Triazole Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

Authors: Tomasz Frączek, Agata Paneth, Rafał Kamiński, Agnieszka Krakowiak, Piotr Paneth


Azoles are a promising class of the new generation of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). From thousands of reported compounds, many possess the same basic structure of an aryl substituted azole ring linked by a thioglycolamide chain with another aromatic ring. To find novel extensions for this primary scaffold, we explored the 5-position substitution of triazole NNRTIs using molecular docking followed by synthesis of selected compounds. We discovered that heterocyclic substituents in 5-position of the triazole ring are detrimental to the inhibitory activity of compounds with 4-membered thioglycolamide linker. This substitution seems to be viable only for compounds with a shorter 2-membered linker such as in derivatives of 4‐benzyl‐3‐(benzyl-sulfanyl)‐5‐(thiophen‐2‐yl)‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazole reported earlier. A new scaffold of 2‐[(4‐benzyl‐5‐methyl‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazol‐3‐yl)sulfanyl]‐N‐phenylacetamide has been identified in this study.

Keywords: Drug Design, Molecular Modeling, docking, novel scaffolds

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24 Conformation Prediction of Human Plasmin and Docking on Gold Nanoparticle

Authors: Wen-Shyong Tzou, Chih-Ching Huang, Chin-Hwa Hu, Ying-Tsang Lo, Tun-Wen Pai, Chia-Yin Chiang, Chung-Hao Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian


Plasmin plays an important role in the human circulatory system owing to its catalytic ability of fibrinolysis. The immediate injection of plasmin in patients of strokes has intrigued many scientists to design vectors that can transport plasmin to the desired location in human body. Here we predict the structure of human plasmin and investigate the interaction of plasmin with the gold-nanoparticle. Because the crystal structure of plasminogen has been solved, we deleted N-terminal domain (Pan-apple domain) of plasminogen and generate a mimic of the active form of this enzyme (plasmin). We conducted a simulated annealing process on plasmin and discovered a very large conformation occurs. Kringle domains 1, 4 and 5 had been observed to leave its original location relative to the main body of the enzyme and the original doughnut shape of this enzyme has been transformed to a V-shaped by opening its two arms. This observation of conformational change is consistent with the experimental results of neutron scattering and centrifugation. We subsequently docked the plasmin on the simulated gold surface to predict their interaction. The V-shaped plasmin could utilize its Kringle domain and catalytic domain to contact the gold surface. Our findings not only reveal the flexibility of plasmin structure but also provide a guide for the design of a plasmin-gold nanoparticle.

Keywords: Molecular Simulation, docking, gold nanoparticle, plasmin

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23 Zingiberaceous Plants as a Source of Anti-Bacterial Activity: Targeting Bacterial Cell Division Protein (FtsZ)

Authors: S. Reshma Reghu, Shiburaj Sugathan, T. G. Nandu, K. B. Ramesh Kumar, Mathew Dan


Bacterial diseases are considered to be one of the most prevalent health hazards in the developing world and many bacteria are becoming resistant to existing antibiotics making the treatment ineffective. Thus, it is necessary to find novel targets and develop new antibacterial drugs with a novel mechanism of action. The process of bacterial cell division is a novel and attractive target for new antibacterial drug discovery. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the major protein of the bacterial cell division machinery and is considered as an important antibacterial drug target. Zingiberaceae, the Ginger family consists of aromatic herbs with creeping rhizomes. Many of these plants have antimicrobial properties.This study aimed to determine the anti-bacterial activity of selected Zingiberaceous plants by targeting bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ. Essential oils and methanol extracts of Amomum ghaticum, Alpinia galanga, Kaempferia galanga, K. rotunda, and Zingiber officinale were tested to find its antibacterial efficiency using disc diffusion method against authentic bacterial strains obtained from MTCC (India). Essential oil isolated from A.galanga and Z.officinale were further assayed for FtsZ inhibition assay following non-radioactive malachite green-phosphomolybdate assay using E. coli FtsZ protein obtained from Cytoskelton Inc., USA. Z.officinale essential oil possess FtsZ inhibitory property. A molecular docking study was conducted with the known bioactive compounds of Z. officinale as ligands with the E. coli FtsZ protein homology model. Some of the major constituents of this plant like catechin, epicatechin, and gingerol possess agreeable docking scores. The results of this study revealed that several chemical constituents in Ginger plants can be utilised as potential source of antibacterial activity and it can warrant further investigation through drug discovery studies.

