Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

diversification Related Abstracts

13 Strengthening National Salt Industry through Cultivation Upgrading and Product Diversification

Authors: Etty Soesilowati

Abstract:

This research was intended to: (1) designing production systems that produce high quality salt and (2) diversification of salt products. This research used qualitative and quantitative approaches which Garam Mas Ltd. as the research site. The data were analyzed interactively and subjected to laboratory tests. The analyses showed that salt production system using HDPE geomembranes produced whiter and cleaner salts than those produced by conventional methods without HDPE geomembranes. High quality consumption salt contained 97% NaCl and a maximum of 0.05% water, in the form of white minute crystals and usually used for table salt of food and snack seasoning, souses and cheese and vegetable oil industries. Medium grade salt contained 94.7%-97% NaCl and 3%-7% water and usually used for kitchen salt, soy sauce, tofu industries and cattle feeding. Low quality salt contained 90%-94.7% NaCl and 5%-10% water, with dull white color and usually used for fish preservation and agriculture. The quality and quantity of salts production were influenced by temperatures, weather, water concentrations used during production processes and the discipline of salt farmers itself. The use of water temperature less than 23 °Be during the production processes produced low quality salts. Optimizing cultivation of the production process from raw material to end product (consumption salt) should be attempted to produce quality salt that fulfills the Indonesian National Standard. Therefore, the integrated policies among stakeholders are really needed to build strong institutional base at salt farmer level. This might be achieved through the establishment of specific region for salt production.

Keywords: cultivation system, diversification, salt products, high quality salt

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12 Optimal Diversification and Bank Value Maximization

Authors: Chien-Chih Lin

Abstract:

This study argues that the optimal diversifications for the maximization of bank value are asymmetrical; they depend on the business cycle. During times of expansion, systematic risks are relatively low, and hence there is only a slight effect from raising them with a diversified portfolio. Consequently, the benefit of reducing individual risks dominates any loss from raising systematic risks, leading to a higher value for a bank by holding a diversified portfolio of assets. On the contrary, in times of recession, systematic risks are relatively high. It is more likely that the loss from raising systematic risks surpasses the benefit of reducing individual risks from portfolio diversification. Consequently, more diversification leads to lower bank values. Finally, some empirical evidence from the banks in Taiwan is provided.

Keywords: Banking, Business Cycle, Systemic Risk, diversification, default probability

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11 What Do Board Members Learn from Their External Connectedness? The Case of Firm Diversification

Authors: Pei-Gi Shu, Yin-Hua Yeh, Chao-Ting Chen

Abstract:

Using a dataset consisting of 7,120 firm-year observations from the Taiwan stock market over the 2007-2011 sample period, we find a significantly negative relationship between board external connectedness and firm diversification. We propose a learningeffect hypothesis indicating that an externally connected board member’s experiences in other companies directly affect his recommendations regarding the underlying firm’s diversification. The partial correlation between diversification and the performance of firms with externally connected board members is used as a proxy for the learning effect. The empirical results show that the learning effect is asymmetrically embedded in firm diversification, with negative experiences having a greater effect on firm diversification than positive experiences. Externally connected board members are associated with reduced diversification in one firm after they learn that diversification is detrimental to value in other companies. Moreover, the diversification of a firm due to board external connectedness is moderated by the controlling owner’s interest alignment and entrenchment.

Keywords: diversification, board, external, connectedness

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10 A Practice Model for Quality Improvement in Concrete Block Mini Plants Based on Merapi Volcanic Sand

Authors: Setya Winarno

Abstract:

Due to abundant Merapi volcanic sand in Yogyakarta City, many local people have utilized it for mass production of concrete blocks through mini plants although their products are low in quality. This paper presents a practice model for quality improvement in this situation in order to supply the current customer interest in good quality of construction material. The method of this research was to investigate a techno economic evaluation through laboratory test and interview. Samples of twenty existing concrete blocks made by local people had only 19.4 kg/cm2 in average compression strength which was lower than the minimum Indonesian standard of 25 kg/cm2. Through repeat testing in laboratory for fulfilling the standard, the concrete mix design of water cement ratio should not be more than 0.64 by weight basis. The proportion of sand as aggregate content should not be more than 9 parts to 1 part by volume of Portland cement. Considering the production cost, the basic price was Rp 1,820 for each concrete block, comparing to Rp 2,000 as a normal competitive market price. At last, the model describes (a) maximum water cement ratio is 0.64, (b) maximum proportion of sand and cement is 1:9, (c) the basic price is about Rp. 1,820.00 and (d) strategies to win the competitive market on mass production of concrete blocks are focus in quality, building relationships with consumer, rapid respond to customer need, continuous innovation by product diversification, promotion in social media, and strict financial management.

