Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

DNA damage Related Abstracts

17 In vitro Estimation of Genotoxic Lesions in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Rat Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides

Authors: Y. K. Gupta, A. Ojha


Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for controlling a wide variety of pests throughout the world. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), methyl parathion (MPT), and malathion (MLT) are among the most extensively used OP pesticides in India. DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) are toxic lesions associated with the mechanisms of toxicity of genotoxic compounds. In the present study, we have examined the potential of CPF, MPT, and MLT individually and in combination, to cause DNA strand breakage and DPC formation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of rat were exposed to 1/4 and 1/10 LC50 dose of CPF, MPT, and MLT for 2, 4, 8, and 12h. The DNA strand break was measured by the comet assay and expressed as DNA damage index while DPC estimation was done by fluorescence emission. There was significantly marked increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein crosslink formation in time and dose dependent manner. It was also observed that MPT caused the highest level of DNA damage as compared to other studied OP compounds. Thus, from present study, we can conclude that studied pesticides have genotoxic potential. The pesticides mixture does not potentiate the toxicity of each other. Nonetheless, additional in vivo data are required before a definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding hazard prediction to humans.

Keywords: Pesticides, DNA damage, genotoxic, organophosphate, DNA protein crosslink

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16 Electrochemiluminescent Detection of DNA Damage Induced by Tetrachloro-1,4- Benzoquinone Using DNA Sensor

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Xue Sun


DNA damage induced by tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), a reactive metabolite of pentachloro-phenol (PCP), was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) in this work. DNA modified films were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polycationic poly(diallyldimethyl- ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged ds-DNA on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The DNA intercalator [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)]2+ (bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine, dppz0dipyrido [3, 2-a: 2′,3′-c] phenazine) was chosen as an electrochemical probe to detect DNA damage. After the sensor was incubated in 0.1 M pH 7.3 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 30min, the intact PDDA/DNA film produced a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal. However, after the sensor was incubated in 100 μM TCBQ or a mixed solution of 100 μM TCBQ and 2 mM H2O2, ECL signal decreased significantly. During the incubation of DNA in TCBQ or TCBQ-H2O2 solution, the double-helix of DNA was damaged, which resulted in the decrease of Ru-dppz bound to DNA. Additionally, the results were verified independently by fluorescence experiments. This paper provides a sensitive method to directly screen DNA damage induced by chemicals in the environment.

Keywords: Sensor, Detection, DNA damage, electrochemiluminescence

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15 Hepatoxicity induced Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Baron in albino rats

Authors: Manal E. A Elhalwagy, Nadia Amin Abdulmajeed, Hanan S. Alnahdi, Enas N. Danial


Baron is herbicide includes (48% glyphosate) widely used in Egypt. The present study assesses the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of baron on rats liver. Two groups of rats were treated orally with 1/10 LD 50, (275.49 mg kg -1) and 1/40 LD 50, (68.86 mg kg-1) glyphosate for 28 days compared with control group. Serum and liver tissues were taken at 14 and 28 days of treatment. An inhibition in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were recorded at both treatment periods and reduction in total serum protein (TP) and albumin (ALB). However, non-significant changes in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Elevation in oxidative stress biomarker malondyaldehyde (MDA) and the decline in detoxification biomarker total reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues led to increase in percentage of DNA damage. Destruction in liver tissue architecture was observed . Although, Baron was classified in the safe category pesticides repeated exposure to small doses has great danger effect.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, DNA damage, glyphosate, liver toxicity, commet assay

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14 Epstein, Barr Virus Alters ATM-Dependent DNA Damage Responses in Germinal Centre B-Cells during Early Infection

Authors: Esther N. Maina, Anna Skowronska, Sridhar Chaganti, Malcolm A. Taylor, Paul G. Murray, Tatjana Stankovic


Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human tumours of B-cell origin. The demonstration that a proportion of Hodgkin lymphomas and all Burkitt’s lymphomas harbour EBV suggests that the virus contributes to the development of these malignancies. However, the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis remain largely unknown. To determine whether EBV causes DNA damage and alters DNA damage response in cells of EBV-driven lymphoma origin, Germinal Centre (GC) B cells were infected with EBV and DNA damage responses to gamma ionising radiation (IR) assessed at early time points (12hr – 72hr) after infection and prior to establishment of lymphoblastoid (LCL) cell lines. In the presence of EBV, we observed induction of spontaneous DNA DSBs and downregulation of ATM-dependent phosphorylation in response to IR. This downregulation coincided with reduced ability of infected cells to repair IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks, as measured by the kinetics of gamma H2AX, a marker of double-strand breaks, and by the tail moment of the comet assay. Furthermore, we found that alteration of DNA damage responses coincided with the expression of LMP-1 protein. The presence of the EBV virus did not affect the localization of the ATM-dependent DNA repair proteins to sites of damage but instead lead to an increased expression of PP5, a phosphatase that regulates ATM function. The impact of the virus on DNA repair was most prominent 24h after infection, suggesting that this time point is crucial for the viral establishment in B cells. Our results suggest that during an early infection EBV virus dampens crucial cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks which facilitate successful viral infection, but at the same time might provide the mechanism for tumor development.

Keywords: DNA damage, ATM, EBV, germinal center cells

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13 Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Genes and DNA Damage Induced by Endotoxic Shock in Laying Hens

Authors: Ahmed Abbas, Mariam G. Eshak, M. I. El-Sabry, M. M. Mashaly


This investigation was conducted to determine the physiological response and evaluate the expression of inflammatory and cell death genes and DNA damage induced by endotoxic shock in laying hens. Endotoxic shock was induced by a single intravenous injection of 107 Escherichia coli (E. coli,) colony/hen. In the present study, 240 forty-week-old laying hens (H&N) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 40 birds each. Hens were reared in battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all groups. At 42-wk of age, 45 hens from the first group (15 replicate) were infected with E. coli, while the same number of hens from the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) expression, plasma corticosterone concentration, body temperature, and the gene expression of bax, caspase-3 activity, P38, Interlukin-1β (Il-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes and DNA damage in the brain and liver were measured. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P≤0.05) increase of body temperature by 1.2 ᴼC and plasma corticosterone by 3 folds compared to the controls. Further, hens injected with E.Coli showed markedly over-expression of HSP-70 and increase DNA damage in brain and liver. These results were synchronized with activating cell death program since our data showed significant (P≤0.05) high expression of bax and caspase-3 activity genes in the brain and liver. These results were related to remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α in brain and liver. In conclusion, our results indicate that endotoxic shock induces inflammatory physiological response and triggers cell death program by promoting P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α gene expression in the brain and liver.

Keywords: Gene expression, Inflammation, Chicken, DNA damage, Escherichia coli

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12 Relationship of Oxidative Stress to Elevated Homocysteine and DNA Damage in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

Authors: Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Madiha Javeed Ghani, Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka


Objective: Biochemical, environmental, physical and genetic factors have a strong effect on the development of coronary disease (CAD). Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and DNA damage play a pivotal role in its development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive strength of an oxidative stress, clinical biomarkers and total antioxidant status (TAS) in CAD patients to find the correlation of homocysteine, TOS and oxidative DNA damage with other clinical parameters. Methods: Sixty confirmed patients with CAD and 60 healthy individuals as control were included in this study. Different clinical and laboratory parameters were studied in blood samples obtained from patients and control subjects using commercially available biochemical kits and statistical software Results: As compared to healthy individuals, CAD patients had significantly higher concentrations of indices of oxidative stress: homocysteine (P=0.0001), total oxidative stress (TOS) (P=0.0001), serum cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (P=0.01), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (P=0.0001), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0.001) than those of healthy individuals. Plasma homocysteine level and oxidative DNA damage were positively correlated with cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, urea, total protein and albumin (P values= 0.05). Both Hcy and oxidative DNA damage were negatively correlated with TAS and proteins. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease patients had a significant increase in homocysteine level and DNA damage due to increased oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study shows a significantly increase in lipid peroxidation, TOS, homocysteine and DNA damage in the erythrocytes of patients with CAD. A significant decrease level of HDL-C and TAS was observed only in CAD patients. Therefore these biomarkers may be useful diagnosis of patients with CAD and play an important role in the pathogenesis of CAD.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, DNA damage, coronary artery disease, homocysteine, malondialdehyde

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11 Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Glyphosate and Its Two Impurities in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

