Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Dna Related Abstracts

34 Genotoxicity of 4-Nonylphenol (4NP) on Oreochromus spilurs Fish

Authors: M. M. Alsharif

Abstract:

4-Nonylphenol Compound is widely used as an element of detergents, paints, insecticides and many others products. It is known that the existence of this compound may lead to the emission of estrogenic responses in mammals, birds and fish. It is described as pollutant since it causes disorder of endocrine glands. In previous studies, it was proven that this compound exists in water and in the materials precipitated in Red Sea coast in Jeddah near the drains of processed drainage water and near the drainage site of the residuals of paper factories. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic aberrations caused by 4-nonylphenol through exposing Talapia Fishes to aquatic solution of the compound with 0, 15, 30 microgram/liter for one month. Samples of gills and liver were collected for micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and measuring DNA and RNA amount in the treated fish. The results pointed out that there is a significant increase in the numbers of micronuclei in the fish exposed to the former concentrations as compared to the control group. Exposing fishes to 4-nonylphenol resulted in an increased amount of both DNA and RNA, compared to the control group. There is a positive correlation between the amount of the compound (i.e. dosage dependent effect) and the inspiring for cytogenetic effect on Talapia fishes in Jeddah. Therefore, micronucleus test, DNA and RNA contents can be considered as an index of cumulative exposure, which appear to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic effects of 4-Nonylphenol compound on fish.

Keywords: Fish, RNA, Dna, genotoxic, micronuclei

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33 Biometric Recognition Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Shabir Ahmad Sofi, Shubham Aggarwal, Sanyam Singhal, Roohie Naaz

Abstract:

Biometric recognition refers to an automatic recognition of individuals based on a feature vector(s) derived from their physiological and/or behavioral characteristic. Biometric recognition systems should provide a reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual. These features are used to provide an authentication for computer based security systems. Applications of such a system include computer systems security, secure electronic banking, mobile phones, credit cards, secure access to buildings, health and social services. By using biometrics a person could be identified based on 'who she/he is' rather than 'what she/he has' (card, token, key) or 'what she/he knows' (password, PIN). In this paper, a brief overview of biometric methods, both unimodal and multimodal and their advantages and disadvantages, will be presented.

Keywords: Biometric, Fingerprint, Ear, Dna, Face, gait, retina scan, iris, voice recognition, unimodal biometric, multimodal biometric

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32 The Transport of Radical Species to Single and Double Strand Breaks in the Liver’s DNA Molecule by a Hybrid Method of Type Monte Carlo - Diffusion Equation

Authors: H. Oudira, A. Saifi

Abstract:

The therapeutic utility of certain Auger emitters such as iodine-125 depends on their position within the cell nucleus . Or diagnostically, and to maintain as low as possible cell damage, it is preferable to have radionuclide localized outside the cell or at least the core. One solution to this problem is to consider markers capable of conveying anticancer drugs to the tumor site regardless of their location within the human body. The objective of this study is to simulate the impact of a complex such as bleomycin on single and double strand breaks in the DNA molecule. Indeed, this simulation consists of the following transactions: - Construction of BLM -Fe- DNA complex. - Simulation of the electron’s transport from the metastable state excitation of Fe 57 by the Monte Carlo method. - Treatment of chemical reactions in the considered environment by the diffusion equation. For physical, physico-chemical and finally chemical steps, the geometry of the complex is considered as a sphere of 50 nm centered on the binding site , and the mathematical method used is called step by step based on Monte Carlo codes.

Keywords: Dna, Yield, Concentration, bleomycin, excitation, radical species

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
31 Durian Marker Kit for Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Identity

Authors: Emma K. Sales

Abstract:

Durian is the flagship fruit of Mindanao and there is an abundance of several cultivars with many confusing identities/ names. The project was conducted to develop procedure for reliable and rapid detection and sorting of durian planting materials. Moreover, it is also aimed to establish specific genetic or DNA markers for routine testing and authentication of durian cultivars in question. The project developed molecular procedures for routine testing. SSR primers were also screened and identified for their utility in discriminating durian cultivars collected. Results of the study showed the following accomplishments; 1. Twenty (29) SSR primers were selected and identified based on their ability to discriminate durian cultivars, 2. Optimized and established standard procedure for identification and authentication of Durian cultivars 3. Genetic profile of durian is now available at Biotech Unit. Our results demonstrate the relevance of using molecular techniques in evaluating and identifying durian clones. The most polymorphic primers tested in this study could be useful tools for detecting variation even at the early stage of the plant especially for commercial purposes. The process developed combines the efficiency of the microsatellites development process with the optimization of non-radioactive detection process resulting in a user-friendly protocol that can be performed in two (2) weeks and easily incorporated into laboratories about to start microsatellite development projects. This can be of great importance to extend microsatellite analyses to other crop species where minimal genetic information is currently available. With this, the University can now be a service laboratory for routine testing and authentication of durian clones.