Keywords: Antibacterial, docking, FtsZ, zingiberaceae

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22 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini


Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: docking, QSAR, multiple linear regression, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

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21 X-Ray Crystallographic, Hirshfeld Surface Analysis and Docking Study of Phthalyl Sulfacetamide

Authors: Sanjay M. Tailor, Urmila H. Patel


Phthalyl Sulfacetamide belongs to well-known member of antimicrobial sulfonamide family. It is a potent antitumor drug. Structural characteristics of 4-amino-N-(2quinoxalinyl) benzene-sulfonamides (Phthalyl Sulfacetamide), C14H12N4O2S has been studied by method of X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n with unit cell parameters a= 7.9841 Ǻ, b= 12.8208 Ǻ, c= 16.6607 Ǻ, α= 90˚, β= 93.23˚, γ= 90˚and Z=4. The X-ray based three-dimensional structure analysis has been carried out by direct methods and refined to an R-value of 0.0419. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N-H…N, N-H…O and π-π interactions. The Hirshfeld surfaces and consequently the fingerprint analysis have been performed to study the nature of interactions and their quantitative contributions towards the crystal packing. An analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitates a comparison of intermolecular interactions, which are the key elements in building different supramolecular architectures. Docking is used for virtual screening for the prediction of the strongest binders based on various scoring functions. Docking studies are carried out on Phthalyl Sulfacetamide for better activity, which is important for the development of a new class of inhibitors.

Keywords: Crystal structure, docking, phthalyl sulfacetamide, hirshfeld surface analysis

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20 QSAR, Docking and E-pharmacophore Approach on Novel Series of HDAC Inhibitors with Thiophene Linker as Anticancer Agents

Authors: Harish Rajak, Preeti Patel


HDAC inhibitors can reactivate gene expression and inhibit the growth and survival of cancer cells. The 3D-QSAR and Pharmacophore modeling studies were performed to identify important pharmacophoric features and correlate 3D-chemical structure with biological activity. The pharmacophore hypotheses were developed using e-pharmacophore script and phase module. Pharmacophore hypothesis represents the 3D arrangement of molecular features necessary for activity. A series of 55 compounds with well-assigned HDAC inhibitory activity was used for 3D-QSAR model development. Best 3D-QSAR model, which is a five PLS factor model with good statistics and predictive ability, acquired Q2 (0.7293), R2 (0.9811) and standard deviation (0.0952). Molecular docking were performed using Histone Deacetylase protein (PDB ID: 1t69) and prepared series of hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors. Docking study of compound 43 show significant binding interactions Ser 276 and oxygen atom of dioxine cap region, Gly 151 and amino group and Asp 267 with carboxyl group of CONHOH, which are essential for anticancer activity. On docking, most of the compounds exhibited better glide score values between -8 to -10.5. We have established structure activity correlation using docking, energetic based pharmacophore modelling, pharmacophore and atom based 3D QSAR model. The results of these studies were further used for the design and testing of new HDAC analogs.

Keywords: docking, QSAR, e-pharmacophore, HDACIs, Suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid

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19 Docking, Pharmacophore Modeling and 3d QSAR Studies on Some Novel HDAC Inhibitors with Heterocyclic Linker

Authors: Harish Rajak, Preeti Patel


The application of histone deacetylase inhibitors is a well-known strategy in prevention of cancer which shows acceptable preclinical antitumor activity due to its ability of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cell. Molecular docking were performed using Histone Deacetylase protein (PDB ID:1t69) and prepared series of hydroxamic acid based HDACIs. On the basis of docking study, it was predicted that compound 1 has significant binding interaction with HDAC protein and three hydrogen bond interactions takes place, which are essential for antitumor activity. On docking, most of the compounds exhibited better glide score values between -8 to -10 which is close to the glide score value of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. The pharmacophore hypotheses were developed using e-pharmacophore script and phase module. The 3D-QSAR models provided a good correlation between predicted and actual anticancer activity. Best QSAR model showed Q2 (0.7974), R2 (0.9200) and standard deviation (0.2308). QSAR visualization maps suggest that hydrogen bond acceptor groups at carbonyl group of cap region and hydrophobic groups at ortho, meta, para position of R9 were favorable for HDAC inhibitory activity. We established structure activity correlation using docking, pharmacophore modeling and atom based 3D QSAR model for hydroxamic acid based HDACIs.