Authors: Bożena Bukowska, Marta Kwiatkowska, Paweł Jarosiewicz


Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) is a non-selected broad spectrum ingredient in the herbicide (Roundup) used for over 35 years for the protection of agricultural and horticultural crops. Glyphosate was believed to be environmentally friendly but recently, a large body of evidence has revealed that glyphosate can negatively affect on environment and humans. It has been found that glyphosate is present in the soil and groundwater. It can also enter human body which results in its occurrence in blood in low concentrations of 73.6 ± 28.2 ng/ml. Research conducted for potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity can be an important element in determining the toxic effect of glyphosate. Due to regulation of European Parliament 1107/2009 it is important to assess genotoxicity and cytotoxicity not only for the parent substance but also its impurities, which are formed at different stages of production of major substance – glyphosate. Moreover verifying, which of these compounds are more toxic is required. Understanding of the molecular pathways of action is extremely important in the context of the environmental risk assessment. In 2002, the European Union has decided that glyphosate is not genotoxic. Unfortunately, recently performed studies around the world achieved results which contest decision taken by the committee of the European Union. World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2015 has decided to change the classification of glyphosate to category 2A, which means that the compound is considered to "probably carcinogenic to humans". This category relates to compounds for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity on experimental animals. That is why we have investigated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects of the most commonly used pesticide: glyphosate and its impurities: N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), mostly lymphocytes. DNA damage (analysis of DNA strand-breaks) using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and ATP level were assessed. Cells were incubated with glyphosate and its impurities: PMIDA and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine at concentrations from 0.01 to 10 mM for 24 hours. Evaluating genotoxicity using the comet assay showed a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage for all compounds studied. ATP level was decreased to zero as a result of using the highest concentration of two investigated impurities, like bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine and PMIDA. Changes were observed using the highest concentration at which a person can be exposed as a result of acute intoxication. Our survey leads to a conclusion that the investigated compounds exhibited genotoxic and cytotoxic potential but only in high concentrations, to which people are not exposed environmentally. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (Contract-2013/11/N/NZ7/00371), MSc Marta Kwiatkowska, project manager.

Keywords: Impurities, DNA damage, cell viability, glyphosate, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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10 Comet Assay: A Promising Tool for the Risk Assessment and Clinical Management of Head and Neck Tumors

Authors: Sarim Ahmad


The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (SCGE, known as comet assay) is a potential, uncomplicated, sensitive and state-of-the-art technique for quantitating DNA damage at individual cell level and repair from in vivo and in vitro samples of eukaryotic cells and some prokaryotic cells, being popular in its widespread use in various areas including human biomonitoring, genotoxicology, ecological monitoring and as a tool for research into DNA damage or repair in different cell types in response to a range of DNA damaging agents, cancer risk and therapy. The method involves the encapsulation of cells in a low-melting-point agarose suspension, lysis of the cells in neutral or alkaline (pH > 13) conditions, and electrophoresis of the suspended lysed cells, resulting in structures resembling comets as observed by fluorescence microscopy; the intensity of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks. The likely basis for this is that loops containing a break lose their supercoiling and become free to extend towards the anode. This is followed by visual analysis with staining of DNA and calculating fluorescence to determine the extent of DNA damage. This can be performed by manual scoring or automatically by imaging software. The assay can, therefore, predict an individual’s tumor sensitivity to radiation and various chemotherapeutic drugs and further assess the oxidative stress within tumors and to detect the extent of DNA damage in various cancerous and precancerous lesions of oral cavity.

Keywords: DNA damage, comet assay, single cell gel electrophoresis, early detection test

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9 Study of the Genotoxic Potential of Plant Growth Regulator Ethephon

Authors: Mohammad Abdollahi, Mahshid Hodjat, Maryam Baeeri, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar


Ethephon is one of the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture that its application has been increased in recent years. The toxicity of organophosphate compounds is mostly attributed to their potent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and their involvement in neurodegenerative disease. Although there are few reports on butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory role of ethephon, still there is no evidence on neurotoxicity and genotoxicity of this compound. The aim of the current study is to assess the potential genotoxic effect of ethephon using two genotoxic endpoints; γH2AX expression and comet assay on embryonic murine fibroblast. γH2AX serves as an early and sensitive biomarker for evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemicals. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity were also examined. The results showed a significant increase in cell proliferation 24h post-treatment with 10, 40,160µg/ml ethephon. The γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci count per cell were increased at low concentration of ethephon that was concomitant with increased DNA damage break at 40 and 160 µg/ml as illustrated by increased comet tail moment. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS formation were observed at 160 µg/ml and higher doses. The results showed that low-dose of ethephon promoted cell proliferation while induce DNA damage, raising the possibility of ethephon mutagenicity. Ethephon-induced genotoxic effect of low dose might not related to oxidative damage. However, ethephon was found to increase oxidative stress at higher doses, lead to cellular cytotoxicity. Taken together, all data indicated that ethylene, deserves more attention as a plant regulator with potential genotoxicity for which appropriate control is needed to reduce its usage.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, DNA damage, γH2AX, ethephon

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8 Copper Chelation by 3-(Bromoacetyl) Coumarin Derivative Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells: Influence of Copper Chelation Strategy in Cancer Treatment

Authors: Saman Khan, Imrana Naseem


Copper is an essential trace element required for pro-angiogenic co-factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Elevated levels of copper are found in various types of cancer including prostrate, colon, breast, lung and liver for angiogensis and metastasis. Therefore, targeting copper via copper-specific chelators in cancer cells can be developed as effective anticancer treatment strategy. In continuation of our pursuit to design and synthesize copper chelators, herein we opted for a reaction to incorporate di-(2-picolyl) amine in 3-(bromoacetyl) coumarin (parent backbone) for the synthesis of complex 1. We evaluated lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, ROS generation, DNA damage and consequent apoptosis by complex 1 in exogenously added Cu(II) in human peripheral lymphocytes (simulate malignancy condition). Results showed that Cu(II)-complex 1 interaction leads to cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, ROS generation and DNA damage in human lymphocytes, and these effects were abrogated by cuprous chelator neocuproine and ROS scavengers (thiourea, catalase, SOD). This indicates that complex 1 cytotoxicity is due to redox cycling of copper to generate ROS which leads to pro-oxidant cell death in cancer cells. To further confirm our hypothesis, using the rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma; we showed that complex 1 mediates DNA breakage and cell death in isolated carcinoma cells. Membrane permeant copper chelator, neocuproine, and ROS scavengers inhibited the complex 1-mediated cellular DNA degradation and apoptosis. In summary, complex 1 anticancer activity is due to its copper chelation capability. These results will provide copper chelation as an effective targeted cancer treatment strategy for selective cytotoxic action against malignant cells without affecting normal cells.

Keywords: Cancer Treatment, apoptosis, DNA damage, copper chelation, redox cycling, ROS generation

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7 Evaluation of DNA Oxidation and Chemical DNA Damage Using Electrochemiluminescent Enzyme/DNA Microfluidic Array

Authors: Itti Bist, Snehasis Bhakta, Di Jiang, Tia E. Keyes, Aaron Martin, Robert J. Forster, James F. Rusling


DNA damage from metabolites of lipophilic drugs and pollutants, generated by enzymes, represents a major toxicity pathway in humans. These metabolites can react with DNA to form either 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is the oxidative product of DNA or covalent DNA adducts, both of which are genotoxic and hence considered important biomarkers to detect cancer in humans. Therefore, detecting reactions of metabolites with DNA is an effective approach for the safety assessment of new chemicals and drugs. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor array which can detect DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage in a single array, facilitating a more accurate diagnostic tool for genotoxicity screening. Layer-by-layer assembly of DNA and enzyme are assembled on the pyrolytic graphite array which is housed in a microfluidic device for sequential detection of two type of the DNA damages. Multiple enzyme reactions are run on test compounds using the array, generating toxic metabolites in situ. These metabolites react with DNA in the films to cause DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage which are detected by ECL generating osmium compound and ruthenium polymer, respectively. The method is further validated by the formation of 8-oxodG and DNA adduct using similar films of DNA/enzyme on magnetic bead biocolloid reactors, hydrolyzing the DNA, and analyzing by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Hence, this combined DNA/enzyme array/LC-MS approach can efficiently explore metabolic genotoxic pathways for drugs and environmental chemicals.