Keywords: genotype, Dna, Genetic Diversity, SSR analysis, cultivars

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30 Use of Nanosensors in Detection and Treatment of HIV

Authors: Sayed Obeidullah Abrar

Abstract:

Nanosensor is the combination of two terms nanoparticles and sensors. These are chemical or physical sensor constructed using nanoscale components, usually microscopic or submicroscopic in size. These sensors are very sensitive and can detect single virus particle or even very low concentrations of substances that could be potentially harmful. Nanosensors have a large scope of research especially in the field of medical sciences, military applications, pharmaceuticals etc.

Keywords: Nanosensors, HIV/AIDS, RNA, Dna

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
29 CMOS Solid-State Nanopore DNA System-Level Sequencing Techniques Enhancement

Authors: Syed Islam, Yiyun Huang, Sebastian Magierowski, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents system level CMOS solid-state nanopore techniques enhancement for speedup next generation molecular recording and high throughput channels. This discussion also considers optimum number of base-pair (bp) measurements through channel as an important role to enhance potential read accuracy. Effective power consumption estimation offered suitable rangeof multi-channel configuration. Nanopore bp extraction model in statistical method could contribute higher read accuracy with longer read-length (200 < read-length). Nanopore ionic current switching with Time Multiplexing (TM) based multichannel readout system contributed hardware savings.

Keywords: Dna, amplifier, nanopore, ADC, multichannel

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28 Preparation, Characterisation and Electrical Properties of Metal/polymer-DNA Nanohybrids

Authors: Mahdi Almaky

Abstract:

Conducting polymer of N-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-propyl)-2,2`-bipyridinium hexafluoro-phosphate (PPBH) was prepared via chemical and electrochemical polymerization methods. The bulk polymer showed conductivity in the order of 10-12 S cm-1. DNA-templated polymer nano wires of PPBH (PolyPPBH-DNA) have been chemically prepared then used as templates to direct the formation of metal nanowires (Cu) in order to enhance the electrical properties of the polymer/DNA wires. The chemical structures, morphology and the electrical characterisation of the as obtained structures have been characterized through spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis and XPS), single-crystal X-ray diffraction and microscopic (AFM, EFM and c-AFM) techniques. The morphology of the nanomaterials has been observed by AFM; showing the nanowires are uniform and continuous. The polymer conductivity was slightly improved after metallization. The conductivity of Cu-PolyPPBH-DNA nanowires was estimated to be 7.1x10-2 S cm-1. This conductivity is slightly higher than the conductivity of PolyPPBH-DNA nano wires (2.0 x 10-2 S cm-1), but it is lower than the measurements for PPy/DNA nano wires (2.1 x 10-1 S cm-1) prepared and measured by using c-AFM probe. These results reflect the large effect of the chemical structure (N-substitution) on the electrical properties of these polymers by reducing the extended conjugation.

Keywords: Dna, Copper, template, nano wires, N-Alkylatedpyrrole

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27 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi

Abstract:

The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Molecular Docking, Dna, ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, DNA enzymes

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26 Challenges for Implementing Standards Compliant with Iso/Iec 17025, for Narcotics and DNA Laboratory’s

Authors: Blerim Olluri

Abstract:

A forensic science laboratory in Kosovo has never been organized at the level of most modern forensic science laboratories. This was made possible after the war of 1999 with the help and support from the United States. The United States Government/ICITAP provided 9.5 million dollars to support this project, this support have greatly benefitted law enforcement in Kosovo. With the establishment of Operative Procedures of Work and the law for Kosovo Agency of Forensic, the accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025 of the KAF labs it becomes mandatory. Since 2012 Laboratory’s DNA/Serology and Narcotics has begun reviewing and harmonizing their procedures according to ISO/IEC 17025. The focus of this work was to create quality manuals, procedures, work instructions, quality documentation and quality records. Furthermore, during this time is done the validation of work methods from scientific qualified personnel of KAF, without any help from other foreign agencies or accreditation body.In October 2014 we had the first evaluation based on ISO 17025 standards. According to the initial report of this assessment we have non conformity in test and Calibration methods method’s, and accommodation and environmental conditions. We identified several issues that are of extreme importance to KAF. One the most important issue is to create a professional group with experts of KAF, which will work in all the obligations, requested from ISO/IEC 17025. As conclusions that we earn in this path of accreditation, are that laboratory’s need to take corrective action, and all nonconformance’s must be addressed and corrective action taken before accreditation can be granted.

Keywords: Assessment, Accreditation, Narcotics, Dna

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
25 Selection the Most Suitable Method for DNA Extraction from Muscle of Iran's Canned Tuna by Comparison of Different DNA Extraction Methods

Authors: Marjan Heidarzadeh

Abstract:

High quality and purity of DNA isolated from canned tuna is essential for species identification. In this study, the efficiency of five different methods for DNA extraction was compared. Method of national standard in Iran, the CTAB precipitation method, Wizard DNA Clean Up system, Nucleospin and GenomicPrep were employed. DNA was extracted from two different canned tuna in brine and oil of the same tuna species. Three samples of each type of product were analyzed with the different methods. The quantity and quality of DNA extracted was evaluated using the 260 nm absorbance and ratio A260/A280 by spectrophotometer picodrop. Results showed that the DNA extraction from canned tuna preserved in different liquid media could be optimized by employing a specific DNA extraction method in each case. Best results were obtained with CTAB method for canned tuna in oil and with Wizard method for canned tuna in brine.