Keywords: docking, QSAR, e-pharmacophore, HDACIs, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

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18 Assessment of Isatin as Surface Recognition Group: Design, Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Hydroxamates as Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

Authors: Harish Rajak, Kamlesh Raghuwanshi


Histone deacetylase (HDAC) are promising target for cancer treatment. The panobinostat (Farydak; Novartis; approved by USFDA in 2015) and chidamide (Epidaza; Chipscreen Biosciences; approved by China FDA in 2014) are the novel HDAC inhibitors ratified for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and peripheral T cell lymphoma, respectively. On the other hand, two other HDAC inhibitors, Vorinostat (SAHA; approved by USFDA in 2006) and Romidepsin (FK228; approved by USFDA in 2009) are already in market for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Several hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors i.e., belinostat, givinostat, PCI24781 and JNJ26481585 are in clinical trials. HDAC inhibitors consist of three pharmacophoric features - an aromatic cap group, zinc binding group (ZBG) and a linker chain connecting cap group to ZBG. Herein, we report synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of HDAC inhibitors possessing substituted isatin moiety as cap group which recognize the surface of active enzyme pocket and thiosemicarbazide moiety incorporated as linker group responsible for connecting cap group to ZBG (hydroxamic acid). Several analogues were found to inhibit HDAC and cellular proliferation of Hela cervical cancer cells with GI50 values in the micro molar range. Some of the compounds exhibited promising results in vitro antiproliferative studies. Attempts were also made to establish the structure activity relationship among synthesized HDAC inhibitors.

Keywords: docking, HDAC inhibitors, hydroxamic acid derivatives, isatin derivatives, antiproliferative activity

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17 Exploring Valproic Acid (VPA) Analogues Interactions with HDAC8 Involved in VPA Mediated Teratogenicity: A Toxicoinformatics Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar, Sakshi Piplani


Valproic acid (VPA) is the first synthetic therapeutic agent used to treat epileptic disorders, which account for affecting nearly 1% world population. Teratogenicity caused by VPA has prompted the search for next generation drug with better efficacy and lower side effects. Recent studies have posed HDAC8 as direct target of VPA that causes the teratogenic effect in foetus. We have employed molecular dynamics (MD) and docking simulations to understand the binding mode of VPA and their analogues onto HDAC8. A total of twenty 3D-structures of human HDAC8 isoforms were selected using BLAST-P search against PDB. Multiple sequence alignment was carried out using ClustalW and PDB-3F07 having least missing and mutated regions was selected for study. The missing residues of loop region were constructed using MODELLER and energy was minimized. A set of 216 structural analogues (>90% identity) of VPA were obtained from Pubchem and ZINC database and their energy was optimized with Chemsketch software using 3-D CHARMM-type force field. Four major neurotransmitters (GABAt, SSADH, α-KGDH, GAD) involved in anticonvulsant activity were docked with VPA and its analogues. Out of 216 analogues, 75 were selected on the basis of lower binding energy and inhibition constant as compared to VPA, thus predicted to have anti-convulsant activity. Selected hHDAC8 structure was then subjected to MD Simulation using licenced version YASARA with AMBER99SB force field. The structure was solvated in rectangular box of TIP3P. The simulation was carried out with periodic boundary conditions and electrostatic interactions and treated with Particle mesh Ewald algorithm. pH of system was set to 7.4, temperature 323K and pressure 1atm respectively. Simulation snapshots were stored every 25ps. The MD simulation was carried out for 20ns and pdb file of HDAC8 structure was saved every 2ns. The structures were analysed using castP and UCSF Chimera and most stabilized structure (20ns) was used for docking study. Molecular docking of 75 selected VPA-analogues with PDB-3F07 was performed using AUTODOCK4.2.6. Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm was used to generate conformations of docked ligand and structure. The docking study revealed that VPA and its analogues have more affinity towards ‘hydrophobic active site channel’, due to its hydrophobic properties and allows VPA and their analogues to take part in van der Waal interactions with TYR24, HIS42, VAL41, TYR20, SER138, TRP137 while TRP137 and SER138 showed hydrogen bonding interaction with VPA-analogues. 14 analogues showed better binding affinity than VPA. ADMET SAR server was used to predict the ADMET properties of selected VPA analogues for predicting their druggability. On the basis of ADMET screening, 09 molecules were selected and are being used for in-vivo evaluation using Danio rerio model.