Keywords: Biosensor, DNA damage, electrochemiluminescence, microfluidic array

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6 Automatic Algorithm for Processing and Analysis of Images from the Comet Assay

Authors: Yeimy L. Quintana, Juan G. Zuluaga, Sandra S. Arango


The comet assay is a method based on electrophoresis that is used to measure DNA damage in cells and has shown important results in the identification of substances with a potential risk to the human population as innumerable physical, chemical and biological agents. With this technique is possible to obtain images like a comet, in which the tail of these refers to damaged fragments of the DNA. One of the main problems is that the image has unequal luminosity caused by the fluorescence microscope and requires different processing to condition it as well as to know how many optimal comets there are per sample and finally to perform the measurements and determine the percentage of DNA damage. In this paper, we propose the design and implementation of software using Image Processing Toolbox-MATLAB that allows the automation of image processing. The software chooses the optimum comets and measuring the necessary parameters to detect the damage.

Keywords: Image Processing, DNA damage, artificial vision, comet assay

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5 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal


Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: apoptosis, radio frequency, Electromagnetic Fields, DNA damage, cell death, Drosophila, EMF, comet assay, TUNEL assay

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4 Occurrence of Antibiotics of Veterinary Use in Water of the Lake Titicaca: Its Environmental Implication and Human Health

Authors: Franz Zirena Vilca, Nestor Cahui Galarza, Walter Alejandro Zamalloa Cuba, Edith Tello Palma, Teofilo Donaires Flores, Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo


The production of rainbow trout in the Lake Titicaca represents an important economic activity for Peru. The city of Puno is responsible for 83% of this production, so the use of antibiotics within the aquaculture system is not alien to this reality. Meanwhile, the waters of Lake Titicaca represent an important source for the supply of drinking water for 80% of the population of the Puno city. In this paper, twelve antibiotics for veterinary use were monitored in water samples during two seasons: dry (July 2015) and rainy (February 2016), water samples from trout production systems, near the water catching point in the lake and drinking water in the city house of Puno were considered. The samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and solid online phase extraction (On-line SPE-LC-MS/MS), all samples analyzed showed concentrations of Ciprofloxacin up to 65.2 ng L⁻¹ at the rainy season. On the other hand, 63% of water samples from the dry season and 36 % from the rainy season showed Chlortetracycline up to 8.7 and 6.1 ng L⁻¹, respectively. The presence of residues of veterinary antibiotics in drinking water means a serious health risk for 80% of the population of Puno since all these people are supplied from this source.

Keywords: Water pollution, Environmental Risk, Chromatography, DNA damage

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3 Targeting Tumour Survival and Angiogenic Migration after Radiosensitization with an Estrone Analogue in an in vitro Bone Metastasis Model

Authors: Annie M. Joubert, Roy Lakier, Jolene M. Helena, Peace Mabeta, Magdalena Coetzee, Anne E. Mercier


Targeting the distant tumour and its microenvironment whilst preserving bone density is important in improving the outcomes of patients with bone metastases. 2-Ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) is an in-silico-designed 2- methoxyestradiol analogue which aimed at enhancing the parent compound’s cytotoxicity and providing a more favourable pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, the potential radiosensitization effects of ESE-16 were investigated in an in vitro bone metastasis model consisting of murine pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) and pre-osteoclastic (RAW 264.7) bone cells, metastatic prostate (DU 145) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells, as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity studies were conducted on all cell lines via spectrophotometric quantification of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The experimental set-up consisted of flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptosis detection (Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate) to determine the lowest ESE-16 and radiation doses to induce apoptosis and significantly reduce cell viability. Subsequent experiments entailed a 24-hour low-dose ESE-16-exposure followed by a single dose of radiation. Termination proceeded 2, 24 or 48 hours thereafter. The effect of the combination treatment was investigated on osteoclasts via tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity- and actin ring formation assays. Tumour cell experiments included investigation of mitotic indices via haematoxylin and eosin staining; pro-apoptotic signalling via spectrophotometric quantification of caspase 3; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage via micronuclei analysis and histone H2A.X phosphorylation (γ-H2A.X); and Western blot analyses of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. HUVEC experiments included flow cytometric quantification of cell cycle progression and free radical production; fluorescent examination of cytoskeletal morphology; invasion and migration studies on an xCELLigence platform; and Western blot analyses of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2. Tumour cells yielded half-maximal growth inhibitory concentration (GI50) values in the nanomolar range. ESE-16 concentrations of 235 nM (DU 145) and 176 nM (MDA-MB-231) and a radiation dose of 4 Gy were found to be significant in cell cycle and apoptosis experiments. Bone and endothelial cells were exposed to the same doses as DU 145 cells. Cytotoxicity studies on bone cells reported that RAW 264.7 cells were more sensitive to the combination treatment than MC3T3-E1 cells. Mature osteoclasts were more sensitive than pre-osteoclasts with respect to TRAP activity. However, actin ring morphology was retained. The mitotic arrest was evident in tumour and endothelial cells in the mitotic index and cell cycle experiments. Increased caspase 3 activity and superoxide production indicated pro-apoptotic signalling in tumour and endothelial cells. Increased micronuclei numbers and γ-H2A.X foci indicated increased DNA damage in tumour cells. Compromised actin and tubulin morphologies and decreased invasion and migration were observed in endothelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed reduced metastatic and angiogenic signalling. ESE-16-induced radiosensitization inhibits metastatic signalling and tumour cell survival whilst preferentially preserving bone cells. This low-dose combination treatment strategy may promote the quality of life of patients with metastatic bone disease. Future studies will include 3-dimensional in-vitro and murine in-vivo models.

