Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

diversion Related Abstracts

2 Optimization of Acid Treatments by Assessing Diversion Strategies in Carbonate and Sandstone Formations

Authors: Ragi Poyyara, Vijaya Patnana, Mohammed Alam

Abstract:

When acid is pumped into damaged reservoirs for damage removal/stimulation, distorted inflow of acid into the formation occurs caused by acid preferentially traveling into highly permeable regions over low permeable regions, or (in general) into the path of least resistance. This can lead to poor zonal coverage and hence warrants diversion to carry out an effective placement of acid. Diversion is desirably a reversible technique of temporarily reducing the permeability of high perm zones, thereby forcing the acid into lower perm zones. The uniqueness of each reservoir can pose several challenges to engineers attempting to devise optimum and effective diversion strategies. Diversion techniques include mechanical placement and/or chemical diversion of treatment fluids, further sub-classified into ball sealers, bridge plugs, packers, particulate diverters, viscous gels, crosslinked gels, relative permeability modifiers (RPMs), foams, and/or the use of placement techniques, such as coiled tubing (CT) and the maximum pressure difference and injection rate (MAPDIR) methodology. It is not always realized that the effectiveness of diverters greatly depends on reservoir properties, such as formation type, temperature, reservoir permeability, heterogeneity, and physical well characteristics (e.g., completion type, well deviation, length of treatment interval, multiple intervals, etc.). This paper reviews the mechanisms by which each variety of diverter functions and discusses the effect of various reservoir properties on the efficiency of diversion techniques. Guidelines are recommended to help enhance productivity from zones of interest by choosing the best methods of diversion while pumping an optimized amount of treatment fluid. The success of an overall acid treatment often depends on the effectiveness of the diverting agents.

Keywords: Reservoir, diversion, zonal coverage, carbonate, sandstone

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1 Understanding the Impact of Background Experience from Staff in Diversion Programs: The Voices of a Community-Based Diversion Program

Authors: Ana Magana

Abstract:

Youth are entering the juvenile justice system at alarming rates. For the youth of color entering the system, the outcomes are far worse than for their white counterparts. In fact, the youth of color are more likely to be arrested and sentenced for longer periods of time than white youth. Race disproportionality in the juvenile justice system is evident, but what happens to the youth that exit the juvenile justice system? Who supports them after they are incarcerated and who can prevent them from re-offending? There are several diversion programs that have been implemented in the US to aid the reduction of juvenile incarceration and help reduce recidivism. The program interviewed for this study is a community-based diversion program (CBDP). The CBDP is a pre-filing diversion non-profit organization based in South Seattle. The objective of this exploratory research study is to provide a space and platform for the CBDP team to speak about their background experiences and the influence their background has on their current approach and practice with juveniles. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with staff and provided oral consent. The interview included six open-ended, semi-structured questions. Interviews were digitally recoded and transcribed. The aim of this study was to understand how the influence of the participant’s backgrounds and previous experiences impact their current practice approaches with the CBDP youth and young adults. Ecological systems theory was the guiding framework for analysis. After careful analysis, three major themes emerged: 1) strong influence of participant’s background, 2) participants belonging to community and 3) strong self-identity with the CBDP. Within these three themes, subthemes were developed based on participant’s responses. It was concluded that the participant’s approach is influenced by their background experiences. This corresponds to the ecological systems theory and the community-based lens which underscores theoretical analysis. The participant’s approach is grounded in interpersonal relationships within the client’s systems, meaning that the participants understand and view their clients within an ecological systems perspective. When choosing participants that reflect the population being served, the clients receive a balanced, inclusive and caring approach. Youth and young adults are searching for supportive adults to be there for them, it is essential for diversion programs to provide a space for shared background experiences and have people that hold similar identities. Grassroots organizations such as CBDP have the tools and experience to work with marginalized populations that are constantly being passed on. While articles and studies focus on the reduction of recidivism and re-offending it is important to question the reasons behind this data. For instance, there can be a reduction in statistics, but at whose expense. Are the youth and young adults truly being supported? Or is it just a requirement that they are completing in order to remove their charge? This research study can serve as the beginning of a series of studies conducted at CBDP to further understand and validate the need to employ individuals with similar backgrounds as the participants CBDP serves.

Keywords: ecological systems theory, Relationships, diversion, background experience

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