Keywords: docking, molecular dynamics simulation, valproic acid, HDAC8

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16 High Throughput Virtual Screening against ns3 Helicase of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV)

Authors: Soma Banerjee, Aamen Talukdar, Argha Mandal, Dipankar Chaudhuri


Japanese Encephalitis is a major infectious disease with nearly half the world’s population living in areas where it is prevalent. Currently, treatment for it involves only supportive care and symptom management through vaccination. Due to the lack of antiviral drugs against Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), the quest for such agents remains a priority. For these reasons, simulation studies of drug targets against JEV are important. Towards this purpose, docking experiments of the kinase inhibitors were done against the chosen target NS3 helicase as it is a nucleoside binding protein. Previous efforts regarding computational drug design against JEV revealed some lead molecules by virtual screening using public domain software. To be more specific and accurate regarding finding leads, in this study a proprietary software Schrödinger-GLIDE has been used. Druggability of the pockets in the NS3 helicase crystal structure was first calculated by SITEMAP. Then the sites were screened according to compatibility with ATP. The site which is most compatible with ATP was selected as target. Virtual screening was performed by acquiring ligands from databases: KinaseSARfari, KinaseKnowledgebase and Published inhibitor Set using GLIDE. The 25 ligands with best docking scores from each database were re-docked in XP mode. Protein structure alignment of NS3 was performed using VAST against MMDB, and similar human proteins were docked to all the best scoring ligands. The low scoring ligands were chosen for further studies and the high scoring ligands were screened. Seventy-three ligands were listed as the best scoring ones after performing HTVS. Protein structure alignment of NS3 revealed 3 human proteins with RMSD values lesser than 2Å. Docking results with these three proteins revealed the inhibitors that can interfere and inhibit human proteins. Those inhibitors were screened. Among the ones left, those with docking scores worse than a threshold value were also removed to get the final hits. Analysis of the docked complexes through 2D interaction diagrams revealed the amino acid residues that are essential for ligand binding within the active site. Interaction analysis will help to find a strongly interacting scaffold among the hits. This experiment yielded 21 hits with the best docking scores which could be investigated further for their drug like properties. Aside from getting suitable leads, specific NS3 helicase-inhibitor interactions were identified. Selection of Target modification strategies complementing docking methodologies which can result in choosing better lead compounds are in progress. Those enhanced leads can lead to better in vitro testing.

Keywords: Antivirals, docking, glide, high-throughput virtual screening, Japanese encephalitis, ns3 helicase

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15 Molecular Design and Synthesis of Heterocycles Based Anticancer Agents

Authors: Amna J. Ghith, Khaled Abu Zid, Khairia Youssef, Nasser Saad


Backgrounds: The multikinase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitors interrupt the pathway by which angiogenesis becomes established and promulgated, resulting in the inadequate nourishment of metastatic disease. VEGFR-2 has been the principal target of anti-angiogenic therapies. We disclose the new thieno pyrimidines as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 designed by a molecular modeling approach with increased synergistic activity and decreased side effects. Purpose: 2-substituted thieno pyrimidines are designed and synthesized with anticipated anticancer activity based on its in silico molecular docking study that supports the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis with a same binding mode of interaction at the ATP-binding site of VEGFR-2 (PDB 2QU5) with high docking score. Methods: A series of compounds were designed using discovery studio 4.1/CDOCKER with a rational that mimic the pharmacophoric features present in the reported active compounds that targeted VEGFR-2. An in silico ADMET study was also performed to validate the bioavailability of the newly designed compounds. Results: The Compounds to be synthesized showed interaction energy comparable to or within the range of the benzimidazole inhibitor ligand when docked with VEGFR-2. ADMET study showed comparable results most of the compounds showed absorption within (95-99) zone varying according to different substitutions attached to thieno pyrimidine ring system. Conclusions: A series of 2-subsituted thienopyrimidines are to be synthesized with anticipated anticancer activity and according to docking study structure requirement for the design of VEGFR-2 inhibitors which can act as powerful anticancer agents.