Keywords: Cancer, apoptosis, angiogenesis, DNA damage, Cell migration, cytoskeleton, radiosensitization, bone metastasis, ESE-16

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2 Changes in Global DNA Methylation and DNA Damage in Two Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Marcin Kruszewski, Barbara Sochanowicz, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Maria Wojewódzka, Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak


Metallic NPs are widely used in a number of applications in industry, science and medicine. Among metallic NPs foreseen to be widely used in medicine are gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) due to their low toxicity, and silver NPs (AgNPs) due to their strong antimicrobial activity. In this study, we compared an effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on the formation of DNA damage and global DNA methylation and in A2780 and 4T1 cell lines, widely used models of human ovarian carcinoma and murine mammary carcinoma, respectively. The cells were treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. A global DNA methylation was investigated with ELISA, whereas the formation of DNA damage was investigated by a comet +/- FPG. AgNPs decreased global DNA methylation and increased the formation of DNA lesions in both cell lines. The effect was dependent on the type of NPs used, it's coating, and cell line used. In conclusion, the epigenetic and genotoxic effects of NPs strongly depends on NP nature and cellular context. Epigenetic changes observed upon the action of AgNPs may play a crucial role in NPs-induced changes in protein expression.

Keywords: DNA damage, Silver Nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, methylation

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1 Oxidative Antioxidative Status and DNA Damage Profile Induced by Chemotherapy in Algerian Children with Lymphoma

Authors: Nacira Cherif, Assia Galleze, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Nidel Benhalilou, Nabila Attal, Chafia Touil Boukkoffa, Rachida Raache


Introduction and aims: Chemotherapeutic agents used to inhibit cell division and reduce tumor growth, increase reactive oxygen species levels, which contributes to their genotoxicity [1]. The comet assay is an inexpensive and rapid method to detect the damage at cellular levels and has been used in various cancer populations undergoing chemotherapy [2,3]. The present study aim to assess the oxidative stress and the genotoxicity induced by chemotherapy by the determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein carbonyl (PC) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lymphocyte DNA damage in Algerian children with lymphoma. Materials and Methods: For our study, we selected thirty children with lymphoma treated in university hospital of Beni Messous, Algeria, and fifty unrelated subjects as controls, after obtaining the informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Plasma levels of MDA, PC and SOD activity were spectrophotometrically measured, while DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. Results and Discussion: Plasma MDA, PC levels and lymphocyte DNA damage, were found to be significantly higher in lymphoma patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Whereas, SOD activity in lymphoma patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between DNA damage, MDA and PC in patients (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, r = 0.97, p < 0.001, respectively), and negative correlation with SOD (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Conclusion and Perspective: Our results indicated that, leukocytes DNA damage and oxidative stress were significantly higher in lymphoma patients, suggesting that the direct effect of chemotherapy and the alteration of the redox balance may influence oxidative/antioxidative status.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Lymphoma, DNA damage, comet assay

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