Keywords: Dna, Species Identification, canned tuna PCR, DNA extraction methods

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24 The Examination of Organizational DNA of General Directorate of Youth and Sport Organization of Fars Province Based on Hnald Model

Authors: Mohammad Reza Baradaran, Mehdi Rastegari Ghiri, Zahra Mirsanjari

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was the investigation of DNA Corporate General Administration of Sports and Youth in Fars province. The descriptive research method is a survey that was conducted by field survey. For data collection, questionnaires were used that designed based on Hnald and Silverman model. In this model the organizational DNA model is stated in four types: objective, individualistic, field-oriented and Spiritual. The reliability of the questionnaire by the researcher obtained by using Cronbach's alpha equal to 89/0 respectively. The statistical population includes all managers and specialists of Fars Province Directorate of Youth and Sport that 48 of them were selected as the samples of the research. The results showed the organizational DNA Directorate General for Youth and Sports Organization of Fars province has a field –oriented and nearly field-oriented DNA.

Keywords: Organizational, Dna, Hnald, Silverman model

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23 Mongolian Water Quality Problem and Health of Free-Grazing Sheep

Authors: Yu Yoshihara, Chika Tada, Moe Takada, Nyam-Osor Purevdorj, Khorolmaa Chimedtseren, Yutaka Nakai

Abstract:

Water pollution from animal waste and its influence on grazing animals is a current concern regarding Mongolian grazing lands. We allocated 32 free-grazing lambs to four groups and provided each with water from a different source (upper stream, lower stream, well, and pond) for 49 days. We recorded the amount of water consumed by the lambs, as well as their body weight, behavior, white blood cell count, acute phase (haptoglobin) protein level, and fecal condition. We measured the chemical and biological qualities of the four types of water, and we detected enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in fecal samples by using a genetic approach. Pond water contained high levels of nitrogen and minerals, and well water contained high levels of bacteria. The odor concentration index decreased in order from pond water to upper stream, lower stream, and well. On day 15 of the experiment, the following parameters were the highest in lambs drinking water from the following sources: water intake (pond or lower stream), body weight gain (pond), WBC count (lower stream), haptoglobin concentration (well), and enteropathogenic E. coli infection rate (lower stream). Lambs that drank well water spent more time lying down and less time grazing than the others, and lambs that drank pond water spent more time standing and less time lying down. Lambs given upper or lower stream water exhibited more severe diarrhea on day 15 of the experiment than before the experiment. Mongolian sheep seemed to adapt to chemically contaminated water: their productivity benefited the most from pond water, likely owing to its rich mineral content. Lambs that drank lower stream water showed increases in enteropathogenic E. coli infection, clinical diarrhea, and WBC count. Lambs that drank well water, which was bacteriologically contaminated, had increased serum acute phase protein levels and poor physical condition; they were thus at increased risk of negative health and production effects.

Keywords: Dna, Escherichia coli, fecal sample, lower stream, well water

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22 Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Ming L. Wang, Steven W. Cranford

Abstract:

The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations, discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structure-process-property relations by using a materials science approach linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.

Keywords: Biomarker, Biosensor, Dna, molecular dynamics simulation

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21 DNA of Hibiscus sabdariffa Damaged by Radiation from 900 MHz GSM Antenna

Authors: A. O. Oluwajobi, O. A. Falusi, N. A. Zubbair, T. Owoeye, F. Ladejobi, M. C. Dangana, A. Abubakar

Abstract:

The technology of mobile telephony has positively enhanced human life and reports on the bio safety of the radiation from their antennae have been contradictory, leading to serious litigations and violent protests by residents in several parts of the world. The crave for more information, as requested by WHO in order to resolve this issue, formed the basis for this study on the effect of the radiation from 900 MHz GSM antenna on the DNA of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Seeds of H. sabdariffa were raised in pots placed in three replicates at 100, 200, 300 and 400 metres from the GSM antennae in three selected test locations and a control where there was no GSM signal. Temperature (˚C) and the relative humidity (%) of study sites were measured for the period of study (24 weeks). Fresh young leaves were harvested from each plant at two, eight and twenty-four weeks after sowing and the DNA extracts were subjected to RAPD-PCR analyses. There were no significant differences between the weather conditions (temperature and relative humidity) in all the study locations. However, significant differences were observed in the intensities of radiations between the control (less than 0.02 V/m) and the test (0.40-1.01 V/m) locations. Data obtained showed that DNA of samples exposed to rays from GSM antenna had various levels of distortions, estimated at 91.67%. Distortions occurred in 58.33% of the samples between 2-8 weeks of exposure while 33.33% of the samples were distorted between 8-24 weeks exposure. Approximately 8.33% of the samples did not show distortions in DNA while 33.33% of the samples had their DNA damaged twice, both at 8 and at 24 weeks of exposure. The study showed that radiation from the 900 MHz GSM antenna is potent enough to cause distortions to DNA of H. sabdariffa even within 2-8 weeks of exposure. DNA damage was also independent of the distance from the antenna. These observations would qualify emissions from GSM mast as environmental hazard to the existence of plant biodiversities and all life forms in general. These results will trigger efforts to prevent further erosion of plant genetic resources which have been threatening food security and also the risks posed to living organisms, thereby making our environment very safe for our existence while we still continue to enjoy the benefits of the GSM technology.