Keywords: Concrete Block, diversification, improvement model, good quality

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9 On-Farm Diversification in Vietnam: Determinants and Trends

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung, Joachim Aurbacher

Abstract:

This study aims to measure the level of on-farm diversification in Vietnam. The empirical results of the research carried out reflect regional differences in terms of on-farm diversification and its determinants. Households in the northern regions have adapted to the fragmented and small-sized parcels of land held by diversifying their on-farm activities. In contrast, the Mekong delta region in the south of Vietnam is characterized by larger agricultural parcels and a specialization in rice production. Land use fragmentation, as reflected by a large number of plots in a given area, is one of the most important reasons for the high levels of on-farm diversification seen, while the higher share of non-farm income in total income is the reason of lower levels of on-farm diversification. Households have reacted to natural and economic shocks by diversifying their on-farm activities. The non-stationary Markov chain model used here shows various diversification scenarios and trends. In most cases, on-farm diversification generally tends to reduce over the next few years.

Keywords: diversification, simpson index, fixed effects, non-stationary markov chain

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8 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.

Abstract:

Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: Utilization, sweet potato, blends, sensory evaluation, diversification

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7 Small Farm Diversification Opportunities in Viticulture-Winemaking Sector of Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The paper analyses the role of small farms in socio-economic development of agriculture in Georgia and evaluates modern concepts regarding the development of the farms of this size. The scale of farms in Georgia is studied and the major problems are revealed. Opportunities and directions of diversification are discussed from the point of increasing the share of Georgian grapes and wine both on domestic and international markets. It’s shown that the size of vineyard areas is directly reflected on the grape and wine production potential. Accordingly, vineyard area and grape production dynamics is discussed. Comparative analysis of small farms in Georgia and Italy is made and the major differences are identified. Diversification is evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis on the one hand and on the other hand, from the point of promoting economic activities, protecting nature and rural area development. The paper provides proofs for the outcomes of diversification. The key hindering factors for the development of small farms are identified and corresponding conclusions are made, based on which recommendations for diversification of the farms of this size are developed.

Keywords: Small Farms, diversification, Georgia, scale of farms

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6 Decline in Melon Yield and Its Contribution to Young Farmers' Diversification into Watermelon Farming in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyediran Wasiu Oyeleke

Abstract:

Melon is a popular economic cucurbit in Southwest, Nigeria. In recent time, many young farmers are shifting from melon to watermelon farming due to poor yield and low monetary returns. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the decline in melon yield and its contribution to young farmers’ diversification into watermelon farming in Oyo state, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting 75 respondents from five villages in Ibarapa block of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Project (ADP). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Results show that majority of the respondents (77.3%) were between 31-40 years of age and 46.70% had secondary school education. Most of the respondents (80%) cultivated more than 3 ha of land for watermelon. Majority of the respondents (74.7%) intercropped melon with other crops while watermelon was cultivated as a sole crop. None of the respondents either grew improved melon seeds (certified seeds) or applied fertilizers but all respondents cultivated treated watermelon seeds, applied fertilizers, and agro-chemicals. The average yields of melon fell from 376.53kg/ha in 2009 to 280.70kg/ha in 2011. However, the respondents were shifting into watermelon production because of available quality seeds and its early maturity, easy harvest, and high sales. There was a significant relationship between melon output and young farmers’ diversification to watermelon in the study area at p < 0.05. The study concluded that decline in the melon yield discouraged youth to continue melon farming in the study area. It is hereby recommended that certified melon seeds should be made available while extension service providers should provide training support for the young farmers in order to reposition and boost melon production in the study area.

Keywords: Decline, diversification, contribution, melon yield, watermelon, young farmers

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5 Performance of Shariah-Based Investment: Evidence from Pakistani Listed Firms

Authors: Mohsin Sadaqat, Hilal Anwar Butt

Abstract:

Following the stock selection guidelines provided by the Sharia Board (SB), we segregate the firms listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) into Sharia Compliant (SC) and Non-Sharia Compliant (NSC) stocks. Subsequently, we form portfolios within each group based on market capitalization and volatility. The purpose is to analyze and compare the performance of these two groups as the SC stocks have lesser diversification opportunities due to SB restrictions. Using data ranging from January 2004 until June 2016, our results indicate that in most of the cases the risk-adjusted returns (alphas) for the returns differential between SC and NCS firms are positive. In addition, the SC firms in comparison to their counterparts in PSX provides excess returns that are hedged against the market, size, and value-based systematic risks factors. Overall, these results reconcile with one prevailing notion that the SC stocks that have lower financial leverage and higher investment in real assets are lesser exposed to market-based risks. Further, the SC firms that are more capitalized and less volatile, perform better than lower capitalized and higher volatile SC and NSC firms. To sum up our results, we do not find any substantial evidence for opportunity loss due to limited diversification opportunities in case of SC firms. To optimally utilize scarce resources, investors should consider SC firms as a candidate in portfolio construction.

