Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Diversity Related Abstracts

77 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyoung-Kyu Song, Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim

Abstract:

In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting base station and cellular base station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: Diversity, Cooperative Communication, CDD, channel condition, STBC, broadcasting system, cellular system

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76 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Aishah Salleh, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Omid Safari

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: Diversity, benthic invertebrates, abundance, West Port

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75 Software Development and Team Diversity

Authors: J. Congalton, K. Logan, B. Crump

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Software is a critical aspect of modern life. However it is costly to develop and industry initiatives have focused on reducing costs and improving the productivity. Increasing, software is being developed in teams, and with greater globalization and migration, the teams are becoming more ethnically diverse. This study investigated whether diversity in terms of ethnicity impacted on the productivity of software development. Project managers of software development teams were interviewed. The study found that while some issues did exist due to language problems, when project managers created an environment of trust and friendliness, diversity made a positive contribution to productivity.

Keywords: Diversity, Project Management, Software Development, team work

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74 Parallels between the Glass and Lavender Ceilings

Authors: Paul E. Olsen

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Researchers, businesses, and governments study the glass ceiling faced by women and members of minority groups at work, but the experiences of gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women with the lavender ceiling have not received similar attention. This qualitative research traces similarities between the lavender ceiling and the glass ceiling. More specifically, it presents a study designed to elucidate the experiences of gay men at work and compare them with those of women and minority group members, as reported in research literature on the glass ceiling. This research asked: 1) What have gay men experienced in the workplace? 2) What experiences have they had with recruitment, mentors, corporate climate, advancement opportunities, performance evaluation, social activities, harassment, and task force and committee assignments? 3) How do these experiences compare with those of women and minorities who have described their experiences with the glass ceiling? Purposeful and convenience sampling were used as participant selection strategies. Participants were diverse in terms of age, education, and industry. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with eight self-identified gay men working in human services, manufacturing, marketing, finance, government, the nonprofit sector, and retail. The gay men in the study described workplace experiences similar to descriptions of the glass ceiling faced by women and minorities. The lavender ceiling parallels the glass ceiling in corporate climates, harassment, mentors, social activities, promotions and performance appraisal, and task force and committee assignments at work. Women and most minorities do not, however, face the disclosure dilemma: Should one reveal his sexual orientation at work?

Keywords: Diversity, Human Resource, Discrimination, gay and lesbian

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73 Investigation of Roll-Off Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on Maximal Ratio Combining for CDMA 2000 System

Authors: H. P. Singh, G. S. Walia, D. Padma

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The integration of wide variety of communication services is made possible with invention of 3G technology. Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps (1x or 3x systems). It is a 3G system which offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but its efficiency is lowered due to various factors like fading, interference, scattering, absorption etc. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), roll off factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the BPSK and QPSK modulation schemes. It is possible to transmit data with minimum Inter symbol Interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the roll off factor for BPSK and QPSK. Roll off factor reduces the ISI and diversity reduces the Fading.

Keywords: Diversity, Interference, CDMA2000, root raised cosine, roll-off factor, ISI, fading

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72 The Dynamics of Planktonic Crustacean Populations in an Open Access Lagoon, Bordered by Heavy Industry, Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Clarke, O. J. Aderinola, O. A. Adeboyejo, M. A. Anetekhai

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Aims: The study is aimed at establishing the influence of some physical and chemical parameters on the abundance, distribution pattern and seasonal variations of the planktonic crustacean populations. Place and Duration of Study: A premier investigation into the dynamics of planktonic crustacean populations in Ologe lagoon was carried out from January 2011 to December 2012. Study Design: The study covered identification, temporal abundance, spatial distribution and diversity of the planktonic crustacea. Methodology: Standard techniques were used to collect samples from eleven stations covering five proximal satellite towns (Idoluwo, Oto, Ibiye, Obele, and Gbanko) bordering the lagoon. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using linear regression and hierarchical clustering. Results:Thirteen (13) planktonic crustacean populations were identified. Total percentage abundance was highest for Bosmina species (20%) and lowest for Polyphemus species (0.8%). The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (“r” values) between total planktonic crustacean population and some physical and chemical parameters showed that positive correlations having low level of significance occurred with salinity (r = 0.042) (sig = 0.184) and with surface water dissolved oxygen (r = 0.299) (sig = 0.155). Linear regression plots indicated that, the total population of planktonic crustacea were mainly influenced and only increased with an increase in value of surface water temperature (Rsq = 0.791) and conductivity (Rsq = 0.589). The total population of planktonic crustacea had a near neutral (zero correlation) with the surface water dissolved oxygen and thus, does not significantly change with the level of the surface water dissolved oxygen. The correlations were positive with NO3-N (midstream) at Ibiye (Rsq =0.022) and (downstream) Gbanko (Rsq =0.013), PO4-P at Ibiye (Rsq =0.258), K at Idoluwo (Rsq =0.295) and SO4-S at Oto (Rsq = 0.094) and Gbanko (Rsq = 0.457). The Berger-Parker Dominance Index (BPDI) showed that the most dominant species was Bosmina species (BPDI = 1.000), followed by Calanus species (BPDI = 1.254). Clusters by squared Euclidan distances using average linkage between groups showed proximities, transcending the borders of genera. Conclusion: The results revealed that planktonic crustacean population in Ologe lagoon undergo seasonal perturbations, were highly influenced by nutrient, metal and organic matter inputs from river Owoh, Agbara industrial estate and surrounding farmlands and were patchy in spatial distribution.