Keywords: docking, discovery studio 4.1/CDOCKER, heterocycles based anticancer agents

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14 Biophysical Study of the Interaction of Harmalol with Nucleic Acids of Different Motifs: Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Approaches

Authors: Kakali Bhadra


Binding of small molecules to DNA and recently to RNA, continues to attract considerable attention for developing effective therapeutic agents for control of gene expression. This work focuses towards understanding interaction of harmalol, a dihydro beta-carboline alkaloid, with different nucleic acid motifs viz. double stranded CT DNA, single stranded A-form poly(A), double-stranded A-form of poly(C)·poly(G) and clover leaf tRNAphe by different spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. Results of this study converge to suggest that (i) binding constant varied in the order of CT DNA > poly(C)·poly(G) > tRNAphe > poly(A), (ii) non-cooperative binding of harmalol to poly(C)·poly(G) and poly(A) and cooperative binding with CT DNA and tRNAphe, (iii) significant structural changes of CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe with concomitant induction of optical activity in the bound achiral alkaloid molecules, while with poly(A) no intrinsic CD perturbation was observed, (iv) the binding was predominantly exothermic, enthalpy driven, entropy favoured with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) while it was entropy driven with tRNAphe and poly(A), (v) a hydrophobic contribution and comparatively large role of non-polyelectrolytic forces to Gibbs energy changes with CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe, and (vi) intercalated state of harmalol with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) structure as revealed from molecular docking and supported by the viscometric data. Furthermore, with competition dialysis assay it was shown that harmalol prefers hetero GC sequences. All these findings unequivocally pointed out that harmalol prefers binding with ds CT DNA followed by ds poly(C)·poly(G), clover leaf tRNAphe and least with ss poly(A). The results highlight the importance of structural elements in these natural beta-carboline alkaloids in stabilizing different DNA and RNA of various motifs for developing nucleic acid based better therapeutic agents.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Calorimetry, docking, DNA/RNA-alkaloid interaction, harmalol

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13 Pyrazolylpyrazolines: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Dual Acting Antimalarial-Antileishmanial Agents

Authors: Ariaya Hymete, Adnan Bekhit, Eskedar Lodebo, Hanan Ragab, Alaa El-Din Bekhit


Malaria and leishmaniasis have emerged as serious universal health problems throughout history of mankind. According to the WHO 2008 malarial report, half of the world population is at risk of malarial infection with an estimate of 1 million deaths occurring annually mainly in the African region. Furthermore, 12-15 million people are infected with Leishmaniasis worldwide. Despite the continuous introduction of a large number of agents for the treatment of malaria, there is still unmet medical needs due to the emergence of resistance. Resistance has occurred for almost all therapeutic agents approved for the treatment of malaria. Accordingly, it was the aim of this work to design and synthesis a group of antimalarial-antileshmanial agents that would show inhibitory activity against chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The synthesized compounds were designed to contain a pyrazolylpyrazoline moiety having an aromatic group (p-tolyl or p-chlorophenyl) at N1-position of one pyrazoline ring due to the reports of promising activities of such compounds. A formyl or acyl substituent was introduced at the N1-position of the other pyrazoline ring, to investigate the effect of bulkiness of acyl substituents at this position. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in-vivo antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei infected mice at dose levels of 20 and 30 mg/Kg. the two most active compounds were evaluated for their antimalarial activity against chloroquin-resistant strain (RKL9) of Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, the synthesized compounds were tested for their in-vitro antileshmanial activity against Leishmania aethiopica promastigotes and amastigotes. For both antimalarial and antileishmanial activities, compounds having an N1-p-tolyl group at the first pyrazoline ring did not require bulkiness at the second pyrazoline ring nitrogen where the compound bearing an acetyl group proved to be the most active of the whole series. On the other hand, bulkiness at the N1-position of the second pyazoline ring was necessary in case of compounds carrying the p-chlorophenyl group, where the two derivatives having an N1-butanoyl and an N1-benzoyl moieties at the second pyrazoline showed the best activity. Furthermore, the toxicity of the active compounds were tested and were proved to be non-toxic at 125, 250 and 500 mg/Kg. In addition, docking of the most active compound (having a p-tolyl group at the first pyrazoline-N and an acetyl moiety on the other pyrazoline-N) was performed against dihydrofolate reductase enzyme.

Keywords: docking, pyrazoline derivatives, in-vivo antimalarial activity, dihydrofolate reductase

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12 In silico Designing and Insight into Antimalarial Potential of Chalcone-Quinolinylpyrazole Hybrids by Preclinical Study in Mice