Keywords: Radiation, Dna, Damage, GSM antenna

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20 Natural Honey and Effect on the Activity of the Cells

Authors: Abujnah Dukali

Abstract:

Natural honey was assessed in cell culture system for its anticancer activity. Human leukemic cell line HL 60 was treated with honey and cultured for 5 days and cytotoxicity was calculated by MTT assay. Honey showed cytotoxicity with CC50 value of 174.20 µg/ml. Radical modulation activities was assessed by lipid peroxidation assay using egg lecithin. Honey showed antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 159.73 µg/ml. In addition, treatment with HL60 cells also resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation, as seen in agarose gel electrophoresis. This is a hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis was performed by staining the cells with Annexin V and FACS analysis. Apoptosis is an active, genetically regulated disassembly of the cell form within. Disassembly creates changes in the phospholipid content of the cytoplasmic membrane outer leaflet. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer surface of the cell for phagocytic cell recognition. The human anticoagulant, annexin V, is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid protein with a high affinity for PS. Annexin V labeled with fluorescein can identify apoptotic cells in the population It is a confirmatory test for apoptosis. Annexin V-positive cells were defined as apoptotic cells. Since honey shows both antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity at almost the same concentration, it can prevent the free radical induced cancer as prophylactic agent and kill the cancer cells by apoptotic process as a chemotherapeutic agent. Everyday intake of honey can prevent the cancer induction.

Keywords: Dna, Cells, honey, anticancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
19 Simulation of Stretching and Fragmenting DNA by Microfluidic for Optimizing Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Luping Xu, Shuyi Wu, Chuang Li, Quanshui Zheng

Abstract:

Stretching and snipping DNA molecule by microfluidic has important application value in gene analysis by lab on a chip. Movement, deformation and fragmenting of DNA in microfluidic are typical fluid-solid coupling problems. An efficient and common simulation system for researching the movement, deformation and fragmenting of DNA by microfluidic has not been well developed. In our study, Brownian dynamics-finite element method (BD-FEM) is used to simulate the dynamic process of stretching and fragmenting DNA by contraction flow. The shape and parameters of micro-channels are changed to optimize the stretching and fragmenting properties of DNA. Our results indicate that strain rate, resulting from contraction microchannel, is the main control parameter for stretching and fragmenting DNA. There is good consistency between the simulation data and previous experimental result about the single DNA molecule behavior and averaged fragmenting properties in this study. BD-FEM method is an efficient calculating tool to research stretching and fragmenting behavior of single DNA molecule and optimize microfluidic devices for manipulating, stretching and fragmenting DNA.

Keywords: Microfluidic, Dna, optimize, fragmenting

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18 Intracellular Strategies for Gene Delivery into Mammalian Cells Using Bacteria as a Vector

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Andrew N. Osahor

Abstract:

E. coli has been engineered by our group and by others as a vector to deliver DNA into cultured human and animal cells. However, so far conditions to improve gene delivery using this vector have not been investigated, resulting in a major gap in our understanding of the requirements for this vector to function optimally. Our group recently published novel data showing that simple addition of the DNA transfection reagent Lipofectamine increased the efficiency of the E. coli vector by almost 3-fold, providing the first strong evidence that further optimization of bactofection is possible. This presentation will discuss advances that demonstrate the effects of several intracellular strategies that improve the efficiency of this vector. Conditions that promote endosomal escape of internalized bacteria to evade lysosomal destruction after entry in the cell, a known obstacle limiting this vector, are elucidated. Further, treatments that increase bacterial lysis so that the vector can release its transgene into the mammalian environment for expression will be discussed. These experiments will provide valuable new insight to advance this E. coli system as an important class of vector technology for genetic correction of human disease models in cells and whole animals.