Keywords: Performance, diversification, sharia compliant stocks, risk adjusted returns

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4 Income Diversification of Small Holder Farmers in Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Oladipo Joseph Ajayi, Yakubu Muhammed, Caleb Galadima

Abstract:

This study was conducted to examine the income diversification of smallholder farmers in Bosso Local Government area of Niger state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, identify the sources of income among the farmers, determine the pattern of income diversification and evaluate the determinants of income diversification of farmers in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 94 respondents for the study. Primary data were used, and these were collected with aid of a well structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, diversity index, and Tobit regression model were employed to analyze the data. The mean age of the farmers was 44 years. The average household size was 8 members per household, and the average farming experience was 12 years. 21.27 percent did not have formal education. It was further found that 69.1 percent of the respondents had an income diversity index of 0.3-0.4. This indicated that their level of income diversification was moderately low. The determinants of income diversification in the study area were education, household size, marital status, and primary income. These variables were positively related to income diversification. The study revealed that diversification into various income sources has helped to increase household income to sustain the family demands even though their level of income diversification was low within the study area.

Keywords: Income, households, diversification, smallholder farmers

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3 The Impact of Diversification Strategy on Leverage and Accrual-Based Earnings Management

Authors: Safa Lazzem, Faouzi Jilani

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of diversification strategy on the nature of the relationship between leverage and accrual-based earnings management through panel-estimation techniques based on a sample of 162 nonfinancial French firms indexed in CAC All-Tradable during the period from 2006 to 2012. The empirical results show that leverage increases encourage managers to manipulate earnings management. Our findings prove that the diversification strategy provides the needed context for this accounting practice to be possible in highly diversified firms. In addition, the results indicate that diversification moderates the relationship between leverage and accrual-based earnings management by changing the nature and the sign of this relationship.

Keywords: Earnings Management, diversification, leverage, panel-estimation techniques

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2 Research on Optimization Strategies for the Negative Space of Urban Rail Transit Based on Urban Public Art Planning

Authors: Kexin Chen

Abstract:

As an important method of transportation to solve the demand and supply contradiction generated in the rapid urbanization process, urban rail traffic system has been rapidly developed over the past ten years in China. During the rapid development, the space of urban rail Transit has encountered many problems, such as space simplification, sensory experience dullness, and poor regional identification, etc. This paper, focus on the study of the negative space of subway station and spatial softening, by comparing and learning from foreign cases. The article sorts out cases at home and abroad, make a comparative study of the cases, analysis more diversified setting of public art, and sets forth propositions on the domestic type of public art in the space of urban rail transit for reference, then shows the relationship of the spatial attribute in the space of urban rail transit and public art form. In this foundation, it aims to characterize more diverse setting ways for public art; then suggests the three public art forms corresponding properties, such as static presenting mode, dynamic image mode, and spatial softening mode; finds out the method of urban public art to optimize negative space.

Keywords: diversification, optimization strategy, negative space, public art planning

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1 Impact of Digitization and Diversification in Reducing Volatility in Art Markets

Authors: Nishi Malhotra

Abstract:

Art has developed as a mode of investment and saving. Art and culture of any nation is the source of foreign direct investment (FDI) generation and growth development. Several intermediaries and skill-building organizations thrive on at and culture for their earnings. Indian art market has grown to Rs. 2000 Crores. Art establishment houses access to privileged information is the main reason for arbitrariness and volatility in the market. The commercialization of art and development of the markets with refinement in the taste of the customers have led to the development of art as an investment avenue. Investors keen on investing in these products can do so, and earnings from art are taxable too, like any other capital asset. This research paper is aimed at exploring the role of art and culture as an investment avenue in India and reasons for increasing volatilities in the art market. Based on an extensive literature review and secondary research, a benchmarking study has been conducted to capture the growth of the art as an investment avenue. These studies indicate that during the financial crisis of 2008-10, the art emerged as an alternative investment avenue. The paper aims at discussing the financial engineering of various art funds and instruments. Based on secondary data available from Sotheby’s, Christies, Bonham, there is a positive correlation between strategic diversification and increasing return in the Art market. Similarly, digitization has led to disintermediation in the art markets and also helped to increase the market base. The data clearly enumerates the growing interest of the Indian investor towards art as an investment option. Much like any other broad asset class, art market too thrives on excess returns provided by diversification. Many financial intermediaries and art funds have emerged, to offer valuable investment planning advisory to a genuine investor. This paper clearly highlights the increasing returns of strategic diversification and its impact on reducing volatility in the art markets. Moreover, with coming up of e-auctions and websites, investors are able to analyse art more objectively. Digitization and commercialization of art have definitely helped in reducing volatility in world art markets.

Keywords: Art, Digitization, diversification, investment avenue

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