Authors: Sandeep Jain, Deepika Saini, Ajay Kumar


The quinoline scaffold is one of the most widely studied in the discovery of derivatives with various heterocyclic moieties due to its potential antimalarial activities. In the present study, a chalcone series of quinoline derivatives clubbed with pyrazole were synthesized to evaluate their antimalarial property by in vitro schizont maturation inhibition assay against both chloroquine sensitive, 3D7 and chloroquine resistant, RKL9 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Further, top five compounds were studied for in vivo preclinical study for antimalarial potential against P. berghei in Swiss albino mice. To understand the mechanism of synthesized analogues, they were screened computationally by molecular docking techniques. Compounds were docked into the active site of a protein receptor, Plasmodium falciparum Cysteine Protease Falcipain-2. The compounds were successfully synthesized, and structural confirmation was performed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. In vitro study suggested that the compounds 5b, 5g, 5l, 5s and 5u possessed best antimalarial activity and further tested for in vivo screening. Compound 5u (CH₃ on both rings) with EC₅₀ 0.313 & 0.801 µg/ml against CQ-S & CQ-R strains of P. falciparum respectively and 78.01% suppression of parasitemia. The molecular docking studies of the compounds helped in understanding the mechanism of action against falcipain-2. The present study reveals the binding signatures of the synthesized ligands within the active site of the protein, and it explains the results from in vitro study in their EC₅₀ values and percentage parasitemia.

Keywords: docking, chalcone, quinoline, antimalarial activity

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11 Insights of Interaction Studies between HSP-60, HSP-70 Proteins and HSF-1 in Bubalus bubalis

Authors: Shailendra Mishra, RAVINDER SINGH, C Rajesh, Saroj Badhan, Ranjit Singh Kataria


Heat shock protein 60 and 70 are crucial chaperones that guide appropriate folding of denatured proteins under heat stress conditions. HSP60 and HSP70 provide assistance in correct folding of a multitude of denatured proteins. The heat shock factors are the family of some transcription factors which controls the regulation of gene expression of proteins involved in folding of damaged or improper folded proteins during stress conditions. Under normal condition heat shock proteins bind with HSF-1 and act as its repressor as well as aids in maintaining the HSF-1’s nonactive and monomeric confirmation. The experimental protein structure for all these proteins in Bubalus bubalis is not known till date. Therefore computational approach was explored to identify three-dimensional structure analysis of all these proteins. In this study, an extensive in silico analysis has been performed including sequence comparison among species to comparative modeling of Bubalus bubalis HSP60, HSP70 and HSF-1 protein. The stereochemical properties of proteins were assessed by utilizing several scrutiny bioinformatics tools to ensure model accuracy. Further docking approach was used to study interactions between Heat shock proteins and HSF-1.

Keywords: Bubalus bubalis, docking, comparative modelling, heat shock protein

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10 Homology Modelling of Beta Defensin 3 of Bos taurus and Its Docking Studies with Molecules Responsible for Formation of Biofilm

Authors: RAVINDER SINGH, Ankita Gurao, Saroj Bandhan, Sudhir Kumar Kashyap


The Bos taurus Beta defensin 3 is a defensin peptide secreted by neutrophils and epithelial that exhibits anti-microbial activity. It is one of the crucial components forming an innate defense against intra mammary infections in livestock. The beta defensin 3 by virtue of its anti-microbial activity inhibits major mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa etc, which are also responsible for biofilm formation leading to antibiotic resistance phenomenon. Therefore, the defensin may prove as a non-conventional option to treat mastitis. In this study, computational analysis has been performed including sequence comparison among species and homology modeling of Bos taurus beta defensin 3 protein. The assessments of protein structure were done using the protein structure and model assessment tools integrated in Swiss Model server, which employs various local and global quality evaluation parameters. Further, molecular docking was also carried out between the defensin peptide and the components of biofilm to gain insight into various interactions and structural differences crucial for functionality of this protein.

Keywords: Homology Modeling, docking, beta defensin 3, bos taurus

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9 Interaction of Phytochemicals Present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon to Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor

Authors: Chinmayee Choudhury


Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor (HMC4R) is one of the most potential drug targets for the treatment of obesity which controls the appetite. A deletion of the residues 88-92 in HMC4R is sometimes the cause of severe obesity in the humans. In this study, two homology models are constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs and some phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon have been docked to them to study their differential binding to the normal and mutated HMC4R as compared to the natural agonist α- MSH. Two homology models have been constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs using the Modeller9v7. Some of the phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey, and Cinnamon, which have appetite suppressant activities are constructed, minimized and docked to these normal and mutated HMC4R models using ArgusLab 4.0.1. The mode of binding of the phytochemicals with the Normal and Mutated HMC4Rs have been compared. Further, the mode of binding of these phytochemicals with that of the natural agonist α- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone(α-MSH) to both normal and mutated HMC4Rs have also been studied. It is observed that the phytochemicals Kaempherol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) present in Green Tea and Honey, Isorhamnetin, Chlorogenic acid, Chrysin, Galangin, Pinocambrin present in Honey, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl acetate and Cinnamyl alcohol present in Cinnamon have capacity to form more stable complexes with the Mutated HMC4R as compared to α- MSH. So they may be potential agonists of HMC4R to suppress the appetite.

Keywords: docking, HMC4R, α-MSH, photochemical, appetite suppressant, homology modelling

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8 Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tita Nofianti, Nur Rahayuningsih


Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.

Keywords: Synthesis, docking, anti-tuberculosis, InhA, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide

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7 Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate

Authors: Richa Mardianingrum, Srie R. N. Endah


In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.

Keywords: Synthesis, docking, inhibition, anti-tuberculosis, InhA, Inhibin alpha subunit, isonicotinohydrazide

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6 Microwave Synthesis and Molecular Docking Studies of Azetidinone Analogous Bearing Diphenyl Ether Nucleus as a Potent Antimycobacterial and Antiprotozoal Agent

Authors: Vatsal M. Patel, Navin B. Patel


The present studies deal with the developing a series bearing a diphenyl ethers nucleus using structure-based drug design concept. A newer series of diphenyl ether based azetidinone namely N-(3-chloro-2-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)azetidin-1-yl)-2-(substituted amino)acetamide (2a-j) have been synthesized by condensation of m-phenoxybenzaldehyde with 2-(substituted-phenylamino)acetohydrazide followed by the cyclisation of resulting Schiff base (1a-j) by conventional method as well as microwave heating approach as a part of an environmentally benign synthetic protocol. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis and were screened for in vitro antimicrobial, antitubercular and antiprotozoal activity. The compound 2f was found to be most active M. tuberculosis (6.25 µM) MIC value in the primary screening as well as this same derivative has been found potency against L. mexicana and T. cruzi with MIC value 2.09 and 6.69 µM comparable to the reference drug Miltefosina and Nifurtimox. To provide understandable evidence to predict binding mode and approximate binding energy of a compound to a target in the terms of ligand-protein interaction, all synthesized compounds were docked against an enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase of M. tuberculosis (PDB ID: 4u0j). The computational studies revealed that azetidinone derivatives have a high affinity for the active site of enzyme which provides a strong platform for new structure-based design efforts. The Lipinski’s parameters showed good drug-like properties and can be developed as an oral drug candidate.

Keywords: Microwave, docking, antimycobacterial, antiprotozoal, azetidinone, diphenylether

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5 Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies on Chiral Chloroquine Analogues as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: Utsab Debnath, Srinivasarao Kondaparla, Awakash Soni, Vasantha Rao Dola, Manish Sinha, Kumkum Kumkum Srivastava, Sunil K. Puri, Seturam B. Katti


In a focused exploration, we have designed synthesized and biologically evaluated chiral conjugated new chloroquine (CQ) analogs with substituted piperazines as antimalarial agents. In vitro as well as in vivo studies revealed that compound 7c showed potent activity [for in vitro IC₅₀= 56.98nM (3D7), 97.76nM (K1); for in vivo (up to at the dose of 12.5 mg/kg); SI = 3510] as a new lead of antimalarial agent. Other compounds 6b, 6d, 7d, 7h, 8c, 8d, 9a, and 9c are also showing moderate activity against CQ-sensitive (3D7) strain and superior activity against resistant (K1) strain of P. falciparum. Furthermore, we have carried out docking and 3D-QSAR studies of all in-house data sets (168 molecules) of chiral CQ analogs to explain the structure activity relationships (SAR). Our new findings specified the significance of H-bond interaction with the side chain of heme for biological activity. In addition, the 3D-QSAR study against 3D7 strain indicated the favorable and unfavorable sites of CQ analogs for incorporating steric, hydrophobic and electropositive groups to improve the antimalarial activity.

Keywords: docking, piperazines, CQ-sensitive strain-3D7, in-vitro and in-vivo assay

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4 N₂O₂ Salphen-Like Ligand and Its Pd(II), Ag(I) and Cu(II) Complexes as Potentially Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis, Antimicrobial, CT-DNA Binding and Molecular Docking

Authors: Laila H. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Shaker S. Adam, Ahmed M. Abu-Dief, Hanan El-Sayed Ahmed


In this investigation, Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes with the tetra-dentate DSPH Schiff base ligand were synthesized. The DSPH Schiff base and its complexes were characterized by using different physicochemical and spectral analysis. The results revealed that the metal ions coordinated with DSPH ligand through azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen. Cu(II), Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes are present in a 1:1 molar ratio. Pd(II) and Ag(I) complexes have square planar geometries while, Cu(II) has a distorted octahedral (Oh) geometry. All investigated complexes are nonelectrolytes. The investigated compounds were tested against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Both prepared compounds showed good results of inhibition against the selected pathogenic microorganism. Moreover, the interaction of investigated complexes with CT-DNA was studied via various techniques and the binding modes are mainly intercalative and grooving modes. Operating Environment MOE package was used to do docking studies for the investigated complexes to explore the potential binding mode and energy. Furthermore, the growth inhibitory effect of the investigated compounds was examined on some cancer cells lines.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, docking, anticancer, tetradentate, CT-DNA interaction

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3 In Silico Study of the Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Nigella sativa

Authors: Ammar Ouahab, Meriem Houichi, Sanna Mihoubi


Background: Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, belongs to the Ranunculaceae family. It has many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory; anti-bacterial; anti-hepatotoxic activities etc. Materials: In order to predict the pharmacological activity of Nigella Sativa’s compounds, some web based servers were used, namely, PubChem, Molinspiration, ADMET-SAR, PASS online and PharMapper. In addition to that, AutoDOCK was used to investigate the different molecular interactions between the selected compounds and their target proteins. Results: All compounds displayed a stable interaction with their targets and satisfactory binding energies, which means that they are active on their targets. Conclusion: Nigella sativa is an effective medicinal plant that has several ethno-medical uses; the latter uses are proven herein via an in-silico study of their pharmacological activities.

Keywords: docking, Nigella sativa, PubChem, AutoDOCK, Molinspiration, ADMET-SAR, PharMapper, PASS online server

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2 Prediction of Binding Free Energies for Dyes Removal Using Computational Chemistry

Authors: R. Chanajaree, D. Luanwiset, K. Pongpratea


Dye removal is an environmental concern because the textile industries have been increasing by world population and industrialization. Adsorption is the technique to find adsorbents to remove dyes from wastewater. This method is low-cost and effective for dye removal. This work tries to develop effective adsorbents using the computational approach because it will be able to predict the possibility of the adsorbents for specific dyes in terms of binding free energies. The computational approach is faster and cheaper than the experimental approach in case of finding the best adsorbents. All starting structures of dyes and adsorbents are optimized by quantum calculation. The complexes between dyes and adsorbents are generated by the docking method. The obtained binding free energies from docking are compared to binding free energies from the experimental data. The calculated energies can be ranked as same as the experimental results. In addition, this work also shows the possible orientation of the complexes. This work used two experimental groups of the complexes of the dyes and adsorbents. In the first group, there are chitosan (adsorbent) and two dyes (reactive red (RR) and direct sun yellow (DY)). In the second group, there are poly(1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxy) propane (PEPP), which is the adsorbent, and 2 dyes of bromocresol green (BCG) and alizarin yellow (AY).

Keywords: docking, dyes removal, binding free energies, quantum calculation

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1 In-silico Analysis of Plumbagin against Cancer Receptors

Authors: Arpita Roy, Navneeta Bharadvaja


Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. It is one of the most serious diseases on which extensive research work has been going on all over the world. Structure-based drug designing is a computational approach which helps in the identification of potential leads that can be used for the development of a drug. Plumbagin is a naphthoquinone derivative from Plumbago zeylanica roots and belongs to one of the largest and diverse groups of plant metabolites. Anticancer and antiproliferative activities of plumbagin have been observed in animal models as well as in cell cultures. Plumbagin shows inhibitory effects on multiple cancer-signaling proteins; however, the binding mode and the molecular interactions have not yet been elucidated for most of these protein targets. In this investigation, an attempt to provide structural insights into the binding mode of plumbagin against four cancer receptors using molecular docking was performed. Plumbagin showed minimal energy against targeted cancer receptors, therefore suggested its stability and potential towards different cancers. The least binding energies of plumbagin with COX-2, TACE, and CDK6 are -5.39, -4.93, -and 4.81 kcal/mol, respectively. Comparison studies of plumbagin with different receptors showed that it is a promising compound for cancer treatment. It was also found that plumbagin obeys the Lipinski’s Rule of 5 and computed ADMET properties which showed drug likeliness and improved bioavailability. Since plumbagin is from a natural source, it has reduced side effects, and these results would be useful for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Cancer, docking, receptor, plumbagin

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