Keywords: Diversity, Perturbations, Dominance, richness, crustacea, lagoon

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71 Flora in Morocco: Importance, Diversity, Threat, and Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb, Jalal Eloualidi

Abstract:

Located in the extreme northwest of Africa, between 21° and 36° north latitude and 1° and 17° west longitude, Morocco covers an area of 710 850 km2. Its special geographic position between two coastlines gives an exceptional range of bioclimates varied ranging from the humid and subhumid to Saharan desert and through the arid, semi-arid and high mountain climate in the Rif, Middle and High Atlas, where altitudes exceed 2500 respectively, 3000 and 4000 m. This diversity creates a climate diverse ecosystem with a large range of different natural environments: woody forest formations pre-Saharan and Saharan steppe formations, formations of degradation. The floristic richness of the country is related to the biotopes heterogeneity. From the desert to the high mountains and the littoral to the most continental borders, Morocco offers very varied ecological conditions which allowed installation of various stocks species with a significant plant biodiversity compared to other Mediterranean countries. This plant currently has about 4200 species (4500 with subspecies) distributed among 940 genera and 135 families. Rare, threatened and/or endemic flora represents a significant part: 951 are endemics, 463 rare, 1284 threatened and 36 vulnerable. However, this diversity is subjected to many natural pressures (climate change, parasitic attacks) and antropic (clearing, overgrazing). This presentation will be focused on the Moroccan flora richness and biodiversity conservation strategies (creation of more than 154 protected areas) and the assessment of the climate change impacts on the degradation and the dysfunction of ecosystems as well as the rarefaction and the disappearance of species.

Keywords: Climate Change, Diversity, Conservation, flora, Protected Areas, importance, Morocco

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70 Analysis of Interpolation Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on MRC for CDMA 2000 Systems

Authors: H. P. Singh, Pankaj Verma, Gagandeep Singh Walia, Padma Devi

Abstract:

Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps. CDMA offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but the efficiency gets decreased because of many interfering factors like fading, interference, scattering, diffraction, refraction, reflection etc. To reduce the spectral bandwidth is one of the major concerns in modern day technology and this is achieved by pulse shaping filter. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), interpolation factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the QPSK and BPSK modulation schemes. It is made possible to send information with minimum inter symbol interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the interpolation factor for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Interpolation factor increases the original sampling rate of a sequence to a higher rate and reduces the interference and diversity reduces the fading.

Keywords: Diversity, Interference, CDMA2000, root raised cosine, ISI, fading, roll off factor

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69 Assessing Finance by Ethnic Entrepreneurs in United Kingdom and Policy Implication

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba

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Ethnic entrepreneurship is defined as a set of connections and regular patterns of interaction among people sharing common national background or migration experience. The disadvantage faced by ethnic minority on paid labour induced them to become self-employed. Also, enclaves motivates trading, creativity, innovation are all to provide specific service or products to certain people. These ethnic minorities are African –Caribbean, Indians, Pakistanis, Banghaladashi and Chinese. For policy development ethnic diversity was among the problem of developing policy in United Kingdom. The study finds that there is a danger in treating all ethnic minority businesses as homogeneous rather than heterogeneous. The diversity is due to religious beliefs, culture and race. This indicates that there is a wide range have shortfall in addressing the peculiarities of ethnic minority businesses in policy formulation. Also, there are differences between ethnic minorities in accessing finance. It is recommended that diversity and peculiarities between ethnic minorities should be considered in policy formulation.

Keywords: Finance, Diversity, Ethnic Entrepreneurship, policy implication

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68 Diversity Management of Gender, Age and Disability in the Banking Sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Nada Azhar

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As a developing country, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) needs to make the best possible use of its workforce for social and economic reasons. The workforce is diverse, calling for appropriate diversity management (DM). The thesis focuses on the banking sector in KSA. To date, there have been no studies on DM in the banking sector in this country. Many organizations have introduced specific policies and programmes to improve the recruitment, inclusion, promotion, and retention of diverse employees, in addition to the legal requirements existing in many countries. However, Western-centric models of DM may not be applicable, at least not in their entirety, in other regions. The aim of the study is to devise a framework for understanding gender, age and disability DM in the banking sector in KSA in order to enhance DM in this sector. A sample of 24 managers, 2 from each of the 12 banks, was interviewed to obtain their views on DM in the banking sector in KSA. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. These themes were used to develop the questionnaire, which was administered to 10 managers in each of the 12 banks. After analysis of these data, and completion of the study, the research will make a theoretical contribution to the knowledge on DM and a practical contribution to the management of diversity in Saudi banks. This paper concerns a work in progress.