Keywords: Gene expression, Dna, E. coli, vector

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17 Role of Molecular Changes and Immunohistochemical in Early Detection of Liver Cancer

Authors: Fatimah A. Alhomaid

Abstract:

The present study was planned to investigate the role of molecular changes and immunohistochemical in early detection of liver cancer in Saudi patients. our results were carried out on 54 patients liver cancer. We obtained our data from laboratory in King Khalid University Hospital. The specimens were taken (54) patients with liver cancer 34 male and 14 female and 2 control. The average age of varied from 37-85 years. The tumor was diagnosed as grade I in tow patients (male and female) and grade 2 in 45 patients (28 male and 17 female) while the grade 3 in 4 patients (all males). The specimens were processed for haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical technique and flow cytometry analysis. Our study noted that most patients had adenocarcinoma which characterized by presence of signet-ring cells were very clear in advanced patients with adenocarcinoma. Our sections in adenocarcinoma in grade 2 and stage 3 had an increase in signet ring cells,an increase in the acini of glands and an increase in number of lymphocytes which spread to the muscular layer. With advancing the disease, there were haemorrhage in blood and increase in lymphocytes and increase in the number of nuclei in the tubular glands. Our study was carried on 48 patients, immunohistochemical diagnosis (CK20, PCNA, P53) and the analysis of DNA content by flow cytometry technique. Our study indicated that the presence of correlation between the immunohistochemical analysis for P53 and the grades. The reaction of P53 appeared as strong in nucleus in grades &stage 3 and appeared in other sections as dark brown pigment. Our study indicated that the absence of correlation between the immunohistochemical analysis for PCAN and the grades. In our sections there were strong reaction in the more 80% of nuclei in grade 1& stage 2. Our study indicated that the presence of correlation between the immunohistochemical analysis for CK20 and the grades. Our results indicated the presence of positive reaction in cytoplasm varied from weak to moderate in grade 3 & stage 4. Concerning the Flow cytometry technique our results indicated that the presence of correlation between the DNA and different stages of liver cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Liver, Dna, Molecular Changes, P53, PCNA, CK20, cytometry analysis, immunohistochemical

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16 Trusting the Eyes: The Changing Landscape of Eyewitness Testimony

Authors: Manveen Singh

Abstract:

Since the very advent of law enforcement, eyewitness testimony has played a pivotal role in identifying, arresting and convicting suspects. Reliant heavily on the accuracy of human memory, nothing seems to carry more weight with the judiciary than the testimony of an actual witness. The acceptance of eyewitness testimony as a substantive piece of evidence lies embedded in the assumption that the human mind is adept at recording and storing events. Research though, has proven otherwise. Having carried out extensive study in the field of eyewitness testimony for the past 40 years, psychologists have concluded that human memory is fragile and needs to be treated carefully. The question that arises then, is how reliable is eyewitness testimony? The credibility of eyewitness testimony, simply put, depends on several factors leaving it reliable at times while not so much at others. This is further substantiated by the fact that as per scientific research, over 75 percent of all eyewitness testimonies may stand in error; quite a few of these cases resulting in life sentences. Although the advancement of scientific techniques, especially DNA testing, helped overturn many of these eyewitness testimony-based convictions, yet eyewitness identifications continue to form the backbone of most police investigations and courtroom decisions till date. What then is the solution to this long standing concern regarding the accuracy of eyewitness accounts? The present paper shall analyze the linkage between human memory and eyewitness identification as well as look at the various factors governing the credibility of eyewitness testimonies. Furthermore, it shall elaborate upon some best practices developed over the years to help reduce mistaken identifications. Thus, in the process, trace out the changing landscape of eyewitness testimony amidst the evolution of DNA and trace evidence.

Keywords: Identification, Dna, evidence, eyewitness, testimony

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15 Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Garlic in Food

Authors: Ting-Ying Su, Meng-Shiou Lee, Shyang-Chwen Sheu

Abstract:

Garlic is used commonly as a seasoning around the world. But some people suffer from allergy to garlic. Garlic may also cause burning of mouth, stomach, and throat. In some Buddhist traditions, consuming garlic is not allowed. The objective of this study is to develop a LAMP based method for detection of garlic in food. We designed specific primers targeted on ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequence of garlic DNA. The LAMP assay was performed using a set of four different primers F3, B3, FIP and BIP at 60˚C in less than 60 mins. Results showed that the primer was not cross-reactive to other commonly used spice including Chinese leek, Chinese onion, green onion, onion, pepper, basil, parsley, pepper and ginger. As low as 2% of garlic DNA could be detected. Garlic still could be detected by developed LAMP after boiled at 100˚C for 80 minutes and autoclaved at 121˚C for 60 minutes. Commercial products labeled with garlic ingredient could be identified by the developed method.

Keywords: Processing, Dna, garlic, loop-mediated isothermal amplification

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14 Triplex Detection of Pistacia vera, Arachis hypogaea and Pisum sativum in Processed Food Products Using Probe Based PCR

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün, Emrah Yalazi̇, Emine Altinkaya, Cengiz Ataşoğlu

Abstract:

In recent years, food allergies which cause serious health problems affect to public health around the world. Foodstuffs which contain allergens are either intentionally used as ingredients or are encased as contaminant in food products. The prevalence of clinical allergy to peanuts and nuts is estimated at about 0.4%-1.1% of the adult population, representing the allergy to pistachio the 7% of the cases of tree nut causing allergic reactions. In order to protect public health and enforce the legislation, methods for sensitive analysis of pistachio and peanut contents in food are required. Pea, pistachio and peanut are used together, to reduce the cost in food production such as baklava, snack foods.DNA technology-based methods in food analysis are well-established and well-roundedtools for species differentiation, allergen detection. Especially, the probe-based TaqMan real-time PCR assay can amplify target DNA with efficiency, specificity, and sensitivity.In this study, pistachio, peanut and pea were finely ground and three separate series of triplet mixtures containing 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 mg kg-1 of each sample were prepared for each series, to a final weight of 100 g. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted with the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. TaqMan probes were designed for triplex determination of ITS, Ara h 3 and pea lectin genes which are specific regions for identification pistachio, peanut and pea, respectively.The real-time PCR as quantitative detected pistachio, peanut and pea in these mixtures down to the lowest investigated level of 0.1, 0.1 and 1 mg kg-1, respectively. Also, the methods reported here are capable of detecting of as little as 0.001% level of peanut DNA, 0,000001% level of pistachio DNA and 0.000001% level of pea DNA. We accomplish that the quantitative triplex real-time PCR method developed in this study canbe applied to detect pistachio, peanut and peatraces for three allergens at once in commercial food products.

Keywords: Allergens, Dna, real-time PCR, TaqMan probe

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13 Prediction of Ionizing Radiation Doses in Irradiated red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Mint (Mentha piperita) by Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün, Emrah Yalazi̇, Nebahat Şahi̇n

Abstract:

Food irradiation is a usage of exposing food to ionising radiation (IR) such as gamma rays. IR has been used to decrease the number of harmful microorganisms in the food such as spices. Excessive usage of IR can cause damage to both food and people who consuming food. And also it causes to damages on food DNA. Generally, IR detection techniques were utilized in literature for spices are Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Thermos Luminescence (TL). Storage creates negative effect on IR detection method then analyses of samples have been performed without storage in general. In the experimental part, red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and mint (Mentha piperita) as spices were exposed to 0, 0.272, 0.497, 1.06, 3.64, 8.82, and 17.42 kGy ionize radiation. ESR was applied to samples irradiated. DNA isolation from irradiated samples was performed using GIDAGEN Multi Fast DNA isolation kit. The DNA concentration was measured using a microplate reader spectrophotometer (Infinite® 200 PRO-Life Science–Tecan). The concentration of each DNA was adjusted to 50 ng/µL. Genomic DNA was imaged by UV transilluminator (Gel Doc XR System, Bio-Rad) for the estimation of genomic DNA bp-fragment size after IR. Thus, agarose gel profiles of irradiated spices were obtained to determine the change of band profiles. Besides, samples were examined at three different time periods (0, 3, 6 months storage) to show the feasibility of developed method. Results of gel electrophoresis showed especially degradation of DNA of irradiated samples. In conclusion, this study with gel electrophoresis can be used as a basis for the identification of the dose of irradiation by looking at degradation profiles at specific amounts of irradiation. Agarose gel results of irradiated samples were confirmed with ESR analysis. This method can be applied widely to not only food products but also all biological materials containing DNA to predict radiation-induced damage of DNA.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Gel electrophoresis, Dna, ionizeradiation

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12 Efficient Delivery of Biomaterials into Living Organism by Using Noble Metal Nanowire Injector

Authors: Kkochorong Park, Keun Cheon Kim, Hyoban Lee, Eun Ju Lee, Bongsoo Kim

Abstract:

Introduction of biomaterials such as DNA, RNA, proteins is important for many research areas. There are many methods to introduce biomaterials into living organisms like tissue and cells. To introduce biomaterials, several indirect methods including virus‐mediated delivery, chemical reagent (i.e., lipofectamine), electrophoresis have been used. Such methods are passive delivery using an endocytosis process of cell, reducing an efficiency of delivery. Unlike the indirect delivery method, it has been reported that a direct delivery of exogenous biomolecules into nucleus have been more efficient to expression or integration of biomolecules. Nano-sized material is beneficial for detect signal from cell or deliver stimuli/materials into the cell at cellular and molecular levels, due to its similar physical scale. Especially, because 1 dimensional (1D) nanomaterials such as nanotube, nanorod and nanowire with high‐aspect ratio have nanoscale geometry and excellent mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, they could play an important role in molecular and cellular biology. In this study, by using single crystalline 1D noble metal nanowire, we fabricated nano-sized 1D injector which can successfully interface with living cells and directly deliver biomolecules into several types of cell line (i.e., stem cell, mammalian embryo) without inducing detrimental damages on living cell. This nano-bio technology could be a promising and robust tool for introducing exogenous biomaterials into living organism.

Keywords: Nanowire, Gene Delivery, Dna, nanoinjector

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11 Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of DNA Binding Properties of the Archaeal Mini Chromosome Maintenance Complex

Authors: Amna Abdalla Mohammed Khalid, Pietro Parisse, Silvia Onesti, Loredana Casalis

Abstract:

Basic cellular processes as DNA replication are crucial to cell life. Understanding at the molecular level the mechanisms that govern DNA replication in proliferating cells is fundamental to understand disease connected to genomic instabilities, as a genetic disease and cancer. A key step for DNA replication to take place, is unwinding the DNA double helix and this carried out by proteins called helicases. The archaeal MCM (minichromosome maintenance) complex from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus have being studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), imaging in air and liquid (Physiological environment). The accurate analysis of AFM topographic images allowed to understand the static conformations as well the interaction dynamic of MCM and DNA double helix in the present of ATP.