Keywords: Gender, Diversity, Disability, age, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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67 Trees in Different Vegetation Types of Mt. Hamiguitan Range, Davao Oriental, Mindanao Island, Philippines

Authors: Janece Jean A. Polizon, Victor B. Amoroso

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Mt. Hamiguitan Range in Davao Oriental, Mindanao Island, Philippines is the only protected area with pygmy forest and a priority site for protection and conservation. This range harbors different vegetation types such as agroecosystem, dipterocarp forest, montane forest and mossy forest. This study was conducted to determine the diversity of trees and shrubs in different vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan Range. Transect walk and 16 sampling plots of 20 x 20 m were established in the different vegetation types. Specimens collected were classified and identified using the Flora Malesiana and type images. Assessment of status was determined based on International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). There were 223 species of trees, 141 genera and 71 families. Of the vegetation types, the pygmy forest obtained a comparatively high diversity value of H=1.348 followed by montane forest with H=1.284. The high species importance value (SIV) of Diospyros philippinensis for trees indicates that these species have an important role in regulating the stability of the ecosystem. The tree profile of the pygmy forest is different due to the ultramafic substrate causing the dwarfness of the trees. These forest types should be given high priority for protection and conservation.

Keywords: Diversity, Vegetation, Mt Hamiguitan, trees, shrubs

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66 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

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The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Diversity, Rayleigh fading, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

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65 The Use of Remote Sensing in the Study of Vegetation Jebel Boutaleb, Setif, Algeria

Authors: Khaled Missaoui, Amina Beldjazia, Rachid Gharzouli, Yamna Djellouli

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Optical remote sensing makes use of visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared sensors to form images of the earth's surface by detecting the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground. Different materials reflect and absorb differently at different wavelengths. Thus, the targets can be differentiated by their spectral reflectance signatures in the remotely sensed images. In this work, we are interested to study the distribution of vegetation in the massif forest of Boutaleb (North East of Algeria) which suffered between 1998 and 1999 very large fires. In this case, we use remote sensing with Landsat images from two dates (1984 and 2000) to see the results of these fires. Vegetation has a unique spectral signature which enables it to be distinguished readily from other types of land cover in an optical/near-infrared image. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated with ENVI 4.7 from Band 3 and 4. The results showed a very important floristic diversity in this forest. The comparison of NDVI from the two dates confirms that there is a decrease of the density of vegetation in this area due to repeated fires.

Keywords: Diversity, Remote Sensing, Forest, boutaleb

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64 Bit Error Rate Performance of MIMO Systems for Wireless Communications

Authors: E. Ghayoula, M. Haj Taieb, A. Bouallegue, J. Y. Chouinard, R. Ghayoula

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This paper evaluates the bit error rate (BER) performance of MIMO systems for wireless communication. MIMO uses multiple transmitting antennas, multiple receiving antennas and the space-time block codes to provide diversity. MIMO transmits signal encoded by space-time block (STBC) encoder through different transmitting antennas. These signals arrive at the receiver at slightly different times. Spatially separated multiple receiving antennas are employed to provide diversity reception to combat the effect of fading in the channel. This paper presents a detailed study of diversity coding for MIMO systems. STBC techniques are implemented and simulation results in terms of the BER performance with varying number of MIMO transmitting and receiving antennas are presented. Our results show how increasing the number of both transmit and receive antenna improves system performance and reduces the bit error rate.

Keywords: Diversity, MIMO Systems, BER, STBC, SNR, MRRC, SIMO, MISO, alamouti

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63 Mite Soil as Biological Indicators the Quality of the Soil in the Forested Area of the Coast of Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Fekkoun, Djelloul Ghezali, Doumandji Salaheddine

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The majority of the mite soil contributes to decompose the organic matter in the soil, the richness or poverty is a way of knowing the quality of the soil, in this regard we studied the ecological side of the soil mite in a forest park «coast of Algeria». 6 by taking soil samples every month for the year 2010/2011 .The samples are collected and extracted using the technique of Berlese Tullgren. It was obtained 604 individuals. These riches can indicate the fertility of soil and knead the high proportion of organic material in it. The largest number observed in the spring, followed by the separation of the 252 individuals fall 222 individuals and then the summer with 106 individuals and winter 80 individuals. Among the 18 families obtained. Scheloribatidae is the most dominant with 30.6% followed by Ceratozetidae with 16%, then Euphthiracaridae 14%. The families remain involved with low percentages. the diversity index Schanonweaver varied between 2.3 bits in the summer and 3.83 bits in the spring. As the results of the analysis statistic confirm the existence of a clear difference between the four seasons and the richness of soil mite and diversity.

Keywords: Diversity, Forest, soil mite, coast of Algeria

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62 Metazoan Meiofauna and Their Abundance in Relation to Environmental Variables in the Northern Red Sea

Authors: Hamed A. El-Serehy, Khaled A. Al-Rasheid, Fahad A. Al-Misned

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The composition and distribution of the benthic meiofauna assemblages of the Egyptian coasts along the Red Sea are described in relation to abiotic variables. Sediment samples were collected seasonally from twelve stations chosen along the northern part of the Red Sea to observe the meiofaunal community structure, its temporal distribution and horizontal fluctuation in relation to environmental conditions of the Red Sea marine ecosystem. The meiofaunal assemblage in the area of study was well diversified including 140 taxa. The temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential were measured at the time of collection. The water content of the sediments, total organic matters and chlorophyll a values were determined, and sediment samples were subjected to granulometric analysis. A total of 10 meiofauna taxa were identified, with the meiofauna being primarily represented by nematodes (on annual average from 42% to 84%), harpacticoids, polycheates and ostracodes; and the meiofauna abundances ranging from 41- to 167 ind. / 10 cm2. The meiofaunal population density fluctuated seasonally with a peak of 192.52 ind. / 10 cm2 during summer at station II. The vertical zonation in the distribution of meiofaunal community was significantly correlated with interstitial water, chlorophyll a and total organic matter values. The present study indicates that the existing of well diversified meiofaunal group which can serve as food for higher trophic levels in the Red Sea interstitial environment.

Keywords: Diversity, Red Sea, benthos, meiofauna

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61 Diversity and Structure of Trichoptera Communities and Water Quality Variables in Streams, Northern Thailand

Authors: T. Prommi, P. Thamsenanupap

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The influence of physicochemical water quality parameters on the abundance and diversity of caddisfly larvae was studied in seven sampling stations in Mae Tao and Mae Ku watersheds, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northern Thailand. The streams: MK2 and MK8 as reference site, and impacted streams (MT1-MT5) were sampled bi-monthly during July 2011 to May 2012. A total of 4,584 individual of caddisfly larvae belonging to 10 family and 17 genera were found. The larvae of family Hydropsychidae were the most abundance, followed by Philopotamidae, Odontoceridae, and Leptoceridae, respectively. The genus Cheumatopsyche, Hydropsyche, and Chimarra were the most abundance genera in this study. Results of CCA ordination showed the total dissolved solids, sulfate, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important physicochemical factors to affect distribution of caddisflies communities. Changes in the caddisfly fauna may indicate changes in physicochemical factors owing to agricultural pollution, urbanization, or other human activities. Results revealed that the order Trichoptera, identified to species or genus, can be potentially used to assess environmental water quality status in freshwater ecosystems.

Keywords: Diversity, Streams, environmental variables, Caddisfly larvae

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60 Female Subjectivity in William Faulkner's Light in August

Authors: Azza Zagouani

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Introduction: In the work of William Faulkner, characters often evade the boundaries and categories of patriarchal standards of order. Female characters like Lena Grove and Joanna Burden cross thresholds in attempts to gain liberation, while others fail to do so. They stand as non-conformists and refuse established patterns of feminine behavior, such as marriage and motherhood after. They refute submissiveness, domesticity and abstinence to reshape their own identities. The presence of independent and creative women represents new, unconventional images of female subjectivity. This paper will examine the structures of submission and oppression faced by Lena and Joanna, and will show how, in the end, they reshape themselves and their identities, and disrupt or even destroy patriarchal structures. Objectives: Participants will understand through the examples of Lena Grove and Joanna Burden that female subjectivities are constructions, and are constantly subject to change. Approaches: Two approaches will be used in the analysis of the subjectivity formation of Lena Grove and Joanna Burden. Following the arguments propounded by Judith Butler, We explore the ways in which Lena Grove maneuvers around the restrictions and the limitations imposed on her without any physical or psychological violence. She does this by properly performing the roles prescribed to her gendered body. Her repetitious performances of these roles are both the ones that are constructed to confine women and the vehicle for her travel. Her performance parodies the prescriptive roles and thereby reveals that they are cultural constructions. Second, We will explore the argument propounded by Kristeva that subjectivity is always in a state of development because we are always changing in context with changing circumstances. For example, in Light in August, Lena Grove changes the way she defines herself in light of the events of the novel. Also, Kristeva talks about stages of development: the semiotic stage and the symbolic stage. In Light in August, Joanna shows different levels of subjectivity as time passes. Early in the novel, Joanna is very connected to her upbringing. This suggests Kristeva’s concept of the semiotic, in which the daughter identifies closely to her parents. Kristeva relates the semiotic to a strong daughter/mother connection, but in the novel it is strong daughter/father/grandfather identification instead. Then as Joanna becomes sexually involved with Joe, she breaks off, and seems to go into an identity crisis. To me, this represents Kristeva’s move from the semiotic to the symbolic. When Joanna returns to a religious fanaticism, she is returning to a semiotic state. Detailed outline: At the outset of this paper, We will investigate the subjugation of women: social constraints, and the formation of the feminine identity in Light in August. Then, through the examples of Lena Grove’s attempt to cross the boundaries of community moralities and Joanna Burden’s refusal to submit to the standards of submissiveness, domesticity, and obstinance, We will reveal the tension between progressive conceptions of individual freedom and social constraints that limit this freedom. In the second part of the paper, We will underscore the rhetoric of femininity in Light in August: subjugation through naming. The implications of both female’s names offer a powerful contrast between the two different forms of subjectivity. Conclusion: Through Faulkner’s novel, We demonstrate that female subjectivity is an open-ended issue. The spiral shaping of its form maintains its characteristics as a process changing according to different circumstances.

Keywords: Gender, Diversity, Sexuality, female subjectivity, Faulkner’s light August

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59 Shifting Contexts and Shifting Identities: Campus Race-related Experiences, Racial Identity, and Achievement Motivation among Black College Students during the Transition to College

Authors: Tabbye Chavous, Felecia Webb, Bridget Richardson, Gloryvee Fonseca-Bolorin, Seanna Leath, Robert Sellers

Abstract:

There has been recent renewed attention to Black students’ experiences at predominantly White U.S. universities (PWIs), e.g., the #BBUM (“Being Black at the University of Michigan”), “I too am Harvard” social media campaigns, and subsequent student protest activities nationwide. These campaigns illuminate how many minority students encounter challenges to their racial/ethnic identities as they enter PWI contexts. Students routinely report experiences such as being ignored or treated as a token in classes, receiving messages of low academic expectations by faculty and peers, being questioned about their academic qualifications or belonging, being excluded from academic and social activities, and being racially profiled and harassed in the broader campus community due to race. Researchers have linked such racial marginalization and stigma experiences to student motivation and achievement. One potential mechanism is through the impact of college experiences on students’ identities, given the relevance of the college context for students’ personal identity development, including personal beliefs systems around social identities salient in this context. However, little research examines the impact of the college context on Black students’ racial identities. This study examined change in Black college students’ (N=329) racial identity beliefs over the freshman year at three predominantly White U.S. universities. Using cluster analyses, we identified profile groups reflecting different patterns of stability and change in students’ racial centrality (importance of race to overall self-concept), private regard (personal group affect/group pride), and public regard (perceptions of societal views of Blacks) from beginning of year (Time 1) to end of year (Time 2). Multinomial logit regression analyses indicated that the racial identity change clusters were predicted by pre-college background (racial composition of high school and neighborhood), as well as college-based experiences (racial discrimination, interracial friendships, and perceived campus racial climate). In particular, experiencing campus racial discrimination related to high, stable centrality, and decreases in private regard and public regard. Perceiving racial climates norms of institutional support for intergroup interactions on campus related to maintaining low and decreasing in private and public regard. Multivariate Analyses of Variance results showed change cluster effects on achievement motivation outcomes at the end of students’ academic year. Having high, stable centrality and high private regard related to more positive outcomes overall (academic competence, positive academic affect, academic curiosity and persistence). Students decreasing in private regard and public regard were particularly vulnerable to negative motivation outcomes. Findings support scholarship indicating both stability in racial identity beliefs and the importance of critical context transitions in racial identity development and adjustment outcomes among emerging adults. Findings also are consistent with research suggesting promotive effects of a strong, positive racial identity on student motivation, as well as research linking awareness of racial stigma to decreased academic engagement.

Keywords: Learning, Higher Education, Diversity, Motivation, ethnic minority achievement

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58 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. L. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

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Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: Diversity, Conservation, Wetlands, lacustrine

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57 Performance Analysis of Different PSK Scheme on Receiver Sensitivity and Round Trip Distance for Chipless RFID System for UWB with Rayleigh Fading Channels in Outdoor NLOS Environment

Authors: Khalid Mahmud

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In this paper, an analytic approach is presented to evaluate the Bit Error Rate (BER) and round trip distance for a UWB chipless RFID system using diversity technique at the reader receiver using different modulation technique. The analysis is carried out with multiresonator based chipless RFID tags using frequency range from 3 GHz − 6 GHz and bandwidth of 500 M Hz in outdoor non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environment. SISO configuration is used to communicate from the reader to the tag and SIMO configuration is used do vice versa. Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) technique is used in the reader. MPSK, DQPSK, DBPSK, BPSK, QPSK and DMPSK modulation techniques are considered with coherent demodulation to evaluate the BER performance. From the numerical analysis of the results, it is found that at a given BER maximum possible round trip distance can be achieved using DMPSK modulation technique. In addition, it has been proved that, while using DMPSK modulation technique, the application of diversity has very little effect on the overall improvement in reader receiver sensitivity and achievable distance. Finally the method not only proves to be a very good way for tag detection in case of a chipless RFID system but also gives a clear insight regarding the interrelationship between BER, read range, reader received power, number of receiving antenna in outdoor NLOS environment.

Keywords: Diversity, BER, EGC, MRC, read range

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56 Coral Reef Fishes in the Marine Protected Areas in Southern Cebu, Philippines

Authors: Gloria G. Delan, Christine M. Corrales, Alfonso S. Piquero, Rachel Luz V. Rica

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Marine protected areas (MPAs) in the study sites were established 8-13 years ago and are presently operational. This study was conducted to gather baseline information on the diversity, density and biomass of coral reef fishes inside and outside the four marine protected areas (MPAs) of Cawayan, Dalaguete; Daan-Lungsod Guiwang, Alcoy; North Granada, Boljoon and Sta. Cruz, Ronda. Coral reef fishes in the MPAs were identified using Fish Visual Census Method. Results of the t-test showed that the mean diversity (fish species/250m2) of target and non-target reef fish species found inside and outside the MPAs were significantly different. Density (ind./1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed no significant difference. Similarly, density of non-target species inside and outside the MPAs also showed no significant difference. This is an indication that fish density inside and outside the MPAs were more or less of the same condition. The mean biomass (kg/1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed a significant difference in contrast with non-target species inside and outside the MPAs which showed a no significant difference. Higher biomass of target fish species belonging to family Caesonidae (fusiliers) and Scaridae (parrotfishes) were commonly observed inside the MPAs. Results showed that fish species were more diverse with higher density and biomass inside the MPAs than the outside area. However, fish diversity and density were mostly contributed by non-target species. Hence, long term protection and management of MPAs is needed to effectively increase fish diversity, density and biomass specifically on target fish species.

Keywords: biomass, Diversity, Density, marine protected area, target fish species

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55 The Relations between Language Diversity and Similarity and Adults' Collaborative Creative Problem Solving

Authors: Z. M. T. Lim, W. Q. Yow

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Diversity in individual problem-solving approaches, culture and nationality have been shown to have positive effects on collaborative creative processes in organizational and scholastic settings. For example, diverse graduate and organizational teams consisting of members with both structured and unstructured problem-solving styles were found to have more creative ideas on a collaborative idea generation task than teams that comprised solely of members with either structured or unstructured problem-solving styles. However, being different may not always provide benefits to the collaborative creative process. In particular, speaking different languages may hinder mutual engagement through impaired communication and thus collaboration. Instead, sharing similar languages may have facilitative effects on mutual engagement in collaborative tasks. However, no studies have explored the relations between language diversity and adults’ collaborative creative problem solving. Sixty-four Singaporean English-speaking bilingual undergraduates were paired up into similar or dissimilar language pairs based on the second language they spoke (e.g., for similar language pairs, both participants spoke English-Mandarin; for dissimilar language pairs, one participant spoke English-Mandarin and the other spoke English-Korean). Each participant completed the Ravens Progressive Matrices Task individually. Next, they worked in pairs to complete a collaborative divergent thinking task where they used mind-mapping techniques to brainstorm ideas on a given problem together (e.g., how to keep insects out of the house). Lastly, the pairs worked on a collaborative insight problem-solving task (Triangle of Coins puzzle) where they needed to flip a triangle of ten coins around by moving only three coins. Pairs who had prior knowledge of the Triangle of Coins puzzle were asked to complete an equivalent Matchstick task instead, where they needed to make seven squares by moving only two matchsticks based on a given array of matchsticks. Results showed that, after controlling for intelligence, similar language pairs completed the collaborative insight problem-solving task faster than dissimilar language pairs. Intelligence also moderated these relations. Among adults of lower intelligence, similar language pairs solved the insight problem-solving task faster than dissimilar language pairs. These differences in speed were not found in adults with higher intelligence. No differences were found in the number of ideas generated in the collaborative divergent thinking task between similar language and dissimilar language pairs. In conclusion, sharing similar languages seem to enrich collaborative creative processes. These effects were especially pertinent to pairs with lower intelligence. This provides guidelines for the formation of groups based on shared languages in collaborative creative processes. However, the positive effects of shared languages appear to be limited to the insight problem-solving task and not the divergent thinking task. This could be due to the facilitative effects of other factors of diversity as found in previous literature. Background diversity, for example, may have a larger facilitative effect on the divergent thinking task as compared to the insight problem-solving task due to the varied experiences individuals bring to the task. In conclusion, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of language diversity in collaborative creative processes and challenges the general positive effects that diversity has on these processes.

Keywords: Diversity, Creativity, Collaboration, bilingualism

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54 Development of Macrobenthic Communities in the North Port, West Coastal Water of Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Aishah Salleh, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi

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The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution and composition of the macrobenthic community and their response to environmental parameters in the North Port, west coastal waters of Malaysia. A total of 25 species were identified, including 13 bivalvia, 4 gastropoda, and 3 crustacea. The other taxa were less diversified. There were no temporal changes in the macrobenthic community composition, but significant effects (p < 0.05) on the benthic community composition were found on a spatial scale. The correlation analyses and similarity tests were in good agreement, confirming the significant response of macrobenthic community composition to variations of environmental parameters.

Keywords: Diversity, Distribution, Malaysia, macrobenthic community, North Port

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53 Cytochrome B Diversity and Phylogeny of Egyptian Sheep Breeds

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Daniel Petit, Agnés Germot, Abderrahman Maftah

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Threats to the biodiversity are increasing due to the loss of genetic diversity within the species utilized in agriculture. Due to the progressive substitution of the less productive, locally adapted and native breeds by highly productive breeds, the number of threatened breeds is increased. In these conditions, it is more strategically important than ever to preserve as much the farm animal diversity as possible, to ensure a prompt and proper response to the needs of future generations. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) sequencing has been used to explain the origins of many modern domestic livestock species. Studies based on sequencing of sheep mitochondrial DNA showed that there are five maternal lineages in the world for domestic sheep breeds; A, B, C, D and E. Because of the eastern location of Egypt in the Mediterranean basin and the presence of fat-tailed sheep breeds- character quite common in Turkey and Syria- where genotypes that seem quite primitive, the phylogenetic studies of Egyptian sheep breeds become particularly attractive. We aimed in this work to clarify the genetic affinities, biodiversity and phylogeny of five Egyptian sheep breeds using cytochrome B sequencing. Blood samples were collected from 63 animals belonging to the five tested breeds; Barki, Rahmani, Ossimi, Saidi and Sohagi. The total DNA was extracted and the specific primer allowed the conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome B region of mtDNA (approximately 1272 bp). PCR amplified products were purified and sequenced. The alignment of Sixty-three samples was done using BioEdit software. DnaSP 5.00 software was used to identify the sequence variation and polymorphic sites in the aligned sequences. The result showed that the presence of 34 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 18 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity in five tested breeds ranged from 0.676 in Rahmani breed to 0.894 in Sohagi breed. The genetic distances (D) and the average number of pairwise differences (Dxy) between breeds were estimated. The lowest distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi (D: 1.674 and Dxy: 0.00150) while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi (D: 5.233 and Dxy: 0.00475). Neighbour-joining (Phylogeny) tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 software. The sequences of the 63 analyzed samples were aligned with references sequences of different haplogroups. The phylogeny result showed the presence of three haplogroups (HapA, HapB and HapC) in the 63 examined samples. The other two haplogroups described in literature (HapD and HapE) were not found. The result showed that 50 out of 63 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (79.37%) whereas 7 tested animals cluster with haplogroup A (11.11%) and 6 animals cluster with haplogroup C (9.52%). In conclusion, the phylogenetic reconstructions showed that the majority of Egyptian sheep breeds belonging to haplogroup B which is the dominant haplogroup in Eastern Mediterranean countries like Syria and Turkey. Some individuals are belonging to haplogroups A and C, suggesting that the crosses were done with other breeds for characteristic selection for growth and wool quality.

Keywords: Diversity, cytochrome B, phylogheny, Egyptian sheep breeds

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52 Changes in Fish and Shellfish in Thondamanaru Lagoon, Jaffna, Sri Lanka

Authors: S. Piratheepa, G. Rajendramani, T. Eswaramohan

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Current study was conducted for one year from June 2014 to May 2015, with an objective of identification of fish and shellfish diversity in the Thondamanaru lagoon ecosystem. In this study, 11 species were identified from Thondamanaru lagoon, Jaffna, Sri Lanka. There are four fishes, Chanos chanos, Hemirhamphus sp., Nematalosa sp. and Mugil cephalus and seven shell fishes, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus latisulcatus, Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros, Portunus pelagicus and Scylla serrata. Species composition of Mugil cephalus, Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros was high during rainy seasons. However, lagoon is being subjected to adverse environmental conditions that threaten its fish and shellfish biodiversity due to lack of saline water availability and changes in rainfall pattern.

Keywords: Diversity, Shrimp, shell fish, Thondamanaru lagoon

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51 The Potential of Edaphic Algae for Bioremediation of the Diesel-Contaminated Soil

Authors: C. S. Chen, C. J. Tien, S. F. Huang, Z. X. Wang

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Algae in soil ecosystems can produce organic matters and oxygen by photosynthesis. Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen to increase soil nitrogen contents. Secretion of mucilage by some algae increases the soil water content and soil aggregation. These actions will improve soil quality and fertility, and further increase abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. In addition, some mixotrophic and heterotrophic algae are able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of algal addition on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), diversity and activity of bacteria and algae in the diesel-contaminated soil under different nutrient contents and frequency of plowing and irrigation in order to assess the potential bioremediation technique using edaphic algae. The known amount of diesel was added into the farmland soil. This diesel-contaminated soil was subject to five settings, experiment-1 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-2 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, experiment-3 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-4 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, and the control without algal addition. Soil samples were taken every two weeks to analyze TPH concentrations, diversity of bacteria and algae, and catabolic genes encoding functional degrading enzymes. The results show that the TPH removal rates of five settings after the two-month experimental period were in the order: experiment-2 > expermient-4 > experiment-3 > experiment-1 > control. It indicated that algal addition enhanced the degradation of TPH in the diesel-contaminated soil, but not for nutrient addition. Plowing and irrigation every four weeks resulted in more TPH removal than that every two weeks. The banding patterns of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed an increase in diversity of bacteria and algae after algal addition. Three petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading algae (Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nostoc sp.) and two added algal strains (Leptolyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp.) were sequenced from DGGE prominent bands. The four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria Gordonia sp., Mycobacterium sp., Rodococcus sp. and Alcanivorax sp. were abundant in the treated soils. These results suggested that growth of indigenous bacteria and algae were improved after adding edaphic algae. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that relative amounts of four catabolic genes encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, toluene monooxygenase, xylene monooxygenase and phenol monooxygenase were appeared and expressed in the treated soil. The addition of algae increased the expression of these genes at the end of experiments to biodegrade petroleum hydrocarbons. This study demonstrated that edaphic algae were suitable biomaterials for bioremediating diesel-contaminated soils with plowing and irrigation every four weeks.

Keywords: Diversity, diesel, catabolic gene, edaphic algae

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50 Soil Surface Insect Diversity of Tobacco Agricultural Ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

Authors: Martina Faika Harianja, Zahtamal, Indah Nuraini, Septi Mutia Handayani, R. C. Hidayat Soesilohadi

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Tobacco is a valuable commodity that supports economic growth in Indonesia. Soil surface insects are important components that influence productivity of tobacco. Thus, diversity of soil surface insects needs to be studied in order to acquire information about specific roles of each species in ecosystem. This research aimed to study the soil surface insect diversity of tobacco agricultural ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Samples were collected by pitfall-sugar bait trap in August 2015. Result showed 5 orders, 8 families, and 17 genera of soil surface insects were found. The diversity category of soil surface insects in tobacco agricultural ecosystem was poor. Dominant genus was Monomorium with dominance index score 0.07588. Percentages of insects’ roles were omnivores 43%, detritivores 24%, predators 19%, and herbivores 14%.

Keywords: Diversity, Tobacco, Indonesia, soil surface insect

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49 Ant and Spider Diversity in a Rural Landscape of the Vhembe Biosphere, South Africa

Authors: Evans V. Mauda, Stefan H. Foord, Thinandavha C. Munyai

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The greatest threat to biodiversity is a loss of habitat through landscape fragmentation and attrition. Land use changes are therefore among the most immediate drivers of species diversity. Urbanization and agriculture are the main drivers of habitat loss and transformation in the Savanna biomes of South Africa. Agricultural expansion and the intensification in particular, take place at the expense of biodiversity and will probably be the primary driver of biodiversity loss in this century. Arthropods show measurable behavioural responses to changing land mosaics at the smallest scale and heterogeneous environments are therefore predicted to support more complex and diverse biological assemblages. Ants are premier soil turners, channelers of energy and dominate insect fauna, while spiders are a mega-diverse group that can regulate other invertebrate populations. This study aims to quantify the response of these two taxa in a rural-urban mosaic of a rapidly developing communal area. The study took place in and around two villages in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. Two replicates for each of the dominant land use categories, viz. urban settlements, dryland cultivation and cattle rangelands, were set out in each of the villages and sampled during the dry and wet seasons for a total of 2 villages × 3 land use categories × 2 seasons = 24 assemblages. Local scale variables measured included vertical and horizontal habitat structure as well as structural and chemical composition of the soil. Ant richness was not affected by land use but local scale variables such as vertical vegetation structure (+) and leaf litter cover (+), although vegetation complexity at lower levels was negatively associated with ant richness. However, ant richness was largely shaped by regional and temporal processes invoking the importance of dispersal and historical processes. Spider species richness was mostly affected by land use and local conditions highlighting their landscape elements. Spider richness did not vary much between villages and across seasons and seems to be less dependent on context or history. There was a considerable amount of variation in spider richness that was not explained and this could be related to factors which were not measured in this study such as temperature and competition. For both ant and spider assemblages the constrained ordination explained 18 % of variation in these taxa. Three environmental variables (leaf litter cover, active carbon and rock cover) were important in explaining ant assemblage structure, while two (sand and leaf litter cover) were important for spider assemblage structure. This study highlights the importance of disturbance (land use activities) and leaf litter with the associated effects on ant and spider assemblages across the study area.

Keywords: Diversity, ants, Land Use, assemblages, Urbanization, Biosphere, Spiders

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48 Coprophagus Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera) of Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India

Authors: Subhankar Kumar Sarkar

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Scarab beetles composing the family Scarabaeidae is one of the largest families in the order Coleoptera. The family is comprised of 11 subfamilies. Of these, the subfamily Scarabaeinae includes 13 tribes globally. Indian species are however considered within 2 tribes Scarabaeini and Coprini. Scarab beetles under this subfamily also known as Coprophagus beetles play an indispensable role in forestry and agriculture. Both adults and larvae of these beetles do a remarkable job of carrying excrement into the soil thus enriching the soil to a great extent. Eastern and North Eastern states of India are heavily rich in diversity of organisms as this region exhibits the tropical rain forests of the eastern Himalayas, which exhibits one of the 18 biodiversity hotspots of the world and one of the three of India. Buxa Tiger Reserve located in Dooars between latitudes 26°30” to 26°55” North & longitudes 89°20” to 89°35” East is one such fine example of rain forests of the eastern Himalayas. Despite this, the subfamily is poorly known, particularly from this part of the globe and demands serious revisionary studies. It is with this background; the attempt is being made to assess the Scarabaeinae fauna of the forest. Both extensive and intensive surveys were conducted in different beats under different ranges of Buxa Tiger Reserve. For collection sweep nets, bush beating and collection in inverted umbrella, hand picking techniques were used. Several pit fall traps were laid in the collection localities of the Reserve to trap ground dwelling scarabs. Dung of various animals was also examined to make collections. In the evening hours UV light, trap was used to collect nocturnal beetles. The collected samples were studied under Stereozoom Binocular Microscopes Zeiss SV6, SV11 and Olympus SZ 30. The faunistic investigation of the forest revealed in the recognition of 19 species under 6 genera distributed over 2 tribes. Of these Heliocopris tyrannus Thomson, 1859 was recorded new from the Country, while Catharsius javanus Lansberge, 1886, Copris corpulentus Gillet, 1910, C. doriae Harold, 1877 and C. sarpedon Harold, 1868 from the state. 4 species are recorded as endemic to India. The forest is dominated by the members of the Genus Onthophagus, of which Onthophagus (Colobonthophagus) dama (Fabricius, 1798) is represented by highest number of individuals. Their seasonal distribution is most during Premonsoon followed by Monsoon and Postmonsoon. Zoogeographically all the recorded species are of oriental distribution.

Keywords: Diversity, India, new records, buxa tiger reserve, scarabaeinae, scarabaeidae

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