Keywords: Dna, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), protein-DNA interaction, MCM (mini chromosome manteinance) complex

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10 Assessment of HIV/Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection among Patients Living with HIV in Northern and Southern Region of Nigeria

Authors: Folajinmi Oluwasina, Greg Abiaziem, Moses Luke, Mobolaji Kolawole, Nancy Yibowei, Anne Taiwo

Abstract:

Background: Occurrence of HIV infection has an adverse effect on the natural causes of Hepatitis B Viral (HBV) infection, faster progression of hepatic fibrosis demonstrated in patients with co-infection. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients, and to retrospectively evaluate laboratory characteristics of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patient files for all HIV-infected cases followed-up and treated at 52 health facilities. Among HIV-infected cases, those with HBsAg positivity and HIV/Hepatitis B co-infection were determined. Socio demographic, alcohol or substance use, ART, CD4, Viral Load levels and treatment durations were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 125 HIV-infected patients evaluated retrospectively, 17 (13.6%) had HBsAg positivity. Of these 17 cases were 11(64.7%) male and 6 (35.3%) female, with a mean age of 48.7 years. No patients had a history of alcohol or substance use. The mean duration of follow up was 28 months. 9 (52.9%) patients had negative HBV DNA at presentation while 8(47%) had positive HBV DNA, with normal ALT levels in all subjects. Among the 9 cases with negative HBV DNA who had no indication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In five cases, treatment was commenced since HBV DNA was elevated in conjunction with low CD4. One patient in whom treatment was not indicated based on HBV DNA and CD4 levels in conjunction with the absence of AIDS defining clinical picture was currently being followed-up without treatment. Of the patients receiving HAART therapy, the average CD4 count at presentation was 278 cells/mm3 vs. 466 cells/mm3 at the end of 12 months. In three subjects with positive HBV DNA, a decrease in HBV DNA was noted after initiation of treatment. In four patients with negative DNA who received treatment, the HBV DNA negative status was found to remain, while one patient who did not receive treatment had elevated HBV DNA and decreased CD4 levels. Conclusion: It was shown that this group of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection, HAART was found to be associated with a decrease in HBV DNA in HBV DNA positive cases, absence of transition to positivity among those with negative HBV DNA, and with increased CD4 in all subjects.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, Dna, co-Infection, anti retroviral therapy

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9 Identification of Disease Causing DNA Motifs in Human DNA Using Clustering Approach

Authors: G. Tamilpavai, C. Vishnuppriya

Abstract:

Studying DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequence is useful in biological processes and it is applied in the fields such as diagnostic and forensic research. DNA is the hereditary information in human and almost all other organisms. It is passed to their generations. Earlier stage detection of defective DNA sequence may lead to many developments in the field of Bioinformatics. Nowadays various tedious techniques are used to identify defective DNA. The proposed work is to analyze and identify the cancer-causing DNA motif in a given sequence. Initially the human DNA sequence is separated as k-mers using k-mer separation rule. The separated k-mers are clustered using Self Organizing Map (SOM). Using Levenshtein distance measure, cancer associated DNA motif is identified from the k-mer clusters. Experimental results of this work indicate the presence or absence of cancer causing DNA motif. If the cancer associated DNA motif is found in DNA, it is declared as the cancer disease causing DNA sequence. Otherwise the input human DNA is declared as normal sequence. Finally, elapsed time is calculated for finding the presence of cancer causing DNA motif using clustering formation. It is compared with normal process of finding cancer causing DNA motif. Locating cancer associated motif is easier in cluster formation process than the other one. The proposed work will be an initiative aid for finding genetic disease related research.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Dna, SOM, cancer motif, k-mers, Levenshtein distance

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8 Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of DNA-Ionic Liquids Complexes

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Gohar Khachatryan, Krzysztof Danel

Abstract:

Complexes of ionic liquids with different heterocyclic-rings were synthesized by ion exchange reactions with pure salmon DNA. Ionic liquids (ILs) like 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride and 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide were used. The ILs were built into helical state and confirmed by IR spectrometric techniques. Patterns of UV-Vis, photoluminescence, IR, and CD spectra indicated inclusion of small molecules into DNA structure. Molecular weight and radii of gyrations values of ILs-DNA complexes chains were established by HPSEC–MALLS–RI method. Modification DNA with 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide gives more uniform material and leads to elimination of high molecular weight chains. Thus, the incorporation DNA double helical structure with both 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride exhibited higher molecular weight values. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate formation of nanofibre structures in all DNA complexes. Fluorescence depends strongly on the environment in which the chromophores are inserted and simultaneously on the molecular interactions with the biopolymer matrix. The most intensive emission was observed for DNA-imidazole ring complex. Decrease in intensity UV-Vis peak absorption is a consequence of a reduction in the spatial order of polynucleotide strands and provides different π–π stacking structure. Changes in optical properties confirmed by spectroscopy methods make DNA-ILs complexes potential biosensor applications.

Keywords: Biosensors, Biopolymers, Dna, cationic surfactant, DNA-gels

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7 Highly Specific DNA-Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Mercury (II) and Lead (II) Ions Detection in Water Samples

Authors: H. Abu-Ali, A. Nabok, T. Smith

Abstract:

Aptamers are single-strand of DNA or RNA nucleotides sequence which is designed in vitro using selection process known as SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) were developed for the selective detection of many toxic materials. In this work, we have developed an electrochemical biosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg2+ and Pb2+ using a specific aptamer probe (SAP) labelled with ferrocene (or methylene blue) in (5′) end and the thiol group at its (3′) termini, respectively. The SAP has a specific coil structure that matching with G-G for Pb2+ and T-T for Hg2+ interaction binding nucleotides ions, respectively. Aptamers were immobilized onto surface of screen-printed gold electrodes via SH groups; then the cyclic voltammograms were recorded in binding buffer with the addition of the above metal salts in different concentrations. The resulted values of anode current increase upon binding heavy metal ions to aptamers and analyte due to the presence of electrochemically active probe, i.e. ferrocene or methylene blue group. The correlation between the anodic current values and the concentrations of Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions has been established in this work. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of using a specific DNA aptamers for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. Each increase in concentration of 0.1 μM results in an increase in the anode current value by simple DC electrochemical test i.e (Cyclic Voltammetry), thus providing an easy way of determining Hg2+ and Pb2+concentration.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrochemical, Dna, aptamer, based, highly, specific

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6 Persistence of DNA on Clothes Contaminated by Semen Stains after Washing

Authors: Ashraf Shebl, Bassam Garah, Radah Youssef

Abstract:

Sexual assault is usually a hidden crime where the only witnesses are the victim and the assailant. For a variety of reasons, even the victim may be unable to provide a detailed account of the assault or the identity of the perpetrator. Often the case history deteriorates into one person’s word against another. With such limited initial information, the physical and biological evidence collected from the victim, from the crime scene, and from the suspect will play a pivotal role in the objective and scientific reconstruction of the events in question. The aim of work is to examine whether DNA profiles could be recovered from repeated washed clothes after contaminated by semen stains. Fresh semen about 1ml. ( <1 h old) taken from donor was deposited on four types of clothes (cotton, silk, polyester, and jeans). Then leave to dry in room temperature and washed by washing machine at temperature (30°C-60°C) and by hand washing. Some items of clothing were washed once, some twice and others three times. DNA could be extracted from some of these samples even after multiple washing. This study demonstrates that complete DNA profiles can be obtained from washed semen stains on different types of clothes, even after many repeated washing. These results indicated that clothes of the victims must be examined even if they were washed many times.

Keywords: Dna, Sexual assault, Clothes, persistence

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5 Reliability of Dry Tissues Sampled from Exhumed Bodies in DNA Analysis

Authors: V. Agostini, S. Gino, S. Inturri, A. Piccinini

Abstract:

In cases of corpse identification or parental testing performed on exhumed alleged dead father, usually, we seek and acquire organic samples as bones and/or bone fragments, teeth, nails and muscle’s fragments. The DNA analysis of these cadaveric matrices usually leads to identifying success, but it often happens that the results of the typing are not satisfactory with highly degraded, partial or even non-interpretable genetic profiles. To aggravate the interpretative panorama deriving from the analysis of such 'classical' organic matrices, we must add a long and laborious treatment of the sample that starts from the mechanical fragmentation up to the protracted decalcification phase. These steps greatly increase the chance of sample contamination. In the present work, instead, we want to report the use of 'unusual' cadaveric matrices, demonstrating that their forensic genetics analysis can lead to better results in less time and with lower costs of reagents. We report six case reports, result of on-field experience, in which eyeswabs and cartilage were sampled and analyzed, allowing to obtain clear single genetic profiles, useful for identification purposes. In all cases we used the standard DNA tissue extraction protocols (as reported on the user manuals of the manufacturers such as QIAGEN or Invitrogen- Thermo Fisher Scientific), thus bypassing the long and difficult phases of mechanical fragmentation and decalcification of bones' samples. PCR was carried out using PowerPlex® Fusion System kit (Promega), and capillary electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI PRISM® 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems®), with GeneMapper ID v3.2.1 (Applied Biosystems®) software. The software Familias (version 3.1.3) was employed for kinship analysis. The genetic results achieved have proved to be much better than the analysis of bones or nails, both from the qualitative and quantitative point of view and from the point of view of costs and timing. This way, by using the standard procedure of DNA extraction from tissue, it is possible to obtain, in a shorter time and with maximum efficiency, an excellent genetic profile, which proves to be useful and can be easily decoded for later paternity tests and/or identification of human remains.

Keywords: Dna, paternity testing, eye swabs and cartilage, identification